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Full text of "The Norwich memorial; the annals of Norwich, New London County, Connecticut, in the great rebellion of 1861-65"

Cl^e jeortoiclj jHemorial 



THE 



ANNALS OF NORWICH 



NEW LONDON COUNTY, CONNECTICUT 



GREAT REBELLION OF 1861-65 



MALCOLM McG. DANA 

PASTOR OF THE SECOND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, NORWICH, CONN. 





NORWICH, CONN. 
J. H. JEWETT AND COMPANY 

1873 



•?h'' 




V( " 



To THE 

BRAVE MEN OF NORWICH, 

WHO, UNDER THE IMPULSE OF A NOBLE PATRIOTISM, 

WENT FORTH TO DEFEND THEIR 

IMPERILED COUNTRY, 

IS THIS 



Memorial 



OF THEIR SUFFERIIMGS, ACHIEVEMENTS, AND TRIUMPHANT VALOR, 

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



^ 



PREFACE. 



THE following Memorial history is intended to present 
the military record of those who went from Norwich 
to serv'e in the Union armies or fleets during the war of the 
rebellion. The writer's design has been to give with 
this, some account of what was done at home, during the 
same period, by the citizens, and also by the town in its cor- 
porate capacity, for the action of both is entitled to honor- 
able mention in a volume like this. The narrative is 
surely worth preserving, and is one too, which may inte- 
rest not only us, but those who shall occupy our places 
hereafter. 

The annals of the town during so exciting a series of 
years as that covered by the war, the sacrifices made by the 
people, the heroes furnished for the field of conflict, the 
martyrs who laid down their lives on the country's altar, — 
all this is of historic significance, and constitutes a story to 
which none of us can be indift'erent. Such memorial rec- 
ords, not only perpetuate the names of those whose honor- 
able deeds conferred a real glory upon their native towns, 
but serve to inspire in after generations a reverence for 
truth and justice, and a desire to emulate the brave actions 
of those who have preceded them. 

So many years have elapsed since the war closed, that the 
remembrance of many facts and incidents that should 



VI 



PREFACE. 



have been preserved, has faded away. Had this history- 
been taken in hand earher, much more could have been 
gathered up which would without doubt have added to its 
worth and interest. The narrative has, however, been made 
as full and varied as under the circumstances was possible. 
The author from the first was reluctant to undertake the 
work, but it was urged upon him by the Committee having 
the matter in charge, with an earnestness and cordial trust, 
that led him to overlook his own unfitness for the task. Not 
a resident of Norwich till the closing year of the war, he of 
course could not write from personal knowledge concerning 
the events which here transpired. Still the hope is enter- 
tained that the history may for this reason be found to be 
all the more impartial and independent, written, as it is, from 
the view-point of one who was not himself a party to the 
events therein related, or affected by the various jealousies 
which the war gave rise to in different localities. No one 
can have a higher appreciation of the splendid war record 
of the town, of the noble achievements and sacrifices of 
those who have added a new lustre to its name and history 
than the writer, and his service in preserving these civic 
annals has been rendered with a willing heart. 

While engaged in this work, only words of encouragement 
have been spoken to the editor by his fellow-citizens, and 
nothing that they could do to show their interest in the 
undertaking, or facilitate its accomplishment, has been 
omitted. His thanks are due to the late publishers of the 
" Bulletin " for the free use of the bound volumes of their 
journal, and to Mr. Bolles, the present editor, for many 
favors. To the Hon. J. T. Wait, he is indebted not only 
for suggestions and items of information that have added to 
the value of the narrative, but also for his encouraging and 
helpful words. The patriotic fervor which made him so 
prominent during the years the conflict raged, has been . 



PREFACE. VU 

manifested again in urging on the i^reparation of tliis me- 
morial volume. To Mr. Campbell, lately of the " Bulletin," 
the editor is under obligation for personal favors and aid, 
and also to Mr. J. W. Stedman, of the "Advertiser." 

Gratefully would the author make mention of his especial 
indebtedness to Dr. Louis Mitchell, who from the first 
announcement of the work has taken a lively interest in it, 
and cordially rendered every assistance in his power. His 
own remembrances of war-times, his carefully preserved 
record of the men who went from Norwich, made him 
invaluable as a helper, and on all matters concerning 
which there was doubt, a safe counselor. By Dr. Mitchell 
the "Three Months' Roster," as well as the " General Mus- 
ter Roll " of all in the service was prepared, and many 
an hour of wearying pen-work has he assumed in our be- 
half, doing with accuracy and readiness what very few 
would have been willing to undertake, and fewer still able 
to accomplish. 

By L. E. Forrest Spofiford, who served with honor in the 
army, and lost an arm in his country's service, the editor 
was furnished with duplicate lists of the General Muster 
Roll, compiled with his characteristic accuracy, and of 
special value in verifying the names which appear on the 
" Roll of Honor." 

For the exceedingly attractive appearance of this volume, 
our readers are indebted to Messrs. Jewett & Co., who re- 
lieving the Committee of all financial responsibility, secured 
its publication in the most tasteful typographical manner 
possible, and then generously offered the book at its actual 
cost to the Sedgwick Post, G. A. R., of this city. What- 
ever profits have therefore resulted from the sale of the 
work, have inured to the benefit of the charity-fund of this 
Post. In their part of the undertaking the publishers have 
shown commendable enterprise, and have been actuated by 



VIU 



PREFACE. 



a patriotic desire to present the Memorial in the form and 
dress most calculated to enhance its value in the eyes of 
every purchaser. 

It was our own conviction that a history of this character 
should be written, perpetuating the story of what was ac- 
complished by our citizens in a great emergency, and a 
grateful people could but desire some fitting memorial of 
services such as we here record. 

Our contribution to the fair fame of the town we have 
sought to make in this form. The work, more arduous than 
at first may be suspected, has been undertaken amidst the 
unintermitted pressure of professional duties, and for this 
reason, if for no other, should meet with considerate and 
kindly judgment. The volume, representing the labor of 
such hours as in our limited leisure we could devote to it, 
is now submitted to the public, and while it cannot \)Q sup- 
posed to be wholly free from errors and faults, it is hoped 
that it may prove a worthy addition to our local history. 
May those into whose hands this Memorial comes, find as 
much pleasure in reading, as the author did in writing it, 
and may all hearts be stirred with fresh admiration for the 
valor and patriotic devotion which made our war-years so 
signally illustrious. This story of the part Norwich took 
in the struggle for constitutional government, and the pres- 
ervation of institutions our fathers gave us, should make 
every resident and native thereof proud of its past, and 
devoted in the future to the furtherance of its true honor 
and prosperity. 



M. McG. D. 



Norwich, Co.\n., yinieisl, 1S73. 



CONTENTS. 



1. Index to Names of Norwich Citizens .... i. 
II. Index to Battles and Engagements xvi. 

I. 

1861. Opening of the War. — Threats of Disunion. — Action of Congress. — 
Inauguration of Mr. Lincohi. — Impressions produced by the Inaugural 
Address. — Hopefulness of the North. — Effect of the News of the Bom- 
bardment and Surrender of Sumter. — "Battle Sunday." — Proclamation 
by President Lincoln and Governor Buckingham. — Loyal Manifestation of 
Feeling in Norwich. — Display of the National Colors . . . i 

II. 

1861. Call for Three Months' Troops. — First Great War Meeting. — Sub- 
scriptions of Citizens to the " Sinews of War Fund." — First Company 
organized. Departure of First, Second, and Third Companies. — Muster 
Roll of Soldiers in the Three Months' Service 18 

IIL 

1S61. Call for Three Years' Men.— Our Men in the Fourth Regiment.— 
Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh. — Officers, and Record of the Eighth Regi- 
ment. — Representatives in the Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth. — Appoint- 
ments for the Thirteenth Regiment. — Its Record • . • • 39 

IV. 

1862. Third Call for Troops by the President. — The Governor's Proclama- 
tion. — War Meeting in Breed Hall. — Recruiting Committee raised. — 
County Mass Meeting. — Our Men in the Fourteenth Regiment. — Orders 
for the Eighteenth Regiment to rendezvous at Norwich. — Officers and 
Men from the Town. — Its Departure. — Subsequent History. — Represen- 
tatives in the Twenty-First Regiment. — Its Military Record . . 57 

V. 

1862, contintied. Call for Nine Months' Men. — Change of Fourth Regi- 
ment Infantry to First Regiment Artillery. — Officers from Norwich. — Our 
Men in the First Connecticut Cavalry. — Great War Meeting. — Offers in 
Aid of Enlistments. — The Twenty-sixth Regiment ordered to rendezvous 
at Norwich. — Its Officers and Subsequent Record. — The Emancipation 
Proclamation. — Tribute to it by the Mayor 75 



CONTENTS. 



VI. 

1863. The Campaign in the West. — Conscription Act of Congress. — Draft 
ordered. — The Riot in New Yori<. — Loyal League in Norwich. — Another 
Call for Troops. — All Day War Meeting. — Town Quota raised. — Com- 
ments of the Rebel Press on the Situation 93 

vn. 

1864. Thirtieth Regiment called for.— Town Meeting. — Quota of Town 
raised. — No Draft necessary. — General Grant commissioned Lieutenant- 
general. — New Call for Troops. — Town Quota filled. — Retirement of 
Provost-marshal Bromley. — Constitutional Amendment providing for 
Soldiers' voting passed by General Assembly and ratified by the Peo- 
ple 107 

VIIL 
1S61-65. Whole Number of Men furnished by Connecticut. — Tabular State- 
ment of the several Calls for Troops by the National Executive, and Quotas 
of Town and State. — Statistics as to the Casualties among our Troops 
during the War. — Number of Officers from Norwich. — Industries created 
by the War. — Reception of Veteran Regiments. — Results of the Year. — 
The Record of the State according to the Adjutant-general's Report 122 

IX. 

1S61-65. Navy. — Effective Service rendered during the War. — Number 
and Names of the different Squadrons. — Norwich as represented in the 
Navy. — Officers and Men in this Arm of the Service . . 130 

X. 

1861-65. Relief of Soldiers and their Families. — Citizens' Service. — Sub- 
scribers to " Sinews of War Fund." — General Contributions to Patriotic 
Agencies. — Special Service of various Norwich Citizens. — General Rec- 
ord of the Town 152 



XI. 
1S61-65. "Soldiers' Aid Society." — Efforts of the Ladies of Norwich in 
Behalf of the Soldiers. — Number of Packages sent to Hospitals and Camps. 
— Amount of Money raised and expended. — Responses by Letter to the 
"Aid." — Auxiliary Societies in other Towns. — Personal Activity and 
Patriotic Service of the W^omen of Eastern Connecticut during the 
War 177 



CONTENTS. XI 

XII. 
Losses of Norwich during the War. — Character of those who died in Service. 
— "The unreturning Brave." — Obituary Notices. — Officers. — Enlisted 
Men 202 

XIII. 

In Rebel Prisons. — Experiences of our Men in Libby. — Number confined 

in Andersonville. — Their Sufferings and Death. — Representatives in 

other Prisons. — Narratives of Escape. — Changes at Andersonville. — 

Present Appearance of the Cemetery 297 

XIV. 

Emancipation Measures in the Confederate Congress. — The "Black Corner- 
stone." — Signs of Despair. — Mr. Lincoln on the Peace Projects. — Orders 
to General Grant. — Final Advance of the Union Armies. — End of the 
Rebellion. — Capture of Richmond. — Effect of the News. — Public Cele- 
brations. — Surrender of Lee. — Death of President Lincoln. — Norwich 
Pulpit on the Event. — Proclamation of the Mayor. — Funeral Solemnities 
in the City and Country 311 

XV. 

Miscellaneous. — Town Action. — Appropriations for Bounties. — Town 
Committee for securing Enlistments. — Tabular Statement of National, 
State, and Town Indebtedness. — Charities of the War. — Tables showing 
the Military Population of United States and its increase ; Number of jNIen 
called for by the Government ; Number of Enlistments and Discharges ; 
Strength of the Army at different Dates ; Deaths .... 314 

XVI. 

" Our Roll of Honor." — Complete Roster of Commissioned Officers, Army 
and Navy. — Alphabetical Roll of Norwich Soldiers, with Rank and Date 
of Enlistment 325 

XVII. 

Soldiers' Monument. — Citizens' Meeting with Reference to Raising Funds.J — 
Committee Appointed. — Memorial Volume. — Resolutions Concerning it. — 
Action of Town in Reference to the Monument. — New Committee Raised. 
— Appropriation for Same. — Design of the Monument. — \\'here placed. — 
General Appearance. — Editor's Last Words 331 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



BiRGE, Brevet Major-general H. W. 

Buckingham, The Hon. W. A. / '■' ": 

CoiT, Brevet Brigadier-general James B A -i/J) 

CoiT, Brevet Lieutenant-colonel Charles M. ^ 2- 

Dennis, Brevet Brigadier-general J. B. J. ^^ 

Ely, Brevet Brigadier-general W. G. '' "" '-' 

Farnsworth, Lieutenant-colonel Charles. / -^ ^ 

GoDDARD, Lieutenant Alfred. 112^ 

Harland, Brigadier-general Edward. ? ^ ^ 

Lanman, Admiral Joseph. /, -^ 

Learned, Brevet Major Bela P. ' ' 

McCall, Captain John. 

Peale, Lieutenant-colonel Henry. 

Rockwell, Brevet Brigadier-general Alfred S. ^ ' 

Rockwell, Captain Joseph P. -^ ^^ > 

Selden, Lieutenant-colonel Joseph. 

Soldiers' Monument. 

Wait, Lieutenant Marvin. 






THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



THE OPENING OF THE WAR. 

" Thank God ! the free North is awake at last ! 
When burning cannon-shot and bursting shell, 
As from the red mouth of some volcan's hell, 
Rained on devoted Sumter thick and fast, 
The sleep of ages from her eyelids past. 
One bound — and lo ! she stands erect and tall, 
While Freedom's hosts come trooping to her call, 
Like eager warriors to the trumpet's blast ! 
Woe to the traitors and their robber horde ! 
Woe to the spoilers that pollute the land ! 
When a roused Nation, terrible and grand. 
Grasps in a holy cause the avenging sword, 
And swears from Treason's bloody clutch to save 
The priceless heritage our Fathers gave." 

W. H. Burleigh. 

ON the twelfth of April, i86r, the army of the Confeder- 
ate States opened the terrible drama of Rebellion by 
the bombardment of Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. The air had been thick with threats 
ever since the election of Mr. Lincoln to the chief magis- 
tracy of the government in November, i860. Months be- 
fore his inauguration several of the Southern States had, 
as they termed it, seceded from the Union. Congress, on 



H 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



meeting, promptly raised a large " Committee on the State 
of the Union," and the whole country was eager for some 
pacificatory measures. The long, exciting winter passed in 
hopeless attempts to avert the threatened calamity of dis- 
union. 

On the fourth of March, 1861, Mr. Lincoln was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States, and in his inaugural 
address calmly, but firmly, indicated what the policy of the 
Government would be in the new emergency which it was 
called to meet. In closing his appeal to those striving to 
destroy the Federal Union, he used these words : " In your 
hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, 
is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government 
will not assail you. You can have no conflict without 
being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath regis- 
tered in Heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall 
have the most solemn one to ' preserve, protect, and defend ' 
it. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be 
enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not 
break our bonds of affection." The tone of the address 
and the positions taken in it, commended themselves to the 
patriotism of the country, and many felt that even yet 
civil war might be averted. The North, hopeful to the last, 
saw the Southern States go through the form of secession, 
looked on as they instituted a common government, and 
marshalled an army to carry out their insurrectionary 
designs, — and still believed war, civil war, could not 
come. It was hard to make the loyal-hearted believe that 
our great experiment in a national polity, " which binds a 
family of free Republics in one united government — the 
most hopeful plan for combining the home-bred blessings 
of a small State with the stability and power of a great 
empire, was to be treacherously and shamefully stricken 
down in the moment of its most successful operation." 



THE OPENING OF THE WAR. 15 

But the telegraphic announcements of the twelfth of April 
dispelled all illusions, and opened all eyes to the sad conflict 
which the treason of a portion of the States had precipitated 
upon a once peaceful country. " The traitors are firing on 
Sumter," read the first dispatch. " Anderson answers gun 
for gun." The surprise was intense ; men stood stupefied 
with dismay, — then with quick response gave voice at 
once to their indignation and their loyalty. The weary six 
months of parleying at length passed, and the tocsin of war 
now sounded forth. From the bitterness of humiliation 
and helpless inactivity, the loyal North awoke to meet, at 
every hazard, the issue thus relentlessly forced upon it. 

In no town in New England was deeper excitement pro- 
duced by the war news, than in Norwich. Its sympathies, 
as its popular vote declared, were decidedly with the Admin- 
istration, so early burdened with the unprecedented duties 
incident to civil strife. The events of the winter had only 
intensified the loyalty of its citizens, and prepared them to 
meet with harmony and promptest energy, the call that it 
was seen would soon have to be made, for troops and finan- 
cial help. Intense excitement continued through Saturday, 
the thirteenth, as successive telegrams reported the stars 
and stripes still waving over the beleaguered fort. The name 
of the gallant commandant was on every lip, and the hope 
expressed that the garrison would hold out until reinforce- 
ments, known to be on their way, could reach them. The 
streets of the city were crowded by anxious citizens await- 
ing further news, or discussing that already received, 
while from the adjoining towns and villages, men came rid- 
ing in to learn the latest tidings from the seat of war. 
Little else was known for some time, than that Anderson 
was making a brave resistance. 

On Sunday, April fourteenth, came the telegram announ- 
cing that Sumter had surrendered. The reception of this 



i6 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



news created the profoundest feeling, and stirred every pat- 
riot's heart to its inmost recesses. It was the memorable 
" battle Sunday," when on the streets and in the porches of 
the churches men spoke to one another with bated breath 
of this first act of rebellion. In most of the pulpits of the 
city appropriate reference was made to the event that 
clearly foreshadowed a bitter and bloody struggle. 

On Monday, April fifteenth, appeared the President's proc- 
lamation, calling for seventy-five thousand troops to defend 
the suddenly endangered government. The proclamation of 
Connecticut's " war governor," Hon. Wm. A. Buckingham, 
soon followed, urging upon patriotic citizens throughout the 
State, to volunteer their services and meet the appeal of the 
National Executive for troops. So war was really begun, and 
with characteristic promptitude all efforts were now com- 
bined to meet the stern duties opening before every loyal 
heart. The national colors were everywhere displayed 
throughout the town, testifying to the predominant sentiment 
of loyalty. They swung in the breeze over Main Street, and 
waved from the tower of the First Church ; the Free Acad- 
emy, engine halls, factories, school-houses, and numerous 
private dwellings hung out the symbol of the country's unity. 
The adjacent villages caught the city's enthusiasm, and threw 
out where they could the national banner. Citizens laid 
aside all previous political differences, and under the impulse 
of a common patriotism, stood together for the support and 
defense of the Government. " Men have ceased to be 
Republicans or Democrats," spoke out " The Daily Bulle- 
tin " ; " they are simply Patriots or Tories ; only this line 
divides us." One purpose seemed to animate all hearts, — 
a determination to maintain at every sacrifice the national 
Union. " Heart throbbed to heart, lip spoke to lip with a 
oneness of feeling that seemed like a divine inspiration." In 
the spirit of " Our Country's Call," by the poet Bryant, the 



THE OPENING OF THE WAR. 1 7 

loyal masses of the North rose up to face the grave duties 
of the crisis : — 

" Lay down the axe, fling by the spade ; 

Leave in its track the toiling plough ; 
The rifle and the bayonet blade 

For arms like yours, were fitter now ; 
And let the hands that ply the pen, 

Quit the light task, and learn to wield 
The horseman's crooked brand, and rein 

The charger on the battle-field." 

Reluctantly accepted, the struggle forced upon the nation 
was entered upon, and the contest for the great inheritance 
of Constitutional Freedom began. The long weary years 
of varying fortune and costliest sacrifice were not foreseen, 
though at the very commencement of the conflict lives and 
property were freely and solemnly laid upon the altar of 
country. With earnest heart and faith, the war for the 
Union was waged, none doubting who had a part in the 
strife, that it would be triumphantly waged, and that as the 
grand result, would come the reestablishment for all time of 
the mild sway of the Constitution and the Laws. The 
country, springing thus from a positively supine and dis- 
mantled condition into an attitude of vigor, owed it all to 
the manly sincerity which the grave perils of the hour 
brought out of the bosom of the people. Earnestness of 
conviction, trust in God, newness of life, — these came as 
the forerunners of ultimate success. 



II. 



i86i 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. 

" In Freedom's name our blades we draw, 
She arms us for the fight, 
For country, government and law, 

For liberty and right. 
The Union must, — shall be preserved. 

Our flag still o'er us fly ! 
That cause our hearts and hands has nerved, 
And we will do or die." 

George P. Morris. 

THE first call upon Connecticut for troops was by a 
telegram from Hon. Simon Cameron, the Secretary 
of the War Department, dated at Washington, D. C, April 
eighteenth, 1861, requesting one regiment of militia for 
immediate service. In Norwich the work of enlisting men 
was earnestly entered upon, and most heartily responded 
to on the part of the citizens. 

The first " War Meeting " was called for Thursday morn- 
ing, April eighteenth, in Apollo Hall, for the purpose of 
adopting measures to fill up at once all military companies 
about forming, and fit them out for immediate service. In 
this gathering the ability and patriotism of Norwich were 
fully represented, and the key-note of popular action during 
the years of the war was here struck. Hon. H. H. Stark- 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. IQ 

weather was appointed chairman, and several brief and ear- 
nest speeches were made in furtherance of the object of the 
meeting. It was a new role in which old and well-known 
citizens were now to appear. The interests and incidents 
of the exciting hour seemed to nerve all for high and gen- 
erous action. There were eloquent words spoken on the 
occasion, but more eloquent were the deeds done, and 
those present remember now with feelings of patriotic 
pride the revelations of that earliest assemblage which 
ruthless rebellion had made necessary. Hon. John Breed, 
who was on the platform, surrounded by those of younger 
years and lustier strength, came forward, and said with his 
characteristic emphasis and gravity, " I had not intended 
to speak a word here to-day, but the time has come when 
our colors have been assailed, and these boys (alluding to 
those who had volunteered) have got to see to it. I'm an 
old man, but I've never seen the time when I so wanted to 
be back again with the boys as during the last two or three 
days." Governor Buckingham having been called on to 
say a few words, spoke briefly but with the deepest feeling, 
affecting many to tears who listened to his weighty words 
of counsel and of cheer. He read some dispatches just 
received from men offering to volunteer. " Connecticut 
moves slowly," said he, " but the good old State is true and 
sure when once started." He spoke of the honest pride he 
felt in seeing the spirit manifested in this crisis by the 
sons of Connecticut. 

On motion of David Young, Esq., a subscription paper 
was ordered to be immediately started in the hall, and a 
committee of seven was, in connection with this paper, ap- 
pointed to take charge of the same, and raise such funds as 
might hereafter be required. Messrs. Amos W. Prentice, 
F. M. Hale, J. F. Slater, James A. Hovey, David Smith, 
Henry Bill, and John W. Stedman at once prepared and 



20 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



presented the " Subscription Paper," headed with the fol- 
lowing significant words : — 

" THE SINEWS OF WAR." 
" We the undersigned, citizens of Norwich and vicinity, hereby 
agree to pay the sums affixed to our respective names, for the 
purpose of purchasing uniforms, or contributing in any other 
manner to the successful formation and enlistment of companies 
in this vicinity." 

Amidst the most intense enthusiasm, coupled with feel- 
ings of terrible earnestness, which could be read in the very 
countenances of those present, were the names of the rap- 
idly offering subscribers called out. The first name that 
went down on the paper was Hon. W. A. Buckingham for 
one thousand dollars, on the announcement of which the 
audience rose to their feet, and gave such a response as 
made the building fairly shake. The next to be signed was 
the name of Wm. P. Greene, Esq., for a like amount, which 
was also greeted with shouts of enthusiastic rejoicing. The 
exciting work went on, as one citizen after another came 
up to the stand, and wrote their names for varying sums, 
each signature being cheered with heartiest applause. The 
men wrote their subscriptions " as though they were in 
earnest about it, and were doing such work as would make 
their children proud to remember them." 

Meanwhile the speaking was kept up. Senator Foster, 
pointing out with clear and eloquent words some of the du- 
ties of the hour, was received with marked enthusiasm, 
while Judge Hovey, called out by the audience, responded 
with loyal expressions, urging united and liberal action 
in the matter before them. Interspersing the signing of the 
subscription paper, and the speeches of the occasion, came 
telegrams and notes proffering contributions from those not 
present. The meeting at length adjourned with three cheers 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. 21 

for the Stars and Stripes, reporting for this eventful day's 
work an aggregate of twenty thousand dollars. " Thank God 
and the true hearts of our citizens for so brimming a success," 
were the closing words of the " Norwich Bulletin's" report 
of this grand war rally. 

The first great mass-meeting of all the citizens, was held 
two days after the rally just described in Apollo Hall. This 
was to give expression to the " sense of the city in this 
awful hour of our country's peril, and to adopt measures to 
strengthen the hands of the government in upholding the 
laws, and maintaining the Constitution of the country, and 
the union of the States." The gathering was called for 
April twentieth, the Saturday evening preceding " Battle 
Sunday." Breed Hall was packed to its fullest capacity, the 
galleries being filled with ladies, who continued their sewing 
on the outfit of Captain Chester's company, while the offi- 
ces on the floor below the hall were occupied by yet others, 
engaged in the same urgent work.* His Honor Mayor 
Carew presided, sustained by the following representative 
citizens as Vice-presidents : David Smith, James A. Hovey, 
Ebenezer Learned, F. M. Hale, John Dunham, John T. Wait, 
Henry B. Norton, Augustus Brewster, Erastus Williams, 
Lewis Hyde, Charles Osgood. Secretaries : George Pratt, 
Hiram B. Crosby, Alfred P. Rockwell, John W. Murphy, 

Mayor Carew on taking the chair, said " that this was in 
no sense a party meeting, but a meeting where every man 
could act who loved his country, and was willing to aid in 
its support." After music by the band, there followed a 
number of speeches, each one of which was listened to with 
the closest attention, for this was the meeting in which our 
citizens foreshadowed the courses they would adopt in ref- 
erence to supporting an administration to which many of 
them had not lent the support of their votes ; and also what 
measures they would unite upon in prosecuting the war 



22 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

already begun. Never before had Norwich greater occasion 
to be proud of the patriotism of its citizens ; while to see 
them rise above all partisan predilections, and stand to- 
gether for the public weal, was in itself a sublime sight. 

Mr. John T. Adams spoke briefly, " expressing the min- 
gled emotions of sadness and exultation with which he was 
filled, — sadness that traitors were swarming in the land, 
and joy that Connecticut was so nobly doing her duty. 
Our blessings and our prayers will follow those who are 
going from our firesides." 

John T. Wait next addressed the meeting. He said, 
" Though he did not vote for Mr, Lincoln, his duty as an 
American citizen was now to give him his cordial and un- 
equivocal support in the great struggle he is making to 
preserve the government. The President had proved him- 
self an able statesman, a true patriot, and an honest man. 
He deplored the evils of civil war, but saw no excuse for 
the seceded States. He bade God-speed to the noble vol- 
unteers from Norwich, and did not doubt they would de- 
fend their flag to the death." Mr. Wait's decided and 
patriotic position was most cordially cheered, and the audi- 
ence applauded him with the most unbounded enthusiasm. 

James A. Hovey, who spoke next, said, " He had always 
been a Democrat, but he loved his country more than party 
ties. JQff Davis has declared that he made war upon none 
but Black Republicans, but he would find that they were 
not the only men he had to meet. The North is now united 
in the support of the constitutional authorities of the gov- 
ernment, and would sustain them at all hazards, and at any 
cost of blood or treasure." Hon. L. F. S. Foster followed, 
saying, " that he considered party platforms of little impor- 
tance when our country was in peril. All must now unite 
in defense of the government and flag." 

S. H. Grosvenor was called out, and responded, " That he 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. 23 

had feared Connecticut was not going to do her duty fully, 
but to-night he felt that the fires of the Revolution were re- 
kindled. He assured Captain Chester, who with his brother 
officers had just taken his seat on the platform, that the 
ardent sympathies of the people went with him, and their 
warmest welcome would be his if he returned." 

George Pratt being loudly called for, came forward, say- 
ing, " He felt sad at beholding the women at work, and the 
large audience of earnest men, for it made him realize the 
painful necessity that called them together. The seceding 
States had rushed madly into war, but they had mistaken 
the men of the North, and would find them a wall of fire." 

Hiram B. Crosby then presented the following resolutions, 
advocating earnestly a united support of the Government : — 

Resolved, — That in view of the great and overwhelming dan- 
gers that now threaten the very existence of our nation, it is the 
duty of all good and loyal citizens, to lay aside, without any ex- 
ception or reservation whatever, all party ties, party issues, and 
personal prejudices^ and rallying beneath the flag of our country, 
to pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor to the 
support of the Constitutional Government of these United States. 

Resolved, — That we tender to the Governor of this State, and 
through him, to the President of the United States, our cordial 
sympathy and cooperation, and as an earnest of our sincerity, we 
give up to their service the flower of our youth, and the best 
blood of the good old town, which has never faltered in the perils 
of our country. 

These resolutions spoke the sentiment of Norwich citi- 
zens, and subsequent history shows that they lived up to 
the very letter of them during the years of the rebellion. 
They were passed amidst profound feeling, and elicited the 
greatest applause. Every loyal man gave his heartfelt in- 
dorsement to them, and registered secretly his vow to stand 
by them, let come what would. 



24 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

The speaking still went on, — Mr. Learned giving expres- 
sion to the fears he entertained that Washington might be 
taken, but if so, then, he added, " it must be retaken if it 
costs oceans of blood, and millions of money," — to which 
sentiment the House gave its amen, in its outbursting 
cheers. 

Edmund Perkins was next called for, and spoke with 
great earnestness for a few moments. " He feared, too, the 
Capitol would be taken. If so, he pledged himself to start 
for Washington at once. He would assign his property to 
his family and his creditors, and was ready to offer his life, 
which belongs to his country." Again the hall shook with 
applause, for every heart now was wrought up with the most 
intense feeling. 

Jeremiah Halsey said, " Massachusetts would avenge the 
blood of the nineteenth of April, and the loyal States would 
join with her. We are fighting to preserve our liberty 
against despotism." 

Short and enthusiastic speeches still followed, by Alfred 
P. Rockwell, Edward T. Clapp, C. G. Child, H. H. Stark- 
weather, and John W. Murphy. 

Three cheers were proposed by L. H. Goddard, and given 
with a will, for S. T. C. Merwin, and E. Kempton Abbott, 
the Norwich boys in the " Hartford Rifles." 

Dr. Bond concluded the speaking of this memorable 
evening by a few remarks, showing the necessity of placing 
our trust in the God of Battles, and offered up a fervent 
prayer. 

Thus ended this significant Union mass-meeting. Every- 
body felt the stronger for this popular expression of feeling. 
The patriotism of all the citizens of every party found utter- 
ance, and it was discovered that all were agreed upon one 
course, and that the emergency could be met but in one 
honorable way. The Democratic paper, " The Aurora,'' 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. 2$ 

under the editorship of Mr. Stedman, lent its sanction to 
the position and policy that in this assemblage were advo- 
cated with consenting mind, and pronounced the meeting 
" the largest and most spirited ever held in our town, and 
an overwhelming evidence of the unity of feeling and patri- 
otic determination of our people. The war," it added in 
its editorial comments, " is one of the necessary results ol 
the attempt to break up the Union, and so long as it lasts, 
we believe it to be our duty, as it is the duty of every man 
who acknowledges allegiance to the Union under which we 
live, to sustain the constitutional authorities of the Govern- 
ment, in the exercise of all the powers that may be neces- 
sary to bring it to a speedy termination." 

The sterner work of enlisting meanwhile went on. The 
earliest to enter the ranks of the country's defenders from 
this city were Samuel T. C. Merwin, Edward K. Abbott, 
and George R. Case, who, eager to be off in the first Con- 
necticut regiment, enlisted in the " Hartford Rifles," Capt. 
Joseph R. Hawley's company. John B. Dennis about the 
same time enlisted in the " Worcester Light Infantry," 
which was attached to the famous Sixth Regiment of Mas- 
sachusetts, his name being the first signature on the com- 
pany's roll. To the command of the first regiment from 
this State, one of our most distinguished citizens was 
appointed, Colonel Daniel Tyler. He was the only profes- 
sional soldier that went forth in the first three regiments, 
and to him was largely due the discipline and soldierly 
bearing that from the beginning of the war characterized 
the Connecticut troops. Frank S. Chester, book-keeper in 
the Thames Bank, son of Rev. A. T. Chester of Buffalo, 
was among the earliest to enlist here, receiving not only 
the cordial approval of the directors of the bank, but their 
generous pledge to continue his salary while in service. 
To him and James B. Coit belongs the credit of raising the 



26 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

first military company in Norwich under the President's 
call for three months' volunteers. Colonel H. H. Osgood 
of the Governor's stafif, hearing that young Chester had 
determined to enlist, presented him to Captain Harvey's 
military company, which had proceeded to their armory in 
Uncas Hall, to take a vote on the proposition to enlist in a 
body. The vote being in the negative. Colonel Osgood then 
stated that Mr. Chester was acquainted with the manual 
of arms, and would make a fit leader for those of the boys 
who were willing to volunteer. The enrolment book pro- 
vided by Mr. Coit was at once opened, when entering 
promptly his own name, the names of all others who were 
ready to enlist were rapidly signed. Thus was the nucleus 
of the first company obtained, and by subsequent enlist- 
ments the requisite number of men was secured, when 
under the name of the " Buckingham Rifles," the organiza- 
tion was completed in the choice of the following offi- 
cers : — 

Captain. 

Frank S. Chester. 

Lieutenants. 
Thomas Scott. William A. Berry. 

Sergeants. 

Francis McKeag, James L. Cobb, Anthony Staubly, Aus- 
tin G. Monroe. 

Corporals. 

John B. Jennings, Chester W. Converse, Gorham Dennis, 
Thomas C. Lawler. 

Every effort was now made to fit out with the utmost 
dispatch these first volunteers, — the whole of Sunday, the 
twenty.first instant, being spent in Breed Hall by some 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. 2^ 

three hundred and fifty ladies, in making up the needed 
uniforms. The last Sabbath had been passed in nervous 
waiting for the news from the scene of the first conflict of 
the war ; this one was spent in working upon the outfits of 
those who had risen up in their young strength and earnest 
patriotism to defend the menaced government. While the 
busy fingers of patriotic women prepared the uniforms for 
the first soldiers Norwich was to send forth to the battle 
front, earnest congregations gathered in their accustomed 
churches to supplicate the favor of Heaven upon these who 
had oftered themselves thus promptly and nobly at the call 
of the imperilled country. " The beating of drums, the 
marching and drilling of military companies, the display of 
flags, and fluttering of bunting, the presence of unusual 
crowds in the streets, the hum of labor where the uniforms 
were being made, the earnestness and enthusiasm that 
seemed to animate the multitude, and the eagerness of the 
people to learn the latest intelligence by telegraph, — all 
combined to make such a Sabbath as will long be remem- 
bered." 

On Monday, the twenty-second instant, came the parting 
scene with the first company. Marching forth from Uncas 
Hall amid the enthusiastic cheers and tearful benedictions 
of an immense crowd, the company, preceded by its youth- 
ful captain arm-in-arm with the Governor, made its way to 
the depot, and thence was borne away in the train for the 
place of rendezvous. The affecting scenes that transpired 
at the depot, the intense feeling manifested at parting with 
the brave boys, made all realize the altered times in 
which they were living, and the new duties and sacrifices 
that now were to be met. The work of enlisting did not 
slacken with the departure of this company. Books for 
enrolment were opened in different places in the city. A 
new volunteer company was at once started by Edward 



28 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Harland, under the name of the " Norwich City Rifles," 
and was officered as follows : — 

Captain, 
Edward Harland. 

Lieutenants. 
Charles Spalding. William W. Barnes. 

Sergeants. 

James R. Moore, John E. Ward, Jasper A. H. Shaw, Joab 
B. Rogers. 

Corporals. 

Paris R. Nickerson, Charles W. Carpenter, John T. 

Fanning. 

At the same time another company was organized under 
the title of " Rifle Company A," and chose as officers : — 

Captain. 
Henry Peale. 

Lieutenants. 
George W. Rogers. James J. McCord. 

Sergeants. 

John Lilley, E. S. Francis, D. G. Chapman, Charles 

Young. 

Corporals. 

George W. Swain, James D. Higgins, Arthur F. Ryder, 
H. W. Lester. 

This company was the next to leave the city, departing 
Wednesday, April twenty-fourth, to be mustered into serv- 



THREE MONTHS' MEN. 29 

ice in the Second Regiment at New Haven. The same en 
thusiasm, the same deep, tender feeling, marked its depart- 
ure as had that of the first company. Norwich had now 
sent forth in little over a week's time about two hundred 
men, and still there was no flagging in the loyalty which 
had thus promptly made such a creditable exhibit. These 
two companies were attached to the Second Regiment, 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy of which another Norwich cit- 
izen was appointed, — David Young, Esq., — he being the 
first of our citizens to make a personal tender of his serv- 
ices to the Governor, writing to that effect when the news 
of Sumter's surrender reached the city. On Lieutenant- 
colonel Young fell largely the care and conduct of the regi- 
ment, Colonel Terry being absent from the command a 
portion of the time in consequence of sickness. Captain 
Harland's company left the city for Hartford April twenty- 
ninth, where it was received into the Third Regiment. 
Throngs of citizens, young and old, accompanied the boys 
to the depot, and gave them on departing their heartfelt 
benedictions. The three regiments which had been called 
for to meet the emergencies of the hour, in each of which 
Norwich was represented, left the State respectively on 
the tenth, the fourteenth, and the twenty-second of May. 
At first detained in Washington, and united in one com- 
mand vmder General Tyler, they were soon ordered to cross 
into Virginia, and occupied the advanced post of the Union 
lines, with General Longstreet in their immediate front. 
Subsequently they were brigaded with the Second Regi- 
ment of Maine, under Colonel E. D. Keyes of the Elev- 
enth Regulars. To this brigade fell the honor of opening 
the memorable battle of Bull Run, and to the close of that 
disastrous day on which it was fought, they maintained their 
ranks, covering the retreat with solid columns. Each of the 
three regiments was specially commended by Colonel E. 
3 



30 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

D. Keyes for the gallantry and good order evinced, while 
Lieutenant-colonel Young of the Second Regiment was, in 
the official report of his superior in command, mentioned 
for his " coolness, activity, and discretion." The Connecti- 
cut regiments returned to Fort Corcoran, their old camping 
ground prior to their advance into Virginia. Remaining 
here a short time, they were ordered home, to be mustered 
out of service. The Norwich companies from the Second 
Regiment arrived in the city on the tenth of August, and 
were received with public honors and a collation in Breed 
Hall. Captain Harland's company from the Third Regi- 
ment returned to Norwich on the fourteenth, and was ac- 
corded an equally hearty and generous ovation. 

The casualties reported among those who enlisted from 
Norwich in the three companies, were, — 

Joseph Stokes, private, Captain Chester's company, died July 
25, 1S61. 

Austin G. Monroe, sergeant^ Captain Chester's company^ pris- 
oner. 

JOHN B. Jennings, corporal, Captain Chester's company, pris- 
oner. 

Charles A. Murray, private. Captain Peale's company, pris- 
oner. 

James F. Wilkinson, private, Captain Chester's company, pris- 
oner. 

David C Case, private, Captain Harland's company, killed 
July 21, 1861. 

David Rosenblatt, private, Captain Chester's company, never 
heard from. 

We subjoin the full list of those who served in the three 
months' service, affording thus an opportunity of judging 
how generally these men recnlisted, and how largely they 
became the officers, through commission and promotion, of 
the subsequent regiments Connecticut sent into the field. 



ROLL OF HONOR. 



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THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



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III. 
m86i. 

THREE YEARS' MEN. 

' Northmen, come out ! 
Forth unto battle with storm and shout! 
Ereeclom calls you once again, 
To flag, and fort, and tented plain ; 
Then come with drum, and trump, and song, 
And raise the war-cry wild and strong. 
Northmen, come out ! 

" Northmen, come out! 
Forth unto battle with storm and shout ! 
He who lives with victory 's blest, 
He who dies gains peaceful rest. 
Living or dying, let us oe 
Still vowed to God and liberty ! 

Northmen, come out!" — C. G. Leland. 

ON the third of May, 1861, President Lincoln issued 
his second call for troops, to serve for a period of 
three years unless sooner discharged. Recruiting had 
been vigorously kept up from the first outbreak of hostili- 
ties, and the enlistments were still freely tendered. The 
presence of the Governor, who seemed with wise foresight 
to anticipate the needs of the General Government, contrib- 
uted to keep up the public interest in securing volunteers. 
With tireless devotion he sought to second every appeal of 
the National Executive, and through him Connecticut, and 
Norwich too, were kept fully abreast of the calls from time 



40 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

to time made upon them for men. The reverse at Bull 
Run seemed to rouse anew the patriotic spirit of our citi- 
zens, while the zeal of private individuals and the liberal 
action of the town gave a fresh impetus to recruiting. The 
Fourth and Fifth Regynents had already been accepted by 
the War Department for three years, as the condition of 
receiving from the State the second and third three 
months' regiments, which were really in excess of Con- 
necticut's quota under the first call for troops. In the 
Fourth, Norwich was represented by Major Henry W. Birge, 
Assistant Surgeon Edwin Bentley, with some eighteen or 
twenty men scattered through the different companies. It 
was mustered into service at Hartford in June, 1861, and 
sent to Chambersburg and associated with General Patter- 
son's troops. In November it was stationed at Fort Rich- 
ardson, near Washington. In January, 1862, the regiment 
was changed from infantry into artillery ; and under the 
management of Robert O. Tyler, who was appointed 
Colonel, reorganized as the First Artillery. Major Birge 
was, meanwhile, transferred to the command of the Thir- 
teenth Regiment Infantry. 

For the Fifth Regiment a fine Irish company had been 
recruited from this city, called the Jackson Guards, under 
Captain Thomas Maguire. Some disagreement concerning 
the regiment's arms, and the appointment of subalterns, 
led to the revoking of Colonel Colt's commission, and the 
regiment was disbanded. The greater portion of the Nor- 
wich Company reorganized, and was accepted into the First 
Regiment Heavy Artillery of New York. Captain Ma- 
guire subsequently became Major in the New York service. 
William A. 13erry, a member of the company, was chosen 
Captain, and after serving full three years, was killed at the 
siege of Petersburg. He was succeeded by Captain Thomas 
Scott, also of the Norwich company. 



— 1 



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THREE YEARS' MEN. 4I 

The Fifth Regiment was then reorganized, and Orris S. 
Ferry commissioned Colonel. It was mustered into ser- 
vice July, 1 86 1. In this regiment Norwich had no officers, 
and not over twenty privates. It was first sent to Virginia, 
where it served creditably in many sharp conflicts with the 
enemy. At the battle of Cedar Mountain, among those 
who fell bravely fighting, was Sergeant Alexander S. Avery, 
of Norwich, August ninth, 1862. At the hard fought bat- 
tle of Resaca, Ga., May fifteenth, 1864, out often men who 
had reenlisted from Norwich, four were reported wounded, 
— John G. Blake, Thos. W. Baird, Delano N. Carpenter, 
Stephen Corcoran. 

On the fifteenth of August the Governor issued orders 
for receiving volunteers for the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, and 
Ninth Regiments, a part of Connecticut's quota under the 
recent call of the President. Recruiting offices were 
opened by some of those who had served in the three 
months' campaign, and every eftbrt by citizens and former 
soldiers was made to have Norwich well represented in the 
new regiments. 

The Sixth Regiment received a company recruited mainly 
in Windham County, by Captain W. G. Ely of this city, who 
was appointed Lieutenant-colonel, vice Edward Harland, 
but was soon transferred to the command of the Eighteenth. 
The Quartermaster, and twelve enlisted Germans, were 
from Norwich. Alfred P. Rockwell of Norwich was ap- 
pointed, in June, 1864, to the colonelcy vacated by the 
death of Colonel Chatfield. Mr. Rockwell had previously 
served as Captain of the First Light Battery, C. V., and 
had been stationed on James Island, and other parts of the 
Carolina coast, cooperating in the siege of Charleston. 

To the Seventh Regiment Norwich sent one company 
under Captain John B. Dennis, who had served three 
months in the Massachusetts Sixth. This was the first reg- 



42 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

ular company of three years' men that had gone forth from 
the city, proceeding to New Haven as its appointed place 
of rendezvous. It had become an old story to see men de- 
part for the scene of conflict ; the romance of the war had 
worn off, and it had now become a stern duty, about which 
men went without useless parade or boasting. The earnest 
feeling of the public had not changed, but it had sobered, 
and was less given to those manifestations which had 
marked the departure of the first troops for the war. Theo- 
dore Burdick and Gorham Dennis, lieutenants in this com- 
pany, were also from Norwich. The former, subsequently 
promoted to the command of a company, was killed at Fort 
Wagner, July eleventh, 1863. The regiment was under the 
command of Colonel Alfred H. Terry of New Haven, and 
was the first which landed on the soil of South Carolina. 
It served with distinction in the South, and was afterwards 
engaged upon the James River, and in the trenches before 
Petersburg. Captain Dennis and twenty of his company 
were taken prisoners in June, 1864, while guarding the 
picket line before that city. He was detained some months 
a prisoner, and, with others from Norwich, was among the 
Federal soldiers sent to Charleston to be placed within 
range of the guns of our batteries, in retaliation for the 
bombardment of the city by General Gilmore. Transferred, 
in the course of his captivity, to six different prisons, he, 
after one ineffectual attempt, finally made his escape with 
thirteen companions on the twenty-fourth of December. 

In the Eighth Regiment Norwich was largely repre- 
sented, contributing nearly all the line officers, and most of 
the privates of Company D, with its Captain, John E. 
Ward. Tuesday, September fourth, this second regular 
company for three years' service left the city for the rendez- 
vous of the regiment at Hartford, where it was mustered 
in on the twenty-first of the month. 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 



43 



Norwich had a deeper interest in this regiment than in 
any that had thus far been raised, as the following partial 
roster shows : — 

Colofiel. 

Edward Harland, 

Previously Captain Company A, Third Regiment. 

Adjutant. 
Charles M. Coit. 

First Assistant-surgeon. 
De Witt C Lathrop. 

COMPANY D. 

Captain. 

John E. Ward, 

Previously First Lieutenant Company D, Third Regiment. 

Lieutenafits. 

James R. Moore^ Charles A. Breed. 

Sergeants. 

John McCall, Charles S'hepard, Amos L. Keables, 
Joseph E. Fletcher. 

The regiment left the State for Jamaica Plain, Long Isl- 
and, October seventeenth, where it was the first one to be 
visited by the committee representing the recently formed 
organization of " the Sons of Connecticut " in New York, 
by which it was presented with a handsome regimental 
flag. This regiment was in General Burnside's expedition 
to North Carolina, and bore with uncomplaining faithfulness 
the discomforts and perils of the voyage. On the seventh 
of January the fleet approached Roanoke Island, held by 



44 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



three thousand rebels under General Wise. The troops 
effected a landing in the night, and the next morning, 
shivering with cold and drenched with rain, prepared for 
battle. The Eighth was posted on an old road leading 
towards the right flank of the main battery, by which the 
enemy might turn the left of our advancing forces. The 
position was one of great importance, and was held with 
steady coolness, eliciting the approval of Generals Burnside 
and Foster. 

On the eleventh of March came orders for an advance on 
Newbern. In this action the Eighth bore a leading part, 
moving by the flank, until reaching the open ground in 
front of the rebel works, where it was admirably formed 
into line by Colonel Harland, who ordered the men to fix 
bayonets, and then gave the word to charge. The regiment 
dashed forward on the double quick, and was the first to 
enter the enemy's works, and plant within them its own 
colors. Shortly after, in the siege of Fort Macon, the most 
arduous service fell upon this regiment, which it most cred- 
itably sustained. Two of the Norwich officers, after a few 
months of effective service, died, — Dr. De Witt C. Lath- 
rop, at Newbern, April, 1862, by illness produced by over 
exertion in the duties of his position ; and Lieutenant 
Breed in July, of fever, contracted while engaged in im- 
portant service on the Signal Corps. Ordered North in 
July, the regiment joined McClellan, and was in the battle's 
front at South Mountain and at Antietam, Colonel Har- 
land having now command of a brigade. In the latter con- 
flict, September seventeenth, 1862, the regiment conducted 
with great steadiness, leading in a charge, which resulted 
in taking a position of great importance, from which, after 
stubborn fighting and severe loss, they were forced to re- 
tire. Colonel Harland took command of the division dur- 
ing the battle. General Rodman having fallen, and by his 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 



45 



admirable handling of its disorganized regiments, reformed 
it, and put it at once in a posture of defense. The Eighth 
lost some valuable officers, and by its defiant courage and 
steadiness saved the fortunes of its army corps. The story 
of its splendid valor is in these words, which summed up 
its action in that bloody battle, " We faced the foe until half 
the regiment were shot down, and retired only when we were 
ordered." Among the slain was Lieutenant Marvin Wait, 
of Norwich. He was the first commissioned officer from 
the town that fell in battle. Enlisting when but nineteen, 
he left college and home to enter as a private his country's 
service ; he was soon promoted to be Second Lieutenant of 
Company A, and served as a member of the Signal Corps 
at the battle of Roanoke Island, on Burnside's flag-ship, 
and at the reduction of Fort Macon. A writer in one of 
the Norwich journals, speaking of his conduct at the battle 
of Antietam, says, " After his sword-arm had been disabled 
by a shot, he took his weapon in his left hand, and still 
pressed on, encouraging his men by his heroic fortitude." 
He was a noble specimen of the young men of culture and 
lofty patriotism that Norwich sent forth to the war. Brave 
and manly in his bearing, generous-hearted and beloved, he 
was one whose name is still fondly cherished, the history of 
whose self-sacrificing valor reflects a new honor on the town 
and commonwealth he represented in the Union ranks. 
Six months after the battle of Antietam, the Connecticut 
brigade, in which was the Eighth, was ordered to Falmouth, 
marching one hundred and seventy-five miles in twelve 
days. Here the regiment encamped, putting "their little 
dog tents upon the sticky red mud of Virginia, made smoky 
fires outside of wet wood, half cooked their scanty food, 
warmed and dried themselves as they could, standing by 
wretched fires in the rain, then spread their blankets on the 
soft mud and slept." But such sleep brought only rheu- 
4 



46 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

matics and ill-temper, and led the men to vote Virginia 
mud and weather insufferable. 

On December eleventh the preparations were complete 
for the fatal battle of Fredericksburg under General Burn- 
side. The Eighth volunteered to lay the pontoon bridge, 
and assisted by others accomplished speedily its task. On 
the thirteenth Colonel Harland took his position with his 
brigade below the town, while his own regiment served on 
the picket line, until the whole force was ordered to recross 
the Rappahannock. It fortunately sustained but .slight loss, 
Connecticut troops suffering less proportionately, than any 
other State that had regiments engaged. 

In the spring of 1863, the Connecticut brigade embarked 
for Newport News, and soon after the Eighth in conjunc- 
tion with it was called to take part in the siege of Suffolk. 
On the nineteenth of April occurred a brilliant episode, 
which added to the laurels of this already famous regiment. 
In company with a detachment of the Eighty-ninth New 
York, it was ordered to capture Fort Huger. The com- 
mand devolved on Colonel Ward. The two battallions were 
ferried in a small boat, with a canvas screen drawn round 
it to conceal the men, into proximity to the fortifications. 
As the boat grounded, the men leaped into the water, and 
making for the shore, paused only to rally about their offi- 
cers, then charged upon the enemy's works, and without 
firing a shot captured the battery,, planting their bullet-rent 
colors on the breast-works and marching off the rebel garri- 
son, placed them as prisoners on the gun-boat. The guns 
just taken, were quickly turned upon the rebel forces, that 
were seen swarming from the adjacent woods in order to 
recapture the position. The whole affair was one which 
showed the dash and cool well poised courage of the regi- 
ment, and ranks among the most brilliant of its achieve- 
ments. 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 47 

Colonel Harland was promoted Brigadier-general in April, 
1863, well deserving the position, and becoming next to 
General Tyler, the ranking officer from Norwich. On the 
seventh of May, 1864, the regiment participated in the 
battle of Walthall Junction, Va., and sustained an aggre- 
gate loss of seventy-four officers and men. Colonel Ward, 
on whom the command of the regiment had devolved, was 
severely bruised with a shell ; Captain James R. Moore, now 
in command of Company D, disabled by a serious wound ; 
and Lieutenant Alfred M. Goddard, of Company B, mortally 
wounded. Young Goddard had returned from the Sand- 
wich Islands, where he was engaged in business, on pur- 
pose to enlist in the defense of his country. His ardent 
patriotism gave him no rest until he could return to his na- 
tive land, and share in the honors and perils of her defense 
against intestine foes. He received a commission as First 
Lieutenant in Company B, July, 1863, and was assigned to 
duty on General Harland's staff. Subsequently at his own 
request, he rejoined his company, and served in the ranks 
with distinction up to the time of his death. Of his courage 
on the day of the fatal battle, his Captain wrote, " He was so 
thoughtful and considerate, not rash or impetuous, but cool 
and collected, ready for any emergency, willing for every 
duty." In his grand young strength he fell fighting for his 
country, and by his death added another name to the list of 
those of whom Norwich had just reason to be proud. The 
regiment was complimented by Brigadier-general Burn- 
ham, for heroism in this action, and as it returned from the 
field was cheered by the whole brigade. 

From the twelfth to the sixteenth of May the regiment 
was engaged in battle at Fort Darling, where the Union 
forces were repulsed ; and the gallant Captain McCall, who 
had won his promotion from a lieutenancy, for bravery at 
the capture of Fort Huger, was instantly killed by a shot 



48 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

from the enemy. " This young officer possessed all the 
prominent characteristics of a good soldier. He was cool, 
steady, prompt, and skillful." Enlisting as a private, his 
personal courage and military ciualities gained him his posi- 
tion among the commissioned officers. The mortal remains 
of these two young men were brought to Norwich for in- 
terment. The city and military authorities, as well as the 
citizens generally, vied with personal friends in honors to 
the patriot dead. They fell in the full vigor of their 
young manhood, leaving behind them the record of a noble 
patriotism and brave service in the field. 

In the advance upon Petersburg, in June, 1864, the regi- 
ment was again conspicuous. In the absence of Colonel 
Ward and Lieutenant-colonel Smith, the command devolved 
on Captain Charles M. Coit, of this city, a brave and effi- 
cient officer, subsequently made Lieutenant-colonel by bre- 
vet. In a charge made on the enemy's works, the regiment 
won the highest praise for its gallantry from General Smith, 
who, witnessing its action, said he "felt like giving a com- 
mission to the whole regiment that had done that gallant 
deed." In the assault upon Fort Harrison, in September, 
1864, the Eighth, and three companies of the Twenty-first, 
headed the storming column, and charging across an open 
field, stopped only to reform, when with a shout they rushed 
into the ditch over the parapet, capturing the fort, and re- 
placing the Confederate flag with the standard of Connecti- 
cut. The regiment lost eight killed and sixty-five wounded ; 
among the latter were Lieutenants Foss and Keables of 
Norwich. In a further advance made under General But- 
ler, in October, some severe fighting took place, in which 
Captain Charles M. Coit, serving on the staff of the brigade 
commander, was severely wounded. The regiment main- 
tained its well-earned reputation for daring and fidelity to 
the end of the war, and was mustered out in Decem- 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 



49 



ber, 1865, with a proud record for efficient service in the 
field. 

To the Ninth Regiment, composed mostly of Irishmen, 
Norwich furnished a large part of Company H, called the 
Sarsfield Guards, recruited in this city. Silas W. Sawyer 
was chosen Captain, Thomas C. Lawler, First Lieutenant. 
The regiment was mustered into service at Lowell, Mass., 
and was thence ordered to New Orleans, performing three 
years of arduous duty in the regions bordering upon the 
Mississippi ; afterwards it participated with the army under 
General Sheridan, in the campaign up the Shenandoah 
Valley. 

Norwich had thus contributed to the four regiments 
called for by the Governor in August of this year. Other 
companies were still recruiting in the city, but as yet none 
of them were full. A patriotic meeting of the citizens, 
pursuant to a call therefor, was held in Apollo Hall on Sep- 
tember sixteenth, to consider what measures could be 
adopted to facilitate the speedy filling up of these compa- 
nies, or their consolidation and prompt forwarding to the 
appointed rendezvous. Mr. John F. Slater was appointed 
chairman. Mr. Ebenezer Learned addressed the meeting 
" upon the importance of immediate action, and moved that 
the ' Patriotic Fund Committee ' be instructed to appropri- 
ate the funds already in their hands in such a manner as 
they shall deem best calculated to promote the interest of 
the cause ; and when these are exhausted, to call in addi- 
tional installments, to meet the demands of the occasion." 
The motion, after brief speeches from Rev. J. P. Gul- 
liver, Messrs. H. H. Starkweather, Henry Bill, and John 
Breed, was unanimously carried. Under the impulse sup- 
plied by this meeting, the work of recruiting was pushed on 
more vigorously, and the companies, for which a limited 
number of enlistments had been secured, began to fill up. 



50 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

The Legislature was convened in October, and the terse 
and earnest message of the Governor set before the mem- 
bers the necessities of the national situation : — 

" Instead of inquiring how much we have done," he said, 
" shall we not inquire what more can we do ? It is a privilege to 
live in a day like this, to take a bold and energetic part in the 
conflict which is now raging between law and anarchy ; and dur- 
ing this revolution, which, in the onward progress of events is to 
accomplish the wise designs of an overruling Providence, to 
exert an influence which shall aid in advancing this nation to 
such a position of strength and moral power, that every citizen 
may safely, and fully, and speedily enjoy the blessings of free- 
dom. This is a high honor within our reach, a rich privilege 
which we may enjoy, and a solemn duty which God calls us now 
to perform." 

A law was passed at this session authorizing his Excel- 
lency, Governor Buckingham, to enlist, organize, and equip, 
according to his discretion, an unlimited number of volun- 
teers ; and providing for the expense by ordering an addi- 
tional issue of bonds of the State to the amount of two 
millions of dollars ; making a grand total for the year of 
four millions of dollars which had been raised in this way. 
The intrusting of the disbursement of this large sum to 
one man, evinced the marked confidence reposed in the 
judgment and integrity of the Executive. Orders were 
now issued by the Governor for the acceptance of all full 
companies offering for the war. 

A fine company, called the " Harland Rifles," mainly 
recruited in Norwich, was mustered into the Eleventh Reg- 
iment. John H. Norris, G. W. Keables, and James E. Fuller, 
were appointed Lieutenants ; and Joseph H. Nickerson 
was subsequently promoted to be Captain in this regiment ; 
all of whom were from this city. 

The Eleventh was in Eurnside's Expedition to North 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 51 

Carolina, and a portion of the command with Colonel Kings- 
bury was on the Voltigeur, when she stranded off Cape 
Hatteras, twenty-three days of great peril elapsing before 
the men could be got off. 

In the renowned battle of Antietam, so destructive to 
human life, the Regiment suffered the most severely of any 
from Connecticut. Besides losing its Colonel, it was nearly 
halved, reporting out of a muster of four hundred and forty, 
ninety-seven killed, and one hundred and two wounded. In 
the battle of Cold Harbor, Va., where the Eleventh joined 
the army of the Potomac, it fought with signal bravery, 
losing heavily in officers and men. Before Petersburg it 
served with great faithfulness, and when mustered out in 
December, 1865, reported as the whole number of men 
connected with the regiment two thousand four hundred. 

In the Twelfth Regiment Norwich had a few enlisted 
men and one commissioned officer, — Lieutenant A. 
Dwight McCall. 

The Thirteenth Regiment was largely officered by Nor- 
wich men. 

Colonel. 

Henry W. Birge, 

Previously Major of the Fourth Regiment. 

Adjutant. 
George W. Whittlesey. 

Quartermaster. 
Joseph B. Bromley. 

Second Assistant-surgeon. 
Nathan A. Fisher. 



52 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

COMPANY F. 

Captain. 
James J. McCord, 
Previously Second Lieutenant Company B, Second Regiment. 

Second Lieutetiant. 
John C Abbott. 

COMPANY K. 

Captain. 
Alfred Mitchell. 

In addition to these, William P. Miner and Robert Rip- 
ley were commissioned Lieutenants, and upwards of half a 
hundred privates were also from this town, most of the lat- 
ter in Captain McCord's Company. 

The Thirteenth was noted for its fine appearance and 
neat equipments, and was a favorite with General Butler. 
It had in Colonel Birge an accomplished officer, whose 
handling of a regiment was considered in the Gulf Depart- 
ment to be unsurpassed. Ordered at first to New Orleans, 
its entrance into that city May fifteenth, 1862, where it was 
assigned the post of honor, produced a marked sensation, 
and it was declared to be " the finest looking regiment that 
ever entered New Orleans." After performing garrison 
duty in the city for some time, the regiment was ordered to 
join the Reserve Brigade under General Weitzel, under 
whom it had a leading position in the battle of Georgia 
Landing, and by him was complimented for its bear.ing in 
this its maiden fight. 

During the winter of 1862-63, it was engaged in the rou- 
tine life incident to its position. The humorous Quarter- 
master of the regiment, Joseph B. Bromley, beguiled the 
tedium of the camp life by his wit, and at the same time 







C-A^ O^^uisu^^ 




■•■''ols and. J 



^THREE YEARS' MEN. 53 

won an enviable reputation for his success in catering to 
the wants of the men. Colonel Sprague, in his history of 
the regiment, giv'es the following, as characteristic of the 
man : — 

" The principal difficulty at this time was in getting wood. Our 
Quartermaster, never long at a loss for expedients, finally pro- 
ceeded to the depot of the Carrollton Railroad, and commenced 
loading his teams. The Superintendent is said to have come up, 
and to have held the following dialogue with Bromley: — 

" ' What are you going to do with that wood .'' ' 

" ' Cook rations. Go on with your loading. Corporal.' 

" ' Who are you ? ' 

" ' Bromley, Quartermaster of the Thirteenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers. Allow me, sir, in turn to inquire whom I have the dis- 
tinguished honor to address.' 

" 'I'm Superintendent of this railroad.' 

" ' All right. Go on with your loading. Corporal.' 

" 'The wood belongs to the railroad.' 

" ' So I supposed ! ' 

" ' But I forbid you to take it.' 

" ' Put your protest in writing, in red ink. Tie it with a piece 
of red tape. I'll approve it and forward it. You see we've got 
to have wood to cook with. Can't eat beans and pork raw. I'd 
prefer 'em raw, but the men are so unreasonable they want 'em 
cooked.' 

" ' But that wood 's necessary for the use of the railroad.' 

" ' It 's necessary for the use of the Thirteenth Connecticut.' 

" ' I should like to know how a locomotive is going to run with- 
out wood.' 

"'I've often wondered how a regiment could be run without 
wood.' 

" ' General Butler orders me to run this railroad.' 

" ' Colonel Birge orders me to run the Thirteenth Connecticut. 

" ' Who 's Colonel Birge ? ' 

" ' Who 's Colonel Birge ? Why, the d — deuse ! don't you 



54 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

know Colonel Birge. If there 's one man above another that 
everybody knows, it 's Colonel Birge.' 

" • Will Colonel Birge pay for the wood ? ' 

" ' Colonel Birge pay for the wood ? Why no ! It 's a reflection 
on your sagacity to ask such a question.' 

" ' Who will pay for it ? ' 

" ' The Quartermaster's Department. If there 's one thing 
above another that I admire in the Quartermaster's Department, 
it 's because they'll always pay for wood. Now, my friend of the 
railroad persuasion, if you'll come and see me, I'll give you re- 
ceipts, and help you fix up the proper papers to present to the 
Quartermaster's Department.' 

" ' How long will it be before I get pay ? ' 

" • It will be some future day, — the futurest kind of a day, I'm 
afraid.' 

" The Superintendent posted off to see Colonel Birge. Bromley 
preceded him however, and cautioned sentinels to admit no 
citizen without a pass. 'Halt!" said the sentry; and the Super- 
intendent gave up the pursuit in despair.' 

'• The instructions which Bromley gave to Corporal Strange, a 
member of his staff, as he termed him, were quite significant. 
' Strange, we're going on an expedition. I want my staff to be 
on the lookout for turkeys, geese, pigs, and sheep. Don't be the 
aggressor in any contest. Stand strictly on the defensive ; but^ 
if you're attacked by any of these animals, show fight, and don't 
forget to bring off the ene?ny''s dead." 

In the following spring the campaign was opened by the 
battle of Irish Bend, April fourteenth, 1863. In this en- 
gagement the regiment won new honors for its admirable 
discipline and coolness ; and among the spoils it bore away 
from the field was an elaborate and costly silk flag, bearing 
the inscription, "The Ladies of Franklin to the St, Mary's 
Cannoniers," a trophy which has found its way to the 
archives of the State. On the twenty-fourth of May fol_ 
lowing, and again on the fourteenth of June, the regiment 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 55 

was engaged in battle at Port Hudson ; on the latter oc- 
casion, though in the reserve, by sheer force of enthusiasm 
and stress of the emergency, it worked its way to the fore- 
front of the hottest battle. The assault on the Fort proved 
unsuccessful, and led General Banks, then in command, to 
call " for a storming column of one thousand men." To the 
lead of this forlorn hope Colonel Birge was assigned, at his 
own request, his splendid regiment furnishing one quarter 
of the desired number of stormers. It was a brave thing 
to do, and was the fruit of no sudden impulse, no wild 
thoughtless desperation. The gallant Colonel kept from 
his men, that he had by choice been appointed to lead the 
column, not wishing to influence any of them to volunteer, 
unless self inclined. When, however, it became known that 
he was to command the ' forlorn hope,' there were many 
accessions. Two hundred and forty-one of this noble regi- 
ment for days and weeks looked death in the face and 
offered all on their country's altar. They knew well the 
ground over which they would have to pass, and that the 
chances were against their ever returning. It was a volun- 
teer service, in a trying hour, and at the risk of life itself. 
Some of the officers wrote out their wills, transferred money 
and keep-sakes to comrades who were to remain behind^ 
and wrote their last messages to loved ones at home. It 
was, as we now contemplate it, one of the most heroic in- 
cidents of the war, an imperishable memorial of the self- 
sacrifice and courage of the men, and their leader, of both 
of whom the country had every reason to feel proud. By 
request of the rest of the men, permission was obtained of 
Colonel Birge that the remainder of the regiment should 
follow immediately in rear of the stormers, as their first sup- 
port, a position only less perilous than that assigned to the 
storming column itself This virtually brought the whole 
regiment into the assaulting force. Fortunately the rebels 



56 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



surrendered the post before the final assault was ordered. 
As a special mark of honor, the storming column was des- 
ignated to enter Port Hudson to receive the surrender ; this 
it did, the second position being given to the Twenty-sixth 
Regiment, under Lieutenant-colonel Joseph Selden of Nor- 
wich, the colors and band of the Thirteenth being selected 
from all others to grace the pageant. The regiment, after 
a return home for a " veteran furlough," took part in the 
Shenandoah campaign, and was actively engaged in the 
battles at Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek. 

In the Battle of Winchester, September, 1864, and the 
actions that followed in quick succession, the Thirteenth 
had a leading part. General Birge's division was in the 
advance, he himself directing and joining in the charge, 
which resulted in the utter route of General Early's army. 
Having meanwhile been promoted to be a Brigadier-gen- 
eral, during this Shenandoah campaign and subsequently, 
General Birge commanded a division. For his gallant 
service at Cedar Creek he was recommended by General 
Sheridan for a brevet commission of Major-general, which 
he received while in the field, winning thus the highest 
brevet rank gained by any army officer from Norwich. 



IV. 

1 862. 

Three Year's Men, continued. 

" Listen, young heroes ! Your country is calling ! 
Time strikes the hour for the brave and the true ; 
Now, while the foremost are fighting and falling, 
Fill up the ranks that have opened for you ! 

" Stay not for questions while Freedom stands gasping ! 
Wait not till Honor lies wrapped in his pall ! 
Brief the lips' meeting be, swift the hands' clasping, — 
Off for the war, is enough for them all. 

" Never or now ! cries the blood of a nation, 

Poured on the turf where the red rose should bloom ; 
Now is the day and hour of salvation, — 
Never or now ! peals the trumpet of doom." 

O. W. Holmes. 

DURING the early part of this year the Union forces 
made steady progress, and it seemed for a while as 
if the war was to be brought to a speedy close. All loyal 
hearts were encouraged, and as it was supposed there would 
be no more calls for troops, enlisting quite generally ceased. 
The War Department issued orders April third, discontinu- 
ing the recruiting service in every State. The requisition 
upon the Governor in May by the authorities at Washing- 
ton for si.\ hundred men to fill up the Eighth, Tenth, and 
Eleventh Regiments, met with feeble response in Norwich 



58 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

and vicinity. This led to the call for another regiment, 
and a company was begun in the city for the Fourteenth, 
but enlistments came in slowly. 

On July first President Lincoln issued his third procla- 
mation, calling for three hundred thousand volunteers to 
serve or three years or the war. Governor Buckingham 
earnestly seconded this call by an appeal to the State on 
the third of the month, to furnish promptly its quota of 
men. " Close your manufactories and workshops, turn 
aside from your farms and your business, leave for a while 
your families and your homes, and meet face to face the 
enemies of your liberties ! Haste, and you will rescue many 
noble men, now struggling against superior numbers, and 
speedily secure the blessings of peace and good govern- 
ment." These were the closing words of the appeal that 
again helped to arouse the war spirit of the town. The 
disheartening result of McClellan's campaign before Rich- 
mond caused new solicitude, and though the loyal citizens 

"Bated no jot of heait or hope," 

it brought them to realize the need of stronger determina- 
tion and greater sacrifices, if they would do their part in 
putting down the still regnant rebellion. One of those 
stirring war meetings, which from time to time had been 
held for the purpose of helping forward enlistments, was 
called for Friday, July eleventh. His Excellency, W. 
A. Buckingham, presided. Breed Hall was tastefully deco- 
rated with flags and bunting, and crowded to its utmost ; 
the enthusiasm and intense feeling of the occasion were 
not in vain. Besides the most earnest protestations on the 
part of leading citizens to sustain the war till the rebellion 
was crushed, a number came forward, and amid the cheers 
of the multitude enrolled their names among the new re- 
cruits now imperatively needed. The meeting spoke the 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 59 

sentiment of Norwich in the following spirited resolu- 
tion, — 

Resolved, That in common with the people in other parts of 
the State, we agree to stand by the flag of the Union, and to put 
forth all our energies for the suppression of the Rebellion, be- 
lieving, as we do, that the Constitution is the supreme law of the 
land, and must be maintained in every State of the Union at all 
hazards ; and in furtherance of these sentiments the following 
committee is hereby appointed, — James Lloyd Greene, John T. 
Wait, Amos W. Prentice, William M. Converse, J. F. Slater, H. 
B. Norton, J. W. Stedman, Charles Johnson, James S. Carew, 
Lorenzo Blackstone, Charles A. Converse, N. C. Brakenridge, H. 
B.Crosby, — whose duty it shall be to take such measures as 
may be necessary to procure the speedy enlistment of troops." 

This Committee decided at once to offer as bounty to 
those volunteering from Norwich thirteen dollars, making, 
together with what the State and Government offered, a 
total amount of one hundred dollars to each recruit. Again, 
on Thursday, July twenty-fourth, a County mass meeting 
was held on Franklin Square, presided over by Hon. J. T. 
Wait, where the enthusiasm of the town and county flamed 
forth, roused as it was by the speeches of patriotic citizens 
and soldiers temporarily home. Among the episodes of 
this monster meeting was the introduction of fourteen 
members of a Greeneville company now almost full, who 
sang with thrilling effect a song composed for the occasion. 
The key-note of the speaking was struck in the repeated 
and earnestly presented question, " What can I do to aid 
the Government .'' " The kindled excitement and interest of 
this meeting were carried over into a second gathering in 
Breed Hall in the evening, where representative gentlemen 
of the County spoke. The enlistment books were kept 
open on the platform, and during the continuance of the 
meeting numbers came forward amidst prolonged and 



6o 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



hearty cheering, and enrolled their names. As the result 
of these popular demonstrations, enlisting, and persuading 
others to enlist, became the business of the hour. Love of 
country asserted itself once more above every personal and 
partisan feeling. 

The first regiment to feel the effect of this new awaken- 
ing of the war spirit was the Fourteenth, to which Norwich 
contributed as follows : — 

COMPANY E. 

Captain. 

William H. Tubes. 

First Lieutenant. 

Morton F. Hale, 

Promoted Brigade Commissary of Subsistence, December, 1862. 

Sergeants. 
James R. Nickels, 
Promoted Captain. 
Frederick E. Schalk, 
Promoted First Lieutenant. 

Henry C. Miller. 

In Company K, Lieutenant James B. Coit, afterwards 
promoted Captain and Major ; H. P. Goddard, Sergeant- 
major, afterwards promoted Captain ; and Lieutenant 
George C. Ripley, together with about forty enlisted men. 
The regiment left camp in Hartford August twenty-fifth, 
and without being allowed time for necessary instruction, 
was ordered at once into the hard-fought battle of Antie- 
tam, September, 1862. Here it suffered severely, and 
though a new regiment, bore itself with great merit. It 
had been hurried by forced marches to the battle-field, 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 6 1 

without knapsacks, or regimental baggage, and was thirty- 
six hours under fire at Antietam, with scarcely anything to 
eat or drink during all this time. From this time onward 
it was kept in almost constantly active service, and was em- 
phatically a fighting regiment. At the battle of Fredericks- 
burg it continued in the Second Corps, which, with the 
Ninth Corps, formed the right grand division under General 
Sumner. It was the only Connecticut regiment warmly 
engaged, and was in the division that opened the battle. 
After making three separate charges under severe artillery 
fire, it fell back only when the division was retired, bearing 
with it the body of the brave Lieutenant-colonel Perkins, who 
had been severely wounded. The aggregate loss of the reg- 
iment was one hundred and twenty-two. At the battle of 
Chancellorsville the Fourteenth was actively engaged, fight- 
ing with great coolness, its brief experience having made 
it among the most reliable of Connecticut regiments ; here 
its losses were again heavy, and the splendid regiment 
which left the State August, 1862, ten hundred and fifteen 
strong, was already reduced, by reason of its constant fight- 
ing, to two hundred and nineteen men in service. At Get- 
tysburg, July, 1863, the conduct of the regiment is spoken 
of in the highest terms. It was one of the most trying 
battles fn which it had been engaged, yet one in which it 
distinguished itself by a number of effective charges, cap- 
turing five regimental flags and over forty prisoners, and 
sustaining a loss in the aggregate of sixty-six. In the Vir- 
ginia campaign under General Grant it also shared, partici- 
pating in the terrible battles of the Wilderness, and a 
Spottsylvania winning new laurels, losing here a brave Nor- 
wich officer. Lieutenant Schalk. At the battle of Reams' 
Station, August, 1864, Captain Nickels was killed. Both 
these young men were from Norwich, and had served with 
credit to themselves and the country for which they had 
5 



62 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



cheerfully periled their lives. James B. Coit, who was spe- 
cially mentioned for his gallantry, was also wounded, and 
thus forced to resign, having been promoted from a First 
Lieutenancy to be Major, and afterwards was brevetted 
Brigadier-general. The regiment was present at the surren- 
der of Lee, and was mustered out May, 1865, with the con- 
sciousness of having had a severe service, and of having 
won its proud title, — the " brave Fourteenth." 

In the next three regiments of the six that the Governor 
had called for under the President's proclamation of July 
first, Norwich had no official representation, and therefore 
no special local interest. At the patriotic mass meeting of 
the county nothing had contributed more to arouse through- 
out the town an ambition to maintain its eminence for de- 
votion to the National Cause, than the announcement that 
orders had been issued for a New London County Regi- 
ment to rendezvous at the Fair Grounds near the city. It 
was the first regiment that was mustered into service from 
Norwich. For this reason the Eighteenth Regiment was 
regarded by our citizens as peculiarly their own. The five 
county companies were recruited in town, and the costly 
colors, National and State, were the gift of the Norwich 
ladies. The roster of officers of this favorite regiment from 
the town was as follows, and accounts for the deep interest 
our community took in it from the beginning of its exist- 
ence clear through its eventful history : — 

ColotieL 
William G. Ely, 

Previously Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixth Infantry, subsequently 
brevetted Brigadier-general. 

Quartermaster. 
DwiGHT W. Hakes, 

Afterwards Captain, and Brevet Major. 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 63 

S2irgeon. 
Charles M. Carleton. 

Sergeant-major. 

Joseph P. Rockwell, 

Promoted Adjutant and Captain. 

Quartermaster-sergeant. 

William Carruthers, 
Promoted First Lieutenant. 

Commissary- sergeant. 
Henry Hovey. 

COMPANY A. 

Captain. 

Henry C. Davis. 

Lieutenants. 

Adam H. Lindsley, James D. Higgins. 

COMPANY C. 

Captain. 
Isaac H. Bromley. 

First Lieutenant. 

Samuel T. C. Merwin, 

Promoted Captain. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Henry F. Cowles, 

Promoted First Lieutenant. 



64 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

COMPANY E. 

Captain. 
Isaac W. Hakes, Jr. 

First Lieutenant. 

Frederick A. Palmer. 

Promoted Captain. 

COMPANY F. 

Captain. 

Henry Peale. 

Promoted Major and Lieutenant-colonel. 

Second Lieutenant. 
John A. Francis. 

COMPANY I. 

Captain. 
Samuel R. Knapp. 

First Lieutenant. 

John H. Morrison, 

Promoted Captain. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Martin V. B. Tiffany, 
Promoted Captain. 

Of the enlisted men, over two hundred and fifty are cred- 
ited to Norwich on the rolls of the Adjutant-general. The 
colors were publicly presented to the regiment in the after- 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 65 

noon of the twenty-second of August, by Governor Buck- 
ingham in behalf of the ladies, and received by Colonel 
Ely with fitting words of acknowledgment. Then forming 
into line, the regiment marched to the city to embark for 
its destination. Norwich had previous to this time sent 
forth single companies amid inspiriting cheers and tender 
farewells, but this was the first regiment it had seen depart 
for the seat of war. It was not strange, therefore, that the 
city put on its holiday attire, that ladies filled the windows 
and balconies along the line of march to wave their adieus, 
and that the streets were thronged with those anxious to 
have a last look at the brave men who were justly the pride 
of the district, and bid them as they went forth a hearty 
God-speed. Public and private buildings were gay with 
flags, and the national colors floated from the shipping in 
the river ; the whole city was in a tumult of excitement as 
it parted from the regiment in which it had so large an in- 
terest, and for which it had done so much. 

Stationed at first near Baltimore, it was ordered, in May, 
1863, to Western Virginia. On the thirteenth to the fif- 
teenth of June it took a prominent part in the battle of 
Winchester, where a large proportion of men and officers 
were taken prisoners. During the night of the fifteenth 
the order for the silent evacuation of Winchester was given. 
The First and Second Brigades were intercepted in this 
retreat by a superior force of the enemy, and after two 
gallant charges the Eighteenth became separated from the 
main body, and in a final charge alone was repulsed by the 
enemy now greatly outnumbering it, a part of the regiment 
being captured, including Colonel Ely. This was the first 
battle in which the Eighteenth had been engaged, and its 
behavior reflected credit on both officers and men. The 
total loss of the regiment was five hundred and sixty-seven, 
thirty-one being killed, forty-four wounded, including five 



66 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

commanders of companies, which witnesses to the severity 
of the fighting, and the desperateness of these successive 
charges. The " Richmond Whig," commenting on the lat- 
ter, says, " the Yankees charged our battery three times, 
and got within a few yards of it, but were driven off. So 
many were killed at gun Number One, that it had to be 
abandoned, and we had fired every round of ammunition 
from gun Number Two. Then they made a final charge 
and got nearer than before, and we thought we were about 
to be captured, .... but finding a few rounds of ammu- 
nition in the caisson of Number One, and putting them in 
gun Number Two, we drove them back for the last time." 
Most of the privates captured in this engagement were sub- 
sequently paroled, but the officers were confined for nine 
months in Libby and Belle Island prisons. Colonel Ely 
was one of a party that escaped from Libby in February, 
1864, by tunneling, but was recaptured, and carried back 
into close confinement. The handsome regimental colors 
presented by the ladies of Norwich were preserved, being 
carried for two days wound round the body of the color- 
sergeant, George Torrey of Woodstock, who escaped cap 
ture. While the arrangements for the surrender made by 
Colonel Ely were pending, Major Peale, with upwards of 
thirty men, got away ; and Company D, which had been 
detailed for provost-guard duty, escaped intact. About two 
hundred of the regiment finally were gathered together at 
Maryland Heights, where Major Peale took the command, 
setting himself earnestly at work to reorganize the regi- 
ment, and put it immediately into fighting trim. Ordered 
to join General French of the Third Army Corps, the reg- 
iment, now led by Major Peale, had severe fighting and 
marching, in connection with the Army of the Potomac, 
which was then following up General Lee. The regiment 
was soon ordered to Martinsburg, Va., where it received back 



THREE YEARS' MEN. dj 

the imprisoned men, captured in the battle of Winchester, 
who arrived from Camp Parole October third, 1863, and 
here it remained all winter, performing picket and other 
duty, until the opening of the Spring campaign in the Shen- 
andoah Valley under General Sigel (who was soon suc- 
ceeded by General Hunter). 

Again it was put in motion, marching southward, over 
the ground where so many were captured a year before, to 
Winchester, and thence pushed forward towards New Mar- 
ket. Here it went into action, numbering about ten offi- 
cers and some three hundred and fifty men, after marching 
fifteen miles in a drenching storm, and fought with unques- 
tioned gallantry nearly five hours, standing in mud knee- 
deep. General Sigel was forced to retreat, being over- 
matched by superior numbers. Major Peale's report credits 
the regiment with effective and courageous conduct, while 
his own handling of it in this engagement brought out his 
admirable qualities as a commander. The Eighteenth was 
in the extreme advance, and suffered severely, while the 
exhausting demands of their forced march before the bat- 
tle, and their retreat after it, harassed by a pursuing enemy, 
told upon the men. At Cedar Creek General Hunter re- 
lieved General Sigel, and after a brief respite, the regiment, 
together with the army, moved forward by rapid marches 
towards Piedmont. Colonel Ely, who had been exchanged, 
now rejoined the regiment, and took the command in the 
battle of Piedmont, Va. In his report, he says, " Our 
troops fought with undaunted bravery, and at five, p. m. 
routed the rebels, captured two thousand prisoners and five 
thousand stand of arms. The Eighteen'th was on the right 
of General Hunter's line of battle ; its colors took the lead 
in the first charge, and floated defiant till we triumphed. 
All of the color-guard were wounded except one. Our ban- 
ner riddled by minie balls and cannon-shot, and a loss of 



68 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

one hundred and twenty-seven in killed and wounded, tell 
our story." Among the killed was Adjutant E. B. Culver, 
an officer of great merit, an earnest patriot, and widely be- 
loved here by friends and citizens, who lamented his early 
death. Corporal J. F. Bradley and William H. Hamilton, 
who had left good situations in our city to enter their coun- 
try's service, were also among the slain. The regiment, 
greatly reduced in numbers and much exhausted, made its 
bivouac in the rear of the rebel position, and on the follow- 
ing morning, saddened by its losses, but rejoicing over its 
victory, pushed on with the army to Staunton. General 
Hunter in reviewing the regiments prior to the battle of 
Piedmont, had said to the Eighteenth, " he expected them 
to sustain the honor of Connecticut, and wipe out New 
Market." He was more than satisfied with the bearing of 
the regiment, and took occasion publicly to acknowledge its 
splendid conduct. 

On the tenth of June, reinforced by the commands of 
Generals Crook and Averill, Hunter continued on his course 
southward, passing through Lexington, and destroying in 
his march considerable public property. Rations however 
began to grow scarce, and the army, two hundred miles from 
its base, began to experience the hardships incident to such 
an ill-planned state of things. On June fifteenth, the Blue 
Ridge was reached, and ascended near its highest point, — 
the peaks of the Otter. The weary march was still kept 
up, the men suftering for food, and obliged to be in readi- 
ness to encounter the rebels, who now began to show signs 
of an intention to oppose the advance on Lynchburg. All 
that night, the regiment lay on its arms, while its advance 
engaged the rebels within four miles of the city. On the 
eighteenth, an artillery duel continued through the day, and 
two unsuccessful charges were made on its line. The 
Eighteenth bore the brunt of this engagement, in which 




„pfc*i* 



tnyiA^ 




%M 



Z4^1y4^L^ 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 69 

Colonel Ely was wounded in the throat, and temporarily 
disabled, and eight others suffered from the enemy's fire. 

General Early had now reinforced the rebels, and they 
in turn prepared to make one of their forward movements, 
through what in waggish dialect had been christened " the 
back doah " of the Union. The regiment in consequence 
had before it ten days of incessant fatiguing retreat. Hunter 
had made what was called a " bold dash " at Lynchburg, 
had brought on an indecisive battle, and then was forced 
to hurry back across the mountains, his command arriving 
at Martinsburg jaded, ragged, and dispirited. The Chaplain 
of the Eighteenth wrote concerning these severest days in 
the regiment's history, " the scenes of that terrible march 
will never be recalled by any survivor without a shudder, 
the sufferings of the men were severe, yet they conducted 
themselves with soldierly manliness and propriety." 

Soon after the regiment in Crook's column passed down 
the left bank of the Potomac, reaching Snicker's Ford July 
eighteenth. " The command forded the Shenandoah river 
on the same day, and participated in an engagement with 
the rebel army, which invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania 
during the early part of July, in which engagement the 
regiment acted well its part, and suffered severely." Thus 
ran the report of Lieutenant-colonel Peale, subsequently in 
charge. Colonel Ely having been assigned to the command 
of the Second Brigade. The regiment in falling back had 
a spirited engagement at Winchester, Va., but was forced to 
continue retreating as far as Martinsburg, Va. 

It was not understood by the public generally, why the 
Eighteenth, and the Shenandoah Valley Army with which 
it was associated, were so often found contending against 
superior numbers, and obliged so repeatedly to fall back or 
retreat. The explanation is in the fact that they were set 
to watch this back way of getting into Pennsylvania and 



70 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Maryland, through which the rebel General Early about 
twice a year attempted to penetrate with a force far ex- 
ceeding ours. As a consequence the fighting necessary to 
be done by our troops was exceedingly hard, and always 
against great odds. When General Sheridan came into 
the valley he admitted that his men had no such unequal- 
matched battles to fight, as in the previous years had made 
those in the Shenandoah, in which the Eighteenth par- 
ticipated, so sanguinary and disastrous. No regiment 
fought more bravely, but it uniformly had before it every 
time it went into action a force outnumbering its own. 
The Eighteenth was, soon after this, ordered to join the 
forces under General Sheridan, and under him took part 
in an engagement with the enemy at Berryville, Va., Sep- 
tember third, 1864, Captain Tiffany commanding in the 
absence of Lieutenant-colonel Peale. Colonel W. G. Ely, 
who of late had been in command of the Second Brigade, 
First Division, Army of Western Virginia, at this time re- 
signed, and received the appointment subsequently of Bre- 
vet Brigadier-general. He had served with courage and 
ability for more than three years, retiring with honor from 
the position his soldierly qualities had won him. The regi- 
ment had now become much reduced in numbers, owing to 
its constant fighting, and was sent to Charlestown, Va., to 
act as garrison for that place, — thence it went to Martins- 
burg, Va., performing picket and provost duty. At its sub- 
sequent head-quarters, in Hall-town, it remained, doing val- 
uable service until ordered to Martinsburg to be mustered 
out, June, 1865. Under command of Lieutenant-colonel 
Peale, who had been in constant service since the war 
broke out, it returned to Hartford, where it was awarded a 
public reception, bringing back from an arduous service a 
well-earned name for courage and fidelity. 

In the next two regiments Norwich had no local interest. 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 71 

Charles J. Arms, Adjutant of the Twentieth Regiment, is 
the only name on the original muster roll, and he was trans- 
ferred to the staff of Brigadier-general Harland. 

The Twenty-first was the last of the seventeen regiments 
raised on the several calls of the President for three years' 
service or the war, and was the second regiment ordered to 
rendezvous at Norwich. Among the officers from the town 
was Hiram B. Crosby, appointed Major, who on the death 
of Colonel Button and Lieutenant-colonel Burpee, suc- 
ceeded to the regimental command. J. Hamilton Lee was 
made Assistant Surgeon, Christopher A. Brand Sergeant- 
major, being promoted subsequently First Lieutenant. J. 
D. Plunkett, at first Sergeant, rose to be Second Lieuten- 
ant ; with these were about thirty privates. 

On Wednesday, September seventeenth, when the State 
and Regimental Flags from the ladies of Norwich and 
Stonington were presented to the Twenty-first, an immense 
crowd of visitors thronged the Camp. His Honor, Mayor 
Greene, made the presentation speech in behalf of the 
donors, from which we extract the closing passages: — 

" Colonel Button, the ladies of Norwich and Stonington place 
this flag in your hands, and in those of the brave men under 
your command, fully persuaded you will never disgrace it, but 
will add new lustre to the brilliancy of its fame. Take it, and 
guard it as the most priceless treasure ever committed to mortal 
hands. With it they also give you the State Flag of the State of 
Connecticut, confident that your valor and skill will add yet 
more brightness to the star which represents her in the national 
flag. 

" Take your flags, and, trusting in the holiness of your cause, 
and in your own strong arms, march on to victory and renown ; 
and when the conflict is over, and the victory won, — when free- 
dom's flag floats high and wide over all the land, — the ladies 
who present you to-day with these colors will welcome home 
with all honor the saviors of their beloved land." 



72 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Colonel Dutton, receiving the flags, responded in words 
whose emphasis, his position, and the gleaming line of bay- 
onets borne by his men, drawn up behind where he stood, 
made memorably impressive : " Representing this regiment 
as its chief officer, I desire to thank the ladies of Eastern 
Connecticut for their magnificent present. At some future 
day — many months hence, perhaps — we hope to bring 
these colors back to you, time-worn, dust-covered, perhaps 
bullet-torn they may be, but polluted by the touch of a 
rebel — never ! " 

The regiment had a good record for bravery and sol- 
dierly bearing, taking part in the battles of Fredericksburg, 
Suftblk, Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, before Petersburg and 
Fort Harrison. Of the conduct of the regiment in the 
severe battle of Drury's Bluff, a New York officer, who was 
an eye-witness of the scene, wrote : — 

" Never shall I forget its splendid behavior on that terrible six- 
teenth of May, 1864, when the field at Drury's Bluff was covered 
with from eight to ten thousand men, killed and wounded from 
both sides. The Twenty-first, firm and fearless, stood the horri- 
ble charge, and repulsed it on their front. Many times, in the 
heat of that conflict, I looked towards the regiment, fearful that 
I should see it overwhelmed. It did its noble State immortal 
honor on that day, as it has in every battle in which engaged." 

The regiment remained in front of Petersburg until the 
third of September, performing picket duty, and engaged 
in skirmishes with the enemy. It was then ordered within 
the line of defenses at Bermuda Hundred, and remained in 
that position until September twenty-eighth, when it was 
ordered to join the general advance of the Union army. 
It took up its march across the James river, and with its 
division shared in the assault on Fort Harrison. In this 
action the regiment fought with conspicuous valor. 

With the First Connecticut Battery, and the Eighth Reg- 



THREE YEARS' MEN. 73 

iment Infantry, it held a position in the advance into Rich- 
mond, on its evacuation by General Lee ; and when mus- 
tered out in June, 1865, brought home the following high 
testimonial from General Charles Devens, in whose division 
it served : " It is fully entitled to the honor of having served 
most faithfully, and as long as its services were needed ; 
and having done its duty most nobly under many most 
trying and dangerous circumstances. It has worthily 
maintained the honor of the State of Connecticut, her 
loyalty to the Union of our Fathers, her deep and stern 
attachment to the principles of popular government and of 
civil liberty," Such were the words of commendation that 
were addressed to the Governor. Colonel Crosby, while 
Major, was specially mentioned for his service at the battle 
of Fredericksburg, where, by his discretion and courage, he 
facilitated the retreat of a portion of the army. He proved 
himself a good officer, as capable as from the outbreak of 
the war he had been patriotic, resigning because of sick- 
ness, September, 1864. 

Connecticut was the first State to fill her quota under 
the call of the President for three years' men. Within forty- 
five days, eight thousand and thirty-six men had volunteered, 
and were organized into eight full regiments, and one light 
battery. 

General Daniel Tyler rendered great assistance in equip- 
ping these regiments, and preparing them for the field. 
The State was indebted to him for invaluable service, which 
only so accomplished a soldier as he was, could have ren- 
dered. 

He had been, in March, 1862, re-commissioned Brigadier- 
general, and assigned to the command of a brigade, after- 
wards of a division, in the army of the Mississippi. While 
kept from that active service and promotion for which his 
military knowledge and experience fitted him, he was the true 



74 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



friend of his State and town, and to his personal supervision 
and instruction was owing the high military character 
which distinguished our soldiers. General Hawley ex- 
pressed the feeling of not a few Connecticut officers, when 
he said, " General Tyler is the father of us all." 

The record of the State had thus far been remarkably 
creditable, while the popular enthusiasm manifested itself 
in local war-meetings, in generous pledges of assistance to 
volunteers and their families. The recruiting machinery 
was in the hands of men of energy and patriotic impulses, 
and the several towns and counties sought to emulate each 
other in the promptitude with which they raised their as- 
signed quotas. 



V. 

1 862. 

NINE MONTHS' MEN. 

" ' Qui transtuHt sustinet ? ' motto of light ! 
'Neath the folds of that banner we strike for the right ; 
Connecticut's watchword, o'er hill and o'er plain, 
' The Hand that transplanted, that Hand will sustain.' 

" And now in the darkness of Treason's black night, 
'Neath the folds of that banner we strike for the right ! 
For the Right ? 'tis our country we're marching to save, — 
The dear flag of the Union in triumph shall wave ! 
Faith swells in each heart ; Hope fires every vein ! 
' .\nd Thou who transplanted. Oh ! always sustain.' " 

S. .S. Weld. 

ON the fourth of August, 1862, appeared President Lin- 
coln's proclamation for three hundred thousand troops 
to serve nine months, — with orders for a draft to be made, 
if the quotas of the different States were not filled with 
volunteers, by the fifteenth of the month. In Norwich it 
only served to intensify the war spirit, and made all citizens 
feel that it was no time to despond or slacken in efforts that 
hitherto had reflected such honor upon the town. The 
" Daily Bulletin," from the first, pronounced in its patriotic 
utterances, and eager to second every movement for the 
raising of the called for troops, — spoke out in bold and 
earnest tones, — " There is not a loyal heart in these United 
States who will not rejoice on seeing the President's procla- 



^6 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

mation. ... It is an indication of earnest work. It proves 
that the administration will not suffer this Republic to perish 
because it hesitates to put forth its full strength. We can- 
not doubt of the hearty approval and willing response of 
the people to this new call upon their patriotism. There 
are many among us who could hardly determine their duty. 
On the one hand, were the sweet endearments of home, — 
the wife and children to be provided for, the anxious care 
for them, which pleads strongly ; and on the other hand, the 
call for soldiers, which comes home to every man's heart who 
loves his native land. To them the draft will be welcome." 

It was a dark hour in the history of the war, perhaps the 
darkest that was known at any time during our long strug- 
gle. The Peninsular campaign had resulted most disas- 
trously to our arms, though never did troops fight more 
bravely. The stubborn heroism of our splendid Potomac 
army, led by such war-worn veterans as Sumner, Kearney, 
Heintzelman, Hooker, and others, had made its retreat a 
costly one to the rebel forces, and might even have turned 
its sad retirement from the advance on Richmond into vic- 
tory, if there had been the requisite courage and skill on 
the part of the then commanding general. Following this 
great failure came the short and unfortunate campaign of 
General Pope, and the triumphant advance of General Lee 
into Maryland. The need of more men by the government 
was urgent in the extreme, and the President's call appeared 
just at the time when national reverses had produced wide- 
spread discouragement and solicitude, and yet, as we shall 
see, the people met the crisis with undaunted faith, and re- 
sponded with reasonable promptness to the appeal made to 
them for more troops. 

Going back a little in our regimental history, we find 
that in January of this year, the Fourth Regiment of In- 
fantry was by order of the War Department converted 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. yy 

into the First Artillery. It received two additional com- 
panies, and was recruited to eighteen hundred men, and 
placed under command of Colonel Robert O. Tyler. In a 
few months, it attained a remarkable degree of efficiency, 
and was soon after " ranked by military judges as the best 
Volunteer Regiment of Artillery in the field, and consid- 
ered equal in all respects to any regiment of the same arm 
in the regular service." 

On the promotion of Colonel Tyler, Henry L. Abbott 
was appointed to the command, and under him the regi- 
ment served until the close of the war. It constituted, dur- 
ing a portion of this period, the basis of an Artillery Brigade, 
which sometimes exceeded an aggregate of thirty-five hun- 
dred men, and had in charge the entire siege train in use in 
the final siege of Petersburg and Richmond. 

From this regiment, after the transference of Major H. 
W. Birge to the colonelcy of the Thirteenth Infantry, Nor- 
wich was represented by Dr. Edwin Bentley, Assistant Sur- 
geon, promoted to the position of Brigade Surgeon ; John 
H. Tingley, Second Lieutenant, Company A, who had with 
a noble patriotism served in the ranks as a private dur- 
ing the three months' campaign ; Bela P. Learned, Second 
Lieutenant, Company D, who also served two years with 
honor as a field-officer on the staff' of General Abbott, 
transacting with rare efficiency the complicated office duties 
of the command. Subsequently promoted Captain, he re- 
ceived the appointment of Brevet Major before he was mus- 
tered out with the regiment ; Edwin L. Tyler, Second 
Lieutenant, Company G ; Frank J. Jones, Second Lieu- 
tenant, Company L. 

On the regimental rolls appear the. names of about sixty 

privates, some of whom were non-residents, and are credited 

to the town as substitutes. The regiment served ' through 

the Peninsular campaign under General McClellan, where 

6 



78 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

its discipline and splendid equipment were severely tested. 
At the battle of Malvern Hill its guns were served with 
great rapidity and accuracy, and for its efficient services the 
names of " Siege of Yorktown," " Hanover Court House," 
" Chickahominy," " Gaines' Mills," and " Malvern," were 
ordered to be emblazoned on its colors. When garrisoning 
Washington, subsequent to this, it was awarded a position 
of supreme importance, and in the advance under General 
Grant, the regiment again had a distinguished part, the gal- 
lantry of its officers and men attracting attention. Through- 
out the final campaign against Richmond, it continued to 
hold the high reputation it had gained, in the earlier one 
during this year, under McClellan. In the siege of York- 
town in 1862, when the Regiment had been but few months 
in service, and had received comparatively little exact train- 
ing, the report of the ordnance officer of its siege-train, Ma- 
jor Doull of the Second New York Artillery, said, " Its labors 
will compare favorably with anything of the kind that has 
been done before." It manned the long line of guns in 
front of Petersburg in 1864 and '65, while eight companies 
served on the lines in front of Richmond. 

When not serving their guns, the greater part of the 
regiment would act as guards for the reserve artillery, or 
would be ready to accompany assaulting columns, in order 
to use without delay any captured artillery upon the retreat- 
ing enemy. In the assault of the lines of Petersburg, April 
second, 1865, by the Ninth Corps, a detachment of the regi- 
ment joined the assaulting column, and entered among the 
first the enemy's works, serving instantly four captured light 
twelve-pounder guns upon the retreating masses of the 
enemy. Two more were afterwards taken, when the six 
guns were served gallantly all day and during the night, 
contributing greatly to the success of the charge, and re- 
pulsing the rebels in their desperate eftbrts to retake the 
works. 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. 79 

Always to be relied on, its superb discipline jealously 
maintained by Colonel Abbott, and kept in the best fighting 
trim, it was a regiment that commanders came to be proud 
of, the achievements of which brought honor to the State, 
that through it won a good name for what it furnished in 
this arm. 

On reading over the exact orders issued by Lieutenant 
Learned, when serving as Acting Assistant Adjutant-gen- 
eral, in which the number of shots fired by each gun, the 
kind of ammunition used, kind of projectile preferred, and 
other similar details were required to be reported by the 
battery commanders to him, the secret of its efficiency is 
in part disclosed. 

When scattered over a front extending many miles, fre- 
quently subdivided into smaller companies, the regiment 
on coming together again exhibits the cleanliness and sol- 
dierly appearance, which gave it such brilliant presence 
when on garrison duty. When it was mustered out, Sep- 
tember twenty-fifth, 1865, Major-general Barry, one of the 
ablest artillery officers in the country, bore this testimony 
to the character of the regiment : " As chief of Artillery 
successively of the two principal armies of the United 
States, during the four years of war, now happily ended, 
I have enjoyed unusual opportunities for observation. You 
will on this account value my opinion when I assure you 
that the First Connecticut Artillery, in intelligence, and 
the acquirements and services of its special arm, stands 
unrivaled in the armies of the United States." 

We have thus far noted the representatives of our town, 
in the infantry regiments formed, and in the other arm, of 
heavy artillery. We come, now, to the cavalry. Into the 
First Regiment, there went from Norwich Charles Farns- 
worth, Captain of Company B, who was subsequently pro- 
moted Lieutenant-colonel ; Henry T. Phillips, Second Lieu- 



8o 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



tenant, afterward First Lieutenant ; Joab B. Rogers, Ser- 
geant, promoted to Captain Company A ; and seventy-nine 
privates. Originally a battalion, it left the State in January, 
1862, performing arduous service during the first year in 
the mountain department of Virginia, under Generals 
Schenck, Fremont, and Milroy. 

In April, 1862, Captain Farnsworth was attacked, while 
on a scouting expedition with only twelve men, and se- 
verely wounded. He was passing at the base of a hill 
so thickly overgrown with brush and small trees that it was 
impossible to distinguish a man two rods distant. At this 
point two volleys were fired at him from behind, from the 
brow of this hill, by concealed rebels. One ball passed 
through his arm, another through his side. He promptly 
halted his men, formed them into line, so as to be prepared 
to receive the rebels if disposed to come to close quarters, 
when fainting from the loss of blood, he was safely brought 
into camp. Recovering from the illness this occasioned, 
he soon rejoined his command, and took part with the regi- 
ment in the service demanded of it during the rest of the 
campaign. 

In July, 1863, Captain (at this date Major) Farnsworth, 
with a command of fifty men, was ordered out by General 
Naglee to reconnoitre the enemy's position beyond Bolivar 
Heights, and to ascertain his strength. Coming upon a 
strong cavalry picket, they charged on them and drove 
therti back on their reserve, two hundred strong. Not 
halting at this, the gallant Major charged on the whole 
body of the enemy, and at first with success, capturing 
many prisoners, but the rebels, seeing the disparity of the 
attacking force, rallied, and a hand to hand fight occurred, 
in which Major Farnsworth's horse was shot, and he, with 
twenty-six of his men were compelled to surrender. Taken 
at once to Libby Prison, he endured there a weary con- 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. 8l 

finement for some eight months. Soon after his return to his 
regiment, in May, 1864, having meanwhile been promoted 
Lieutenant-colonel, he resigned his commission, and was 
honorably discharged, with the record of a brave and spir- 
ited officer, admirably adapted to this arm of the service. 

In the spring of 1864 the regiment was attached to the 
Army of the Potomac, and assigned to the cavalry brigade 
of General Davies, under Kilpatrick. It now entered upon 
arduous duty, opening the battle of Spottsylvania, and 
fighting with marked courage, part of the time dismounted, 
and then again in the saddle. 

In August of this year it was transferred to the army of 
the Shenandoah, and won, while with General Sheridan, 
the reputation of being " second to no other cavalry regi- 
ment/' In the vicinity of Winchester, while with General 
Wilson's cavalry division, a squadron under Captain Rogers, 
assisted by detachments from the Third New York and 
Second Ohio, surrounded and captured an entire regiment 
of South Carolina infantry, with their colors. Lieutenant 
Henry T. Phillips, just prior to the battle of Ashland Sta- 
tion, May, 1864, was of marked service in securing ammu- 
nition for the regiment, boldly accomplishing that which 
had twice been ineffectually attempted by other officers. 
The regiment had a most laborious service during the 
last two years of the war, fighting now on the skirmish 
line, dismounted, then leading in the charge upon the ad- 
vanced forces of the enemy, and at all times recognized as 
reliable and brave. The varied experiences of the regi- 
ment, its losses and desperate encounters, its long raids 
and dashing charges, make up a story such as only a cav- 
alry regiment of trusty mettle could furnish. It had a very 
prominent part in the final advance on Richmond, and led 
in the pursuit and capture of Lee's army. It was the last 
regiment to leave the renowned cavalry corps of Gen- 



82 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

eral Sheridan, being detained in Washington on account of 
its high repute and soldierly appearance. Its muster-rolls 
bore the names of two thousand six hundred and eleven 
men. On August fifth, 1865, it returned to New Haven 
and was there mustered out. 

On the rolls of the First Light Battery appears the 
name of Alfred P. Rockwell, as Captain, the only Norwich 
officer. In the battle of James Island his command re- 
sponded to the enemy's fire with great effect, pouring per- 
cussion shells into the rebels with telling rapidity and accu- 
racy «of aim. In the second engagement on this island, in 
1863, the battery again took a prominent part. At the 
battle of Walthall Junction the rebels charged upon the 
battery and were handsomely repulsed. At Fort Darling, 
May 1864, Captain Rockwell had a position on the left of 
the line, where again the guns of his battery were admirably 
served and made the enemy respect them. Subsequently 
promoted Colonel of the Sixth Regiment, he led the latter 
in the engagements at Bermuda Hundred, Deep Run, Va., 
and Fort Fisher, N. C, proving himself a skillful officer, 
and receiving the appointment of brevet Brigadier-general, 
for his gallantry in the campaign of 1864. 

Seven additional regiments of nine months' men were 
now called for from Connecticut, and Norwich took vigor- 
ous measures to furnish promptly its quota. Another great 
war meeting was held in Breed Hall, Wednesday evening, 
August twenty-seventh, presided over by his honor Mayor 
Greene, where again the spirit and enthusiasm of the peo- 
ple 'were aroused. The war committee announced that 
the town bounty would be increased to one hundred dollars. 

On Saturday, August thirtieth, the citizens were warned 
to assemble in Town Hall. The highest pitch of popular 
feeling during the war was on this occasion reached in a 
meeting of thrilling interest. After ratifying the action 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. 83 

of the war committee, raising the bounty of the nine 
months' men to the amount above named, the assem- 
blage, now overwhelmingly thronged, and wrought up 
with intense excitement, resolved itself into a committee 
of the whole, to obtain volunteers. Hon. John T. Wait 
was conducted to the chair, when individual offers to 
those who would enlist followed, marked by unprecedented 
liberality, and awakening the greatest enthusiasm. Hon. 
H. H. Starkweather, whose practical wisdom and earnest, 
devoted patriotism had placed him foremost among the more 
serviceable of our citizens, led off in a tenderof one hundred 
dollars to the first ten men that volunteered. Lewis Edwards 
promptly made a like offer. Fifty dollars was next proffered 
by D. A. Delanoy for the third ten that would enlist. H. 
L. Maples responded with a pledge of twenty-five dollars 
for the next five recruits. Spear & Brothers joined the 
bidders, with a promise of fifty dollars for the next five 
enlisting. J. M. Huntington then added an offer of ten 
dollars apiece for the first sixty volunteers, Hon. L. Black- 
stone continued the same generous pledge for the next 
twenty, and L. H. Chester offered fifty dollars for ten more. 
A spirit of noble emulation seemed to animate all present, 
while those who were unable to join in these money proffers 
came forward, and did what was better, offered themselves. 
William P. Greene, Esq., ever mindful of the families to 
be left by those volunteering, with his accustomed consider- 
ateness and liberality, amid the heartiest applause, made 
his tender of one thousand dollars for their benefit. This 
turned the current of citizen benevolence only in another 
direction, and at once Hon. James Lloyd Greene followed 
with his offer of five hundred dollars, while next to him 
came Henry Bill, with a promise of one hundred dollars. 
Dr. R. Tracy joined the new advance with fifty dollars, 
Jedediah Leavens with fifty dollars, and A. P. Sturtevant 



84 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

brought up the rear with a round one hundred dollar sub- 
scription. These offers followed each other rapidly, while 
equally generous private pledges to the committee, were 
made after the eventful meeting adjourned. Governor Buck- 
ingham adding five hundred dollars to the fund for soldiers' 
families. 

The kindled enthusiasm of this gathering seemed to 
demand, after a short nooning, a second session, which 
was held in Franklin Square, where telling speeches were 
made, interspersed with yet further proffers of pecuniary 
aid or of personal service. Altogether it was a most 
memorable meeting, and brought out into sublimest expres- 
sion the liberality and patriotism of the citizens of Norwich. 
This splendid action of the town averted the necessity of a 
draft, and placed at the service of the government more 
than its assigned quota. 

The impetus given to recruiting by these recent war-meet- 
ings, contributed to the rapid filling up of the Twenty-sixth 
Regiment, which was a New London County organization. 
It was ordered to rendezvous at Norwich, and had a large 
representation from the town, both as officers and men. 
Among the former, Norwich furnished, - 

Lieiitenant-coloTiel. 
Joseph Selden. 

Adjutant, 
Stephen B. Meech. 

Qiiartertnaster. 
Benjamin F. Tracy. 

Assistant Surgeon. 
» 

Elisha Phinney. 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. 



85 



COMPANY B. 

Captain. 
Clarke Harrington. 

Second Lieutenant. 
James S. Maples. 

COMPANY a 

Captain. 
Samuel T. Huntoon. 

First Lieutenant. 
Timothy W. Tracy. 



COMPANY F. 

.Captain. 
Loren a. Gallup. 

First Lieutenant. 
Edward W. Eels. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Hervey F. Jacobs. 

COMPANY G. 

Captain. 
John L. Stanton. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Pliny Brewer. 



86 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

On the regimental rolls appear the names of one hundred 
and twenty-five privates hailing from this town. On the 
fourteenth of November, the regiment broke camp, and 
marching through the city, where it was greeted by every 
demonstration of good-will, it embarked on the steamer, en 
route for New York, . amidst the farewells of those who 
crowded the wharf to look their last look, and speak their 
last adieus. 

The band struck up the conventional " good-by " air, 
" The Girl I left behind me," as the boat moved off, which 
carried away the last regiment Norwich and the adjoining 
towns were called on to raise. The Twenty-sixth was or- 
dered first to New Orleans, and remained for a while at 
Camp Parapet, drilling, doing guard duty, and on detached 
service. Soon after General Banks' arrival, it was put in 
motion to join his command in the projected assault upon 
Port Hudson. Here, after the investment of this stronghold 
was completed, the regiment participated in the three sev- 
eral attacks made upon it, serving in General Neal Dow's 
Brigade. In the first of these, on May twenty-seventh, its 
position was on the extreme left wing, the advance of which 
immediately exposed it to a concentrated fire from the 
enemy. Colonel Kingsley was wounded in the early part of 
the action, when Lieutenant-colonel Selden took the com- 
mand, leading the regiment in person, and handling it with 
courage and skill. Its bearing in this first engagement in 
which it came under fire, was highly creditable, the men and 
officers conducting with decided gallantry and coolness, 
proving that nine months' regiments were equal to any 
emergency. Captain John L. Stanton, a brave officer, es- 
teemed by his comrades, and tenderly loved by his friends, 
was shot dead in this assault. The total loss of the regi- 
ment was reported as one hundred and seven. 

On the long-to-be-remembered fourteenth of June, the 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. 8/ 

regiment led the advance, pushing -its way under the lead 
of the Lieutenant-colonel to within three hundred yards 
of the enemy's works, under a raking fire. Here, in a ravine 
obstructing its further movement, it held its own, under a 
broiling sun, until night- fall, suffering terribly from the 
rebel guns. For its courageous and veteran-like conduct 
on this occasion, the regiment was complimented by a spe- 
cial order from General Dwight. In this action, Lieutenant 
Hervey F. Jacobs was fatally wounded, and by his subse- 
quent death added another to the swelling list of those who 
had gone forth from Norwich and sacrificed life to the 
cause they had with noble patriotism espoused. The reg- 
iment was again honored by being selected as one of the 
ten to enter and receive the formal surrender of Port Hud- 
son, July ninth, 1863, occupying, in the performance of 
this duty, the second post of honor. The history of the 
Twenty-sixth was in every respect a noble one. 

Its active service in the siege of Port Hudson covered 
about forty-five days, — days they were in which its courage 
and military prowess won their meed of well-deserved re- 
nown. Returning with depleted ranks, with torn and black- 
ened colors, it received a public welcome such as testified 
to the appreciation of those who had fondly watched its 
service in the field. 

On the entrance to the Little Plain where a bountiful col- 
lation had been prepared, was hung the motto, " Welcome ! 
Twenty-sixth," while the words " Port Hudson," appropri- 
ately decorated the stand occupied by the Governor, Mayor, 
City Council, Colonel Kingsley, and others. After the regi- 
ment and its escort had taken their places at the tables, 
bountifully supplied, and beautifully decorated. Mayor 
Greene greeted them in these words : — 

" Colonel Kingsley, officers and privates of the Twenty- 
sixth Regiment, it is my pleasure, as it is my duty on this 



88 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

occasion, in the name and by the order of the city of Nor- 
wich, to welcome you home to old Connecticut. Some who 
left in your ranks have not returned ; they will return no 
more ; their dust mingles with Southern soil, but their lives 
were not given in vain ; and if it is most noble to live for 
others, and not for ourselves, then certainly no death can 
be more noble than that which is in defense of the liberties 
of our country, and for the protection and preservation of 
the best interests and hopes of all men. , . . Soldiers, during 
your nine months of service, you have endured the privations 
and hardship of the camp and the march, you have faced 
the perils of sickness, and have braved wounds, mutilation, 
and death, on the field of battle you have nobly upheld the 
honor of the State, and have proved, in common with all 
Connecticut regiments, that though our State is small in 
size, she is preeminent in the valor and manhood of her 
sons." .... 

Colonel Kingsley briefly responded, alluding to the suf- 
ferings and achievements of the regiment, to the praise it 
had won for its brief but valuable service from its com- 
manding Generals. The regiment mustered about five 
hundred and fifty, seven of their number having been buried 
along the banks of the Mississippi, a few, unable to be 
moved, were left in Western hospitals, one died within 
sight of home, and seven were too feeble to be present and 
participate in the festivities of the occasion. One hundred 
and sixty-seven are its reported losses in total. This tells 
substantially the story of the regiment, whose annals are 
hereafter part of the history of our town. 

The city authorities, as well as the military and fire de- 
partment, shared in this cordial home-reception, and acted 
as escort to these young heroes of siege and battle. 

On the twenty-second of September, 1862, appeared the 
great proclamation of President Lincoln, declaring, " That 



NINE MONTHS' MEN. 89 

on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as 
slaves within any State, or any designated part of a State, 
the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the 
United States, shall be thenceforward and forever free, and 
the government of the United States, including the military 
and naval authorities, will recognize and maintain the free- 
dom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress 
such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make 
for their actual freedom." 

The wisdom of this great act was by the loyal masses of 
the North deemed unquestionable, while its necessity had 
long been held to be imperative by leading men throughout 
the country. Almost unheralded, its appearance debarred 
that angry discussion which might have followed the an- 
nouncement of its forthcoming. 

At a meeting, September twenty-ninth, in Washington, 
D. C, composed of the governors of loyal States, an address 
to Mr. Lincoln was drawn up and presented, which, after 
pledging to the President their most loyal support, added, 
in reference to his great act : " We hail with heartfelt grati- 
tude, and encouraged hope, the proclamation, issued on the 
twenty-second instant, declaring emancipated from their 
bondage all persons held to service or labor as slaves in the 
rebel States whose rebellion shall last until the first day of 
January next ensuing. . . . To have continued indefinitely 
the most efficient cause, the support and stay of the rebel- 
lion, would have been in our opinion unjust to the loyal 
people whose treasures and lives are made a willing sacri- 
fice on the altar of patriotism, would have discriminated 
against the wife, who is compelled to surrender her hus- 
band, against the parent who is to surrender his child to 
the hardships of camp, and the perils of battle, and in favor 
of rebel-masters permitted to retain their slaves. It would 



90 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



have been a final decision alike against humanity, justice, 
the rights and dig^mty of the government, and against a 
wise national policy. The decision of the President to 
strike at the root of the rebellion, will lend new vigor to 
the efforts, and new life and hope to the hearts of the 
people. 

" Cordially tendering to the President our respectful as- 
surances of personal and official confidence, we trust and 
believe that the policy now inaugurated will be crowned with 
success, will give speedy and triumphant victories over our 
enemies, and secure to this nation and to this people the 
blessings and favor of Almighty God." 

The address was the work of Massachusetts' distinguished 
" war-governor," — the eloquent and patriotic John A. An- 
drew. The general verdict of the press of the country was 
in favor of the grand edict, with which Abraham Lincoln's 
name will be forever associated. He himself realized the 
magnitude of the deed, when in proclaiming the act in force 
on the first of January, 1863, he with that reverent divine 
faith which so often lifted him far above the mere petty feel- 
ings of political expediency, solemnly concluded with these 
words : " A7id upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act 
of j?cstice, zvarranted by the Constitution upon military neces- 
sity, I invoke the considerate jiidgment of mankind, and the 
gracious favor of Almighty God." 

Governor Andrew, in his annual Message to the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, bore this graceful and earnest tribute 
to the great act of the age : " Supporting always the Govern- 
ment without conditions as to its policy, we rejoice with un- 
utterable joy, that its policy is that of human nature, and 
not that of human sophistry ; and we hail the returning day 
of civic virtues which our national departure from the prac- 
tice of justice and the principles of our fathers have dis- 
couraged in the North, and have overthrown in the South." 



NINE iMONTHS' MEN. 9 1 

Before sunset on that memorable twenty-second of Sep- 
tember, the proclamation had been telegraphed to every 
portion of the Republic. It was hailed by a large majority 
of the loyal men of the nation with unfeigned joy and grat- 
itude. Bells rang out their joyous peals not only through- 
out New England, and the teeming cities of the Empire 
State, but over the broader States of the West, and clear on 
to those that skirt the base of the Rocky Mountains. Ten 
States were enumerated as in rebellion, and three million 
of slaves were set free. After the issue of the proclama- 
tion, Mr, Lincoln said, " Now that we have got the harpoon 
fairly into the monster slavery, we must take care that in 
his extremity he does not shipwreck the country." 

In the House of Representatives, on motion of Mr. Fes- 
senden, of Maine, the following vote was passed by a large 
majority : " Resolved, That the proclamation of the Presi- 
dent of the United States of the date of September twenty- 
second, 1862, is warranted by the Constitution ; that the 
policy of emancipation, as indicated in that proclamation, is 
well adapted to hasten the restoration of peace, was well 
chosen as a war-measure, and is an exercise of power with 
proper regard for the rights of the States, and the prosperity 
of free government." 

The citizens of Norwich were not indifferent to this edict 
of liberty, emancipating an enslaved race, and they gave to 
it at once their heartfelt approval, and outspoken support. 
Accordingly, on the day when the proclamation went into 
effect, January first, 1863, Hon. James Lloyd Greene, the 
patriotic mayor of the city, whose sympathy with the cause 
of human freedom, and earnest support of the war from its 
very beginning had won him a high regard amongst our 
citizens, ordered a salute to be fired, the city flags to be dis- 
played, and the church bells rung. 

In thus doing public honor to the act which made the 



92 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

year forever memorable, he " had the advice and consent of 
all the members of the common council whom he could find, 
being a majority of the whole number." It was fit thus to no- 
tice this signal event, and every gun fired gave expression 
to the feelings that thrilled with joy the hearts of all loyal 
people. When the bill was presented to the city treasurer 
for payment, after an appropriation therefor had been unan- 
imously made by the common council, he was restrained by 
an injunction issued by the Superior court, from paying the 
same. The honorable tribute to the edict in question was, 
however, shorn of none of its significance, when the un- 
daunted mayor promptly relieved the city of all expense, or 
litigation, and in outspoken words given to the public, in 
which the facts of the case were plainly stated, and the items 
of the bill presented, he with genuine quaintness of expres- 
sion, thus concluded : " And now, upon my soul, I do exult 
and rejoice that I, James Lloyd Greene, am the man who 
ordered and paid for the first emancipation salute ever fired 
in the State of Connecticut." 

Concerning this same event, thus wrote the sweet Quaker 
poet, J. G. Whittier : — 

" O dark sad millions, patiently and dumb 
Waiting for God, your hour at last has come, 

And freedom's song 
I5reaks the long silence of your night of wrong ! 

" Arise and flee ! Shake off the vile restraint 
Of ages ! but like Ballymena's saint 
The oppressor spare ; 
Heap only on his head the coals of prayer. 

" Go forth, like him, like him return again, 
To bless the land whereon in bitter pain 

Ye toiled at first, 
And heal with freedom, what your slavery cursed ! " 



VI. 

1 863. 

" All hail the land where Freedom dwells, and lifts her starry shield ! 
Here gaze all nations, bond and free — this is their battle-field ! 
Humanity and Liberty throughout the struggling world, 
Proclaim her cause their own, and cry. Our Flag shall stay unfurled ! 
Our Flag shall stay unfurled ! 
Our Flag shall stay unfurled ! 
Though Freedom's foes may plot her death, 
Yet while a patriot holds his breath, 
Our Flag shall stay unfurled ! " 

Weishampel. 

UP to this time there had been but slow progress made 
by our armies, though the expenditure, both of blood 
and treasure, had been very great. The hopes of the in- 
surgents were still confident, and our forces had sustained 
enough repulses to seriously discourage the people. Now 
opened the year, which was the test one of the conflict. 
It opened well, for it chronicled the fact, that liberty to all 
was now for the first time inscribed upon our national ban- 
ners. 

The campaign commenced with great vigor in the West, 
under General Grant, and by the middle of summer Vicks- 
burg had fallen before his persevering skill and valor, and 
soon after, Port Hudson surrendered to General Banks, thus 
securing for our possession the great river of the continent, 
and thereby severing in twain the territory of the Confed- 
eracy. About the same time in the East, the gallant Poto- 

7 



94 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

mac Army endured another defeat under Hooker at Chan- 
cellorsville, which led to the bold advance of Lee into 
Pennsylvania, he venturing to assume again the offensive. 
The command of our troops was transferred to General 
Meade, who met the enemy at Gettysburg, and fought him, 
in a most obstinate and bloody battle, lasting three days, at 
the end, of which our army remained in possession of the 
field, having inflicted so damaging a defeat on the rebels, 
that they were compelled to retreat. The tidings of this 
victory were announced to the country July fourth, which, 
with the brilliant triumphs of our arms in the West, added 
new fervor to the popular celebration peculiar to that day. 
Modestly and reverently Mr. Lincoln anticipated the fuller 
telegraphic news, which was published on the morning of 
our national holiday by issuing the following bulletin-. 
" The President of the United States announces to the 
country, that the news from the army of the Potomac, up 
to ten p. M. of the third, is such as to cover the army with 
the highest honor, — to promise great success to the cause 
of the Union, — and to claim the condolence of all for the 
many gallant fallen ; and that for this, he especially desires 
that on this day, * He whose will, not ours, should be done,' 
be everywhere remembered, and reverenced with the pro- 
foundest gratitude." 

A few weeks had effected a complete change in the con- 
dition of affairs. In a little more than a month's time, 
through the numbers killed, wounded, or taken prisoners, 
over eighty thousand men were lost to the rebel armies. Our 
losses had been heavy, but the substantial victories gained, 
inspirited the whole nation, and revived public confidence 
at home and abroad in the ultimate success of the Union 
cause. President Lincoln, in view of the recent events, 
which reflected such lustre upon our arms, appointed August 
sixth as a day for national thanksgiving, praise, and prayer. 



PROCLAMATIONS OF LINCOLN AND DAVIS. 95 

inviting " the people of the United States to assemble on 
that occasion in their customary places of worship, and 
in the forms approved by their own conscience, render 
the homage due to the Divine Majesty for the wonderful 
things He has done in the nation's behalf, and invoke the 
influence of his Holy Spirit to subdue the anger which has 
produced, and so long sustained a needless and cruel re- 
bellion ; and to change the hearts of the insurgents, to guide 
the counsels of the government with wisdom adequate to 
so great a national emergency, and to visit with tender care 
and consolation throughout the length and breadth of our 
land, all those who, through the vicissitudes of marches, 
voyages, battles, and sieges, have been brought to suffer in 
mind, body, or estate, and family ; to lead the whole nation, 
through paths of repentance, and submission to the Divine 
Will, back to the perfect enjoyment of Union and fraternal 
peace." 

About the same time appeared the following, from the 
rebel authorities, which shows how the recent successes by 
our armies affected them : " Now, therefore, I, Jefferson 
Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do 
by virtue of the powers vested in me as aforesaid, call out 
and place in the military service of the Confederate States, 
all tvliite men, residents of said States, between the ages of 
eighteen and forty-five years, and not legally exempted from 
military service ; and I do hereby order and direct that all 
persons subject to this call, and not now in the military ser- 
vice, do upon being enrolled, forthwith repair to the con- 
script camp established in the respective States of which 
they may be residents, under pain of being held and pun- 
ished as deserters, in the event of their failure to obey this 
call, as provided in said laws." 

This was decidedly a short metre process, as compared 
with our enrollment system, of which we have yet to speak. 



96 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

It was coercive to an extent, that only the desperate straits 
to which the rebels were reduced, can explain. Little else 
was left a white citizen in the South to do, but to consult 
the family register, ascertain whether he was of the unfor- 
tunate age, if so, to kiss his wife, and, with a supply of corn- 
cake sufficient to last him on his compulsory journey, " re- 
pair to the conscript camp." 

This conscription bill of the Confederate Congress was 
passed in March, 1862. Nearly a year later. Senator Wil- 
son, Chairman of the Military Committee in the United 
States, reported a bill for the enrollment of all able-bodied 
citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, 
black or white, making them liable to military duty at the 
call of the President. All drafted persons were allowed to 
furnish an acceptable substitute, or on payment of three 
hundred dollars be discharged from liability to mihtary ser- 
vice. 

Upon the passage by Congress of this every-way reason- 
able act, in which provision was made for exempting those 
whom it would be unjust or needlessly severe to subject to 
mihtary duty, the President appointed Acting Assistant 
Provost-marshals-general for each State, and Provost-mar- 
shals for each Congressional District. 

The bill divided the national forces into two general 
classes. The first comprised all persons subject to do mili- 
tary duty, between the ages of twenty and thirty five ; all 
unmarried persons above the age of thirty-five, and under 
the age of forty-five. These classes, by the enrolling offi- 
cers were kept separate, and in the Adjutants' reports are 
divided, as if distinct. The second general class comprised 
all other persons liable to do military duty ; and these last 
were not to be called out until those first subject to duty 
had been called into service. 

On July first, 1863, it was ordered by the War Depart- 



THE DRAFT AND ITS RESULTS. 9/ 

ment, that draft should be made from the enrolled militia 
of the first class, and fifty per centum in addition to the 
quota called for should be drafted to cover exemptions. 
The enrollment for this (the Third) District, showed that 
there were in First Class, 7,848 ; Second Class, 4,052 ; 
Third Class, 3,763 ; total, 15,663. Captain I. H. Bromley 
was appointed Provost-marshal. The enrolling officers 
under him, for Norwich, were Benjamin M. Leavens and 
Joseph T. Thurston. The quota of the State was fixed at 
seven thousand six hundred and ninety-two (7,692), the 
total number to be drafted (being the quota and an addi- 
tional fifty per centum), eleven thousand five hundred and 
thirty-nine (11,539). The quota of the District was fifteen 
hundred and sixty-nine, which, with addition prescribed, 
amounted to two thousand three hundred and fifty-four. 
There was great opposition to the draft in many parts of 
the country, culminating in terrible mobs in New York, 
Boston, and other cities. 

The riot in New York was one of unprecedented bold- 
ness and barbarity, and raged from July thirteenth through 
the three succeeding days. The most revolting feature was 
the uniform maltreatment to which the harmless, affrighted 
colored people of the city were subjected. This outburst 
of ruffianism, thoroughly wicked and unjustifiable, origi- 
nated in the sympathy there was with the rebels, and was 
aided by the public utterances of men of doubtful loyalty, 
" who detested every form of coercion, save the coercion of 
the Republic by the rebels." The rioters were effectually 
put down, when the absent troops could be called in, and 
the blandly saluted " friends " of Governor Seymour were 
taught, to their bitter cost, that the government was not to 
be obstructed in the measures it legally adopted for the sup- 
pression of the rebellion. There were threats of similar vio- 
lence in Connecticut, and secret meetings of the so-called 



98 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

" peace men " were held in various parts of the State. It 
was widely declared that they were organizing to resist what 
they called " conscription," and that an assault would be 
made upon the Provost-marshals' offices for the purpose of 
destroying the boxes, and preventing the draft. Governor 
Buckingham, however, showed no disposition to deal leni- 
ently with these domestic traitors, and promptly called for 
two battalions of volunteer infantry. The immediate ap- 
pearance of these, with a determination to put down any 
form of opposition to the measures of the National Execu- 
tive, had a wholesome effect, and the rampant peace men 
became quiescent. Norwich maintained its loyalty by mani- 
festing a desire to help on rather than retard the execution of 
the law. And yet there were signs of opposition, and secret 
threats of violence, that led many of our citizens to appre- 
hend trouble. On the day fixed for the drafting to take 
place, a vague undefined fear seemed to pervade the com- 
munity, without any very clear grounds for it. Some of our 
people went to the meeting prepared for an outbreak ; but 
fortunately for the good name of the town, and to the honor 
of the citizens, there was not the slightest indication of dis- 
order, nor any appearance of violent opposition to those 
who had the matter of drafting in charge. The utmost good- 
nature prevailed, and the factiously disposed, if there were 
any, submitted with excellent grace, and belied not the name 
of " peace-men," by which they were generally called. The 
drafted took their lot with cheerfulness, and those who es- ' 
caped were congratulated on the propitious fate which spared 
them the hardships of compulsory soldiering, or its expensive 
equivalents. Undoubtedly there was in our town, as more 
or less throughout the State, a bitter feeling of opposition 
to the " Conscription Act ; " but with us it had little influ- 
ence or character. 

Here, as elsewhere, this latent hostility to the means 



LOYAL LEAGUE ORGANIZED. 



99 



necessarily resorted to in order to put down the rebellion, 
led the most earnest and patriotic of our citizens to form a 
branch " Loyal League." A meeting was held in Treadway 
Hall, March twenty-seventh, to organize, and there it was 
voted to accept the pledge which had been adopted in the 
" League " at New York. The primary object of this asso- 
ciation was to " bind together all loyal men of all trades and 
professions, in common union, to maintain the power, glory, 
and integrity of the nation." P. St. M. Andrews was chosen 
president, with a long list of vice-presidents, comprising 
most of our leading men ; corresponding secretary, H. H. 
Starkweather ; recording secretaries, John A. Sterry, Geo. 
H. Rogers, Chas. E. Dyer ; executive committee, J. Lloyd 
Greene, John L. Devotion, Benj. B. Whittemore, Amos W. 
Prentice, John W. Allen, H. H. Osgood, John A. Sterry. 
The meeting then listened to addresses, by which the flow 
of patriotic sentiment was kept up till a late hour. General 
Nye, of Nevada, being the chief speaker. Thus was started 
in Norwich the " League," which throughout the country 
held in unswerving alliance the loyal masses, and assured 
the government of the reliable support of the ablest of its 
citizens. It only imparted a new flavor to the interest and 
enthusiasm of this meeting, that another of a totally oppo- 
site character was in session at the same time in Breed 
Hall, where the advocates of a treacherous and dishonorable 
peace held forth, and boldly proclaimed that " it was time 
to sheathe the sword." The contrast, now that the two 
gatherings stand side by side in history, is one which has 
lost none of its suggestiveness ; the latter remains rather 
as one of those war pictures, in which men are presented in 
an attitude that now appears far from creditable to their 
good judgment or their patriotism. The figure such make 
in the history of our commonwealth is one that posterity, 
grateful to those who were loyal from the beginning to the 



100 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

end of our conflict, might for their sakes wish altered. The 
Benedict Arnold school of men failed not during our war to 
make almost as unfortunate exhibit, as did their more noted 
progenitors in our earlier struggle for national independence. 
The result of the draft in this District was as follows : — 

Drafted men accepted . . . .46 

Substitutes accepted .... 346 

Paid commutation ..... 232 
Exempted for various reasons . . 1,463 

Failed to report . . . . .267 



Total, .... 2,354 

In Norwich, four hundred and thirty-five were drafted, 
including a fair proportion of our most prominent and pa- 
triotic citizens. On Laurel Hill, fifteen were drafted out of 
an enrollment of but twenty-one. Most of those drafted, 
however, either were exempted, or else paid commutation, 
or provided substitutes, so that very few of them were per- 
sonally held to service. 

On October seventeenth, the President called for an an- 
ditional force of three hundred thousand men, to serve for 
three years, or the war. The Legislature had just added 
three hundred dollars to the large bounty offered by the 
National Government, making such inducements for volun- 
teering as were never held out by any nation before. The 
State was called on to furnish five thousand four hundred 
and thirty-two volunteers before the fifth day of January, or 
else be subjected to a draft for nearly twice that number. 
The quota of Norwich was two hundred and six. Our citi- 
zens now roused themselves to secure the requisite number 
of recruits, and going to work with a will, they soon found 
that their efforts could be made successful. In spite of a 
driving rain-storm, a war-meeting was held in Breed Hall, 



I 




u 



H- 



GREAT DISTRICT WAR-MEETING. lOI 

Tuesday morning, November seventeenth, which was fully 
attended. Hon. David Gallup, of Plainfield, was chosen 
chairman, who made a brief statement of the objects of the 
meeting, and urged the prompt and wise devising of meas- 
ures likely to insure the filling up of the quota of the dis- 
trict, which was eleven hundred and three. Hon. J. T. Wait 
then addressed the assembly with much earnestness, allud- 
ing to the fact, that " the exigencies of the case admitted of 
but two alternatives. Men must either come forward and 
enlist, or we must inevitably submit to a draft for double the 
number asked for by volunteering. When we consider our 
wealth and our teeming millions of population in compari- 
son with the resources of our fathers, we ought to humble 
ourselves in the dust, if we cannot come forward and fully 
respond to the demands of the country." H. H. Stark- 
weather favored a plan by which a uniform system of re- 
cruiting might be established in all the towns of the district. 
Hon. Augustus Brandagee spoke with great warmth, enu- 
merating what Connecticut had done hitherto, and urging 
increased energy and sacrifice, now that the power of the 
rebellion was evidently waning. 

Governor Buckingham spoke of the industry and dili- 
gence that would be necessary in all parts of the State if 
we wished to raise the requisite number of men, and stated 
that on the previous day he had received authority from the 
War Department to organize a regiment of colored infantry. 
The meeting adjourned for an afternoon session in the Town 
Hall, where, after stirring addresses, a county committee 
was appointed, with Hon. J. T. Wait at its head, " whose 
duty it should be to call one or more district mass meetings, 
and to take such other means, as a district committee, as 
may raise volunteers to be credited to the district." Every 
inducement in the way of bounties by the general govern- 
ment, State, and town was offered to secure enHstments. 



102 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

The United States bounty amounted to three hundred and 
two dollars, that of the State was three hundred, while a 
veteran recruit received an additional offer of one hundred 
dollars from the general government. This made the sol- 
diers' wages under this last call, equal to the best received 
in any branch of mechanical industry. 

A second war-meeting for the county was held December 
ninth, in Breed Hall, and continued through the afternoon 
and evening — Governor Buckingham presiding. Thus far 
recruiting had met with indifferent success. There seemed 
to be no lack of determination as to vigorously prosecuting 
the war, but the men needed for military service could not 
now be so easily found. Norwich was beginning to experi- 
ence the effect of her prompt contributions of volunteers 
hitherto made, while those who had not as yet offered their 
services, could with difficulty be spared from the positions 
they occupied. The war spirit of the town, however, was 
only the more thoroughly awakened, when confronted with 
this state of things. The enthusiasm produced by the turn- 
ing victories of the war which had occurred in mid-summer, 
had not spent itself All deemed it unwise to falter, now 
that the army of the Potomac had defeated Lee, and on the 
bloody field of Gettysburg proved its patient, indomitable 
prowess. General Grant's victory at Vicksburg, and the 
surrender of Port Hudson to General Banks' command, had 
put new heart and hope into the people, and made the pros- 
pects of final triumph sure. And yet, it will be recalled 
by many, how the work of recruiting dragged in the au- 
tumn days of this year of great Union victories. The 
novelty and romance of the war had disappeared. The 
people were impatient to have it ended, and in New Eng- 
land towns the best and most available material was already 
in the service. 

There was a commendable zeal displayed to avoid another 



SUCCESS OF THE RECRUITING COMMITTEES. IO3 



draft, and to raise the town's quota in the more honorable 
and satisfactory way. 

The selectmen and recruiting committees were cordially 
supported by the citizens in their efforts to raise the required 
enlistments. The result was in the end most creditable to 
the patriotism of Norwich, for not only was its quota of 
two hundred and six men filled up, but fifty-four additional 
recruits were secured, to apply on any subsequent call which 
the necessities of the military service might make impera- 
tive. The cost to the town of these recruits was twenty- 
three thousand one hundred dollars ($23,100). At the 
town meeting, January tw^enty-sixth, 1864, to which this 
report was rendered, provision was made for the enlistment 
of yet additional men, the feeling being wellnigh unani- 
mous that Norwich must be kept in advance of her assigned 
quotas, and be thus prepared for any further demand for 
troops the authorities at Washington might make. At the 
close of the year 1863, Connecticut had furnished for the 
army in the field twenty-six thousand and twenty-eight 
(26,028) men. Of these, twenty thousand four hundred and 
twenty-six were for three years' service, or the war ; five 
thousand six hundred and two for nine months' service, and 
twenty-three hundred and forty for three months' service. 
Every demand on the State for troops had been responded 
to with alacrity, and there was a surplus to its credit over 
all calls thus far made. In this particular, Norwich main- 
tained her leading position, and her war-record up to this 
time reflected the highest honor upon those who had gone 
forth in her name. 

The Governor, in his message to the legislature at its 
special session in the fall of this year, thus summed up the 
situation of public affairs : " There are reasons why we 
should entertain high hope for the future. The proof of the 
diminished resources and power of our enemies ; the reason- 



104 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

able success which has followed the advance of our armies ; 
the highly prosperous condition of our national finances, 
hitherto unparalleled in the history of any people engaged 
in a protracted war ; the more just appreciation of our 
struggle by enlightened foreign powers, and their greater 
readiness to acquiesce in our right to settle internal differ- 
ences without their intervention ; the recent clear manifes- 
tations of public sentiment against a peace, which shall 
recognize rights forfeited by perfidy and rebellion ; the 
conviction deepening in the minds of all classes of intelli- 
gent, philanthropic, and religious men, that we are not only 
gaining strength and permanency to our government, but 
that the treachery of its professed friends has become 
the divinely-appointed means of promoting the cause of 
humanity, and the universal triumph of right and jus- 
tice ; — all these indications unite in urging us to renewed 
exertions to sustain the government, and inspire us with 
universal hope and confidence that we shall yet witness 
the execution of righteous laws over a united people 
throughout our undivided territory." On the whole there 
had been a steady gain made through this year. The 
Union armies, in the East and West, had achieved some 
signal victories ; the popular elections during the fall were 
an overwhelming rebuke to the disloyal factions in the 
North, that had sought to embarrass the government. In 
our own State, Governor Buckingham had been reelected by 
a vote decisive enough to silence the peace-party, which made 
the rallying cry of their campaign, " No more war." The 
soldiers in the field sent in their earnest and emphatic pro- 
tests against yielding the State to the control of those " for 
whom they could have only unmitigated scorn and con- 
tempt." It was apparent that public opinion had grown to 
the full stature of the proclamation of freedom, and had ac- 
cepted the fact that slavery must die, and the Union be 



REBEL VIEWS OF THE SITUATION. 



105 



maintained by the stern overthrow of all the forcible resist- 
ance which had organized itself into this obstinate rebellion. 

The " Richmond Examiner," of the date of December 
thirty-first, 1863, furnishes us the out-look presented to the 
rebels at this period. " To-day closes the gloomiest year 
of our struggle. No sanguine hope of intervention buoys 
up the spirit of the Confederate public as at the end of 
1 86 1. No brilliant victory like that of Fredericksburg en- 
courages us to look forward to a speedy and successful ter- 
mination of the war, as in the last weeks of 1862 

The Confederacy has been cut in twain along the line of the 
Mississippi, and our enemies are steadily pushing forward 
their plans for bisecting the eastern moiety. No wonder, 
then, that the annual advent of the reign of mud is hailed 
by all classes with a sense of relief, — by those who think 
and feel aright, as a precious season to prepare for trying 
another fall with our potent adversary." While the rebels 
were thus quietly established in the welcome mud-state, the 
ever-memorable year departed, carrying with it, for us, the 
record, not only of splendid victories, but of the grand rati- 
fication, and support by the people, of the edict of eman- 
cipation. While our foes bewailed their condition, and 
sought to be penitent " for sins which had occasioned 
their disasters," the North stood erect, hopeful, the ban- 
ners of its advancing armies carrying, not only the su- 
premacy of law, but liberty to the bondsmen. With the 
suppression of rebellion, now felt by all to be a certain 
thing, was to disappear the last vestige of our national dis- 
grace — American slavery. For us the year left only noblest 
memories, and " the advent of the reign of mud " was 
turned to good account by our forces, as they awaited the 
opening of the next campaign, flushed with victory, and full 
of confidence. 

The enrollment act, which had aroused so much opposi- 



I06 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

tion, and furnished the grand theme for all disloyal orators 
throughout the North, was not unproductive of good results. 
According to the report of the Secretary of War, rendered 
to Congress in December, " the law has been enforced in 
twelve States, yielding fifty thousand soldiers, and ten mill- 
ions of dollars for procuring substitutes." As the result 
of the President's emancipation edict, " over fifty thousand 
colored men (in the Gulf Department), are now organized, 
and the number will rapidly increase as our armies advance. 
The freed slaves make good soldiers, are excellently dis- 
ciplined, and full of courage." 

The President concluded his annual message to Congress 
in December, with these words : " Our chiefest care must 
still be directed to the army and navy, who have thus far 
borne their hard parts so nobly and so well. And it may 
be esteemed fortunate that in giving the greatest efficiency 
to these indispensable arms, we do also honorably recognize 
the gallant men, from commander to sentinel, who compose 
them, and to whom, more than to others, the world must be 
indebted for the home of freedom disenthralled, regenerated, 
enlarged, and perpetuated." 

The nation joined with him in this deserved tribute to 
the men, whose courageous achievements had made the 
year one of progress, and had gathered about its close 
omens that put all in good heart, as they faced the duties 
and campaigns of the next (the fourth) year of the war. 



VII. 



1864. 



' Work, patriots, for the Union, 

Till the hour of triumph comes ! 
When the lusty shouts of victory 

Mingle with rolls of drums ; 
Till the shadowy clouds of Treason 

Have floated fore'er away, 
And the sunrise beams of hope and peace 

Tell of a brighter day." 

HOWELLS. 



THE year 1864 opened full of promise. Every indica- 
tion from the South pointed to a vigorous, desperate 
effort on the part of the rebel leaders to make amends for 
their recent disasters. The latter sought to bolster up their 
courage by anticipating the reduction of our armies, through 
the departure of veteran troops, whose term of service would 
soon expire. This idea was sedulously spread abroad by 
the rebel press, and it operated for a while as a stimulant of 
hope, and was one of the means employed to keep up the 
courage and confidence of the Southern people. The " Wil- 
mington Journal " expressed the belief of the Confederate 
generals, when saying, " there is a feeling abroad in the 
land, that the great crisis of the war, the turning point in 
our fate, is fast approaching." The measures introduced 
and the laws passed by the Confederate Congress indicated 
the extremity to which they were reduced. 

In January of this year the Congress at Richmond 



io8 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



enacted a law, that each person exempted from the draft 
should devote himself, and the labor he controlled, to the 
production of provisions and supplies. These last it re- 
quired to be contributed for the use of the army, and be- 
sides the tithes called for by law, an additional tenth of all 
the bacon and pork produced was demanded. The sale of 
all these supplies for the army and families of soldiers, was 
provided for at designated prices by their Congress. 

Up to about this period, no attempt had been made to 
organize colored persons in regiments for military service. 
The conscription act had done much to abolish those bar- 
riers of caste which had hitherto stood in the way of the 
government's calling on this loyal element of our population 
to serve in the army. Yet, in May, 1863, when application 
was made to the Chief of Police in New York for escort 
and protection for the Fifty-fourth Regiment colored volun- 
teers of Massachusetts, in marching through Broadway, he 
responded, that they could not be protected from insult and 
probable assault. In less, however, than a year afterward, 
two New York Regiments of colored men, raised mainly 
through the efforts of the Loyal League, marched proudly 
down this same street amid the cheers of thousands of ap- 
plauding citizens, and of all who witnessed their departure, 
not one ventured the insult of even a hiss. 

At the special session of the Connecticut Legislature in 
November, 1863, a bill was passed for the enlistment and 
organization of colored volunteers. Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island had already led off in this direction, and now 
our own somewhat cautious, conservative State followed. 
The bill was bitterly denounced " as the greatest monstros- 
ity ever introduced into Connecticut ; " as a provision " to 
let loose upon the helpless South a horde of African bar- 
barians." The adjectives, however, of these excited oppo- 
nents made little impression, and the bill passed in the 



CALL FOR COLORED VOLUNTEERS. 



109 



lower House by a vote of one hundred and twenty to 
seventy-one ; in the Senate, by a vote of fifteen to five. 

This aW showed the advance of pubhc opinion, and relief 
was experienced, doubtless, by many nervous persons, when 
it was found that the world stood firm, even after these un- 
precedented and radical measures had been resorted to in 
this State, which rather bore the palm of being the steadiest 
in the " land of steady habits." 

Governor Buckingham at once issued his call for colored 
volunteers for the Twenty-ninth Regiment, to serve for two 
years, or less. The bounty offered was six hundred dollars, 
and the pay and uniform the same as that of other soldiers. 
Each one of these items had been fought over in Congress, 
and our own General Assembly, and it was only after long 
and earnest discussion, to which the logic of events sup- 
plied some very convincing points, that a colored soldier 
was put on a par with any other, and treated as a citizen, 
and respected for his patriotism — a patriotism which in 
the service he was now invited to enter, exposed him to far 
greater risks and sufferings than it did his more favored 
brothers in arms. Candidates for commissions in this regi- 
ment were required to pass a severe examination before a 
board appointed by the War Department. 

Norwich was represented in this regiment by David Tor- 
rance, Captain Company A, afterwards Lieutenant-colonel, 
and M. L. Leonard, First Lieutenant ; E. P. Rogers, First 
Lieutenant Company F ; C. H. Carpenter, First Lieutenant 
Company K, and not far from twenty privates. The regi- 
ment first joined the Ninth Army Corps, proceeding to 
Hilton Head and Beaufort, S. C. ; thence was ordered North 
into the Tenth Corps. 

The regiment was put into the trenches in front of Peters- 
burg, where it continued for a month, doing hard service, 
when ordered to the rear only for rest, and the replenishing 



I lO THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

of its wardrobe. After a few days' quiet, it was again in 
motion, and was engaged in reconnoisances and skirmishes 
until November nineteenth, when it was station^:! for gar- 
rison duty in certain detached forts on the New Market 
road, which were considered of great importance. In 
March, 1865, the Twenty-ninth was ordered to Fort Harri- 
son, and appointed to watch the enemy's movements in its 
immediate front. On Saturday, April second, it witnessed 
the last rebel parade, and early the next day led in the ad- 
vance on Richmond, Companies G and C, without doubt, 
entering the city before any other Union troops. The ser- 
vice it was from the first called to render was a tribute to 
its valor and efficiency. 

Lieutenant-colonel Torrance, who was himself a capable 
and bold officer, has set forth in his report some of the trials 
of the regiment, wherein he claims for it the highest merit. 
" The poor rights of a soldier were denied to its members. 
Their actions were narrowly watched, and the slightest 
faults severely commented upon. In spite of all this, the 
negro soldier fought willingly and bravely; and with his rifle 
alone he has vindicated his manhood, and stands to-day as 
second in bravery to none." Such were the words in which 
Colonel Torrance bore his testimony to what he knew from 
his own experience. 

In the Thirtieth Regiment, also colored volunteers, Nor- 
wich had as officers. First Lieutenants, Albert Latham, 
George Greenman (afterwards promoted Captain), De Laroo 
Wilson, Quartermaster, and about thirty privates. It was 
never filled to its maximum, four companies only being com- 
pleted and organized. These were finally consolidated into 
the Thirty-first U. S. C. T. The regiment had a good 
record, and served with credit in many a hard engage- 
ment. 



CORPS D'AFRIQUE. GRANT'S NEW COMMISSION. Ill 

General Banks had, prior to this time, directed the re- 
cruitment of a Corps d'Afrique in his department, which 
was the earhest successful effort of the kind. In the First 
Regiment of this corps, Norwich had George R. Case, who 
was commissioned as Lieutenant, and rose to be Captain. 
He is said to have been the first Northern man to accept 
position as a line officer in a colored regiment. C. W. Con- 
verse was commissioned as Lieutenant in the Third Regi- 
ment of the same corps, and B. B. Blackman and Jesse 
Wilkinson were appointed to a Captaincy in the Forty-third 
Regiment U. S. C. T. 

On the first of February of this year, the President mod- 
ified his call of October, 1863, increasing the number of 
men asked for from three hundred thousand to five hundred 
thousand. The quota of the district was eighteen hundred 
and forty-three men ; that of the town three hundred and 
twenty-nine. The latter, through surplus enlistments al- 
ready credited, had but comparatively few more to furnish, 
and promptly met tljis apportionment. 

On March ninth. President Lincoln presented to General 
Grant his commission as Lieutenant-general. The cere- 
mony took place in the Cabinet Chamber, in the presence 
of many distinguished personages. On General Grant's 
entrance into the room, Mr. Lincoln rose and addressed 
him thus : — 

" General Grant : The nation's appreciation of what you have 
done, and its reliance upon you for what there remains to do in 
the existing great struggle, are now presented with this commis- 
sion of a Lieutenant-general in the Army of the United States. 
With this high honor devolves upon you also a corresponding re- 
sponsibility. As the country herein trusts you, so under God it 
will sustain you. I scarcely need to add^ that with what I have 
spoken for the nation goes my own hearty personal concurrence." 



112 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

To which General Grant responded : — 

''Mr. Pre-Sident : I accept this high commission with gratitude 
for the high honor conferred. With the aid of the noble armies 
that have fought on so many fields for our common country, it 
will be my earnest endeavor not to disappoint your expectations. 
I feel the full weight of the responsibilities now devolving on me, 
and 1 know that if they are met, it will be due to those armies, 
and above all, to the favor of that Providence which leads both 
nations and men." 

This appointment was made in accordance with an act of 
Congress creating the office of Lieutenant-general, and cor- 
dially approved by President Lincoln, he nominating Gen- 
eral Grant for the position, and the Senate promptly con- 
firming the nomination. On March seventeenth. General 
Grant assumed command of the Armies of the United 
States, and after a brief time spent in massing his troops, 
appointing new army corps commanders, the long-antici- 
pated spring campaign opened. Henceforth there was unity 
of purpose, each army cooperating and acting under one 
supreme far-seeing leader, and among the tried and devoted 
generals under Grant, there were no rivalries or mean 
jealousies. " Where the first blow will fall," said the 
" Richmond Examiner," " when the two armies of North- 
ern Virginia will meet each other face to face ; how Grant 
will try to hold his own against the master-spirit Lee, we 
cannot even surmise." The fighting was of unparalleled 
severity, and our advance was against great odds, but re- 
sistless. 

On July eighteenth, Mr. Lincoln issued his proclamation 
for five hundred thousand more troops. The general ad- 
vance of all our armies, and the sanguinary campaign which 
General Grant had opened, and was pushing with such a 
steady resistless determination, made it imperative on the 



THE WILDERNESS BATTLES. NEW CALL FOR TROOPS. I I 3 

government to keep the ranks full. The last grapple with 
the forces of rebellion had begun, and on the part of the 
new Commanding General there was an inflexible purpose 
to fight it through on the line on which he had begun. The 
call for troops was felt by all to be warranted by the military 
situation, and the public mind shared in the excitement 
which the splendid fighting along our eastern battle front 
had occasioned. Those wilderness engagements, among the 
most terrific and deadly struggles in the history of warfare, 
had stirred the whole nation. The stubborn strength of 
the Confederacy never showed itself so impressively as when 
it slowly gave way before the persistent onset of the reen- 
forced Potomac Army hurled with crushing power upon the 
rebel force under Lee. 

The quota of the district under this last call was sixteen 
hundred and one, and that of the town two hundred and 
seventy-three. At a town meeting held August twenty- 
third, it was unanimously voted — 

" That the Selectmen of this town be and they are hereby au- 
thorized and instructed to employ persons to aid them in filling 
the quota of this town, under the last call of the President for 
volunteers, and to draw orders on the town treasurer for the pay- 
ment of expenses." 

The resurrection of the peace-men, and the discussions 
their plans gave rise to, had affected Norwich but little. Our 
citizens were never to any large extent equivocal in their 
support of the government, and now that the sternest fight- 
ing of the war was going on, they took hold heartily to see 
that the demands upon the town, in the way of recruits for 
the advancing armies, were complied with. 

Norwich again succeeded in raising the quota, and the 
draft, which was to be the alternative, was made unneces- 
sary. The assignment to the entire State was more than 



114 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

met, SO that there was a credit to the latter large enough to 
release from any apportionment under the final call for three 
hundred thousand troops. It is but just to say that a large 
number of the substitutes furnished by those liable to be 
drafted, were not Connecticut residents, so that the disgrace 
attaching to the conduct of many of them does not belong 
to citizens of the State. The inducements held out for sub- 
stitutes created a professional class under that name ; who, 
attracted by the bounties, found their way into Connecticut, 
and were mustered into service from the State, reflecting, 
in many instances, by their cowardice and unmilitary bear- 
ing, anything but honor on the Commonwealth. 

How far Norwich was open to the impeachment of being 
affected by " the reckless quota-filling madness " that had 
become so rife, can hardly be determined. Her Selectmen 
and War Committee sought to secure only worthy men, 
and few, if any, conspicuous instances of their furnish- 
ing any others are now on record. The Provost-mar- 
shal, Captain I. H. Bromley, and his successor, Captain 
Theodore C. Kibbe, both did what they could to keep up 
the morale of the latest recruits provided by the town. The 
former, on resigning his office, hinted, in his characteristic 
vein, at some of the perplexities of the position, in the fol- 
lowing pithy lines : " The retiring officer has had the satis- 
faction of knowing, that in the discharge of duties eminently 
calculated to ' make everybody hate you,' he has met with 
the most cheering success. Without a pang of regret, he 
bids an official but affectionate adieu to the gentlemanly 
substitute-brokers, who have always ' two or three first-rate 
men, of good moral character,' they want to get in ; to the 
patriotic selectmen and town agents, who would ' like to 
look over the lists, to see if James Henry Alexander's name 
is down ; ' to the short-haired substitutes with a complica- 
tion of diseases, ' who swear they are tough enough to stand 



EXTENSION OF ELECTIVE FRANCHISE TO SOLDIERS. 115 

marching and fighting ; ' to the timid young gentlemen 
from the rural districts, who have ' the rheumatism very bad in 
wet weather,' and have never been well since the war broke 
out ; to the anxious parties who have for the past three or 
four weeks waylaid him in the streets, and opened their at- 
tack with a dreadful series of ' sposens ; ' to the aliens from 
Ireland, and the aliens from Germany, and the aliens who 
would be willing to swear they were aliens ; to the mild- 
mannered men who ' couldn't understand it ; ' and those 
rough-spoken people ' who knew all about it ; ' to those, and 
to all of them, he bids a fond and affectionate farewell. He 
presumes they are all pleased with the change. He cer- 
tainly is." 

In the spring session of the General Assembly, the con- 
stitutional amendment providing for the extension of the 
elective franchise to the soldiers was passed. The amend- 
ment was in August following submitted to popular vote, 
and ratified by a large majority. New London County en- 
dorsed the measure by the emphatic vote of twenty-eight 
hundred and eight, to eleven hundred and eight, and the 
town vote of Norwich was equally pronounced in favor of 
this just and patriotic measure, standing seven hundred and 
fifty-three, to one hundred and fifty-six. Governor Buck- 
ingham had tersely presented the subject in his message, 
declaring, " that freemen who sustain and protect a govern- 
ment, by baring their bosoms to the deadly shafts of its 
enemies, should have an opportunity to express an opinion 
in respect to its policy, and the character and qualifications 
of its officers." Of course, a bitter opposition was made to 
the project, and all sorts of direful calamities prophesied in 
consequence of allowing the soldiers the right of suffrage. 
It was well added by one of the newspapers of the State, 
" Perhaps we are prejudiced, but it seems to us that a man 
who does nothing worse than shed his blood for the old flag. 



ii6 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



ought not, for so small an offense as that, to be disfranchised 
like a common thief" 

To the excitement which had been produced by the un- 
paralleled fighting kept up with a coolness and nerve which 
showed that a man of iron will was in command, was now 
superadded that occasioned by a vigorous and unusually 
bitter election campaign. Americans seem unable to live 
without the spice and venom of an occasional political con- 
test, in which men turn into pepper-cruets, and the whole 
country becomes involved in a sort of domestic wrangle. 
To have one precipitated on the country at this juncture of 
affairs, was extremely unfortunate. There was little time 
or strength that could be spared for the ordinary tactics of 
such an important political election, as this one approaching 
undoubtedly was. Still the gravity of the interests involved 
made it necessary to act with wisdom and firmness, and 
the re-appearance of the, to loyal citizens, ever-provoking 
" peace-men," put a new earnestness into those who had at 
heart the success of the government in its yet pending 
conflict. 

Fortunately all the attempted peace projects proved abor- 
tive, and the battle at the polls was decisively fought out 
in November of this year, resulting in the overwhelming re- 
election of Mr. Lincoln. Norwich stood true to the Union 
cause, giving a majority of nearly three hundred. 

The President, in his message to the thirty-eighth Con- 
gress, alluded in these words to the issues thus settled by 
the suffrages of the people : " Judging by the recent can- 
vass and its result, the purpose of the people within the 
loyal States to maintain the integrity of the Union, was 
never more firm, nor more nearly unanimous than now. 
The extraordinary calmness and good order with which the 
millions of voters met, and mingled at the polls, give strong 
assurance of this. Not only all those who supported the 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. HJ 

Union ticket, so called, but a great majority of the opposing 
party also, may be fairly claimed to entertain, and to be ac- 
tuated by, the same purpose. It is an unanswerable argu- 
ment to this effect, that no candidate for any office whatever, 
high or low, has ventured to seek votes on the avowal that 
he was for giving up the Union. There have been much 
impugning of motives, and much heated controversy as to 
the proper means and best mode of advancing the Union 
cause ; but, on the distinct issue of Union or no Union, the 
politicians have shown their instinctive knowledge that 
there is no diversity among the people. In affording the 
people the fair opportunity of showing to one another, and 
to the world, this firmness, and unanimity of purpose, the 
election has been of vast value to the national cause." 

Throughout the canvass Mr. Lincoln had sought to dis- 
guise not the fact that the war was for Liberty and Union. At 
this time he stated there were nearly two hundred thousand 
colored men under arms. " There are men base enough 
to propose to me to return to slavery our black warriors of 
Port Hudson and Olustee. Should I do so," said he, with 
indignation glowing in every feature of his sad resolute face, 
" I should deserve to be damned in time and eternity. 
Come what may, I will keep faith with the black man." 

We have spoken of the encouragement the rebels took 
in looking forward to this year's campaign, founded on the 
anticipated depletion of our armies through the expiration 
of the term of service for which large numbers were en- 
listed. This was holding Northern patriotism at a low rate, 
and miscalculated the purpose of these very soldiers to " see 
the war through." Provost-marshal-general Fry returned 
figures that must have surprised those who had thus pre- 
dicted a thinning out of our ranks. From May first, 1863, 
to January first, 1864, according to his report, our army was 
reenforced with forty thousand men from the draft. Up to 



ii8 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



February of this year, two hundred and sixty-eight thousand 
volunteers were enlisted, one hundred thousand veterans re- 
enlisted, and twenty-five thousand men organized into an 
invalid corps, releasing that number of able-bodied men 
from camp and garrison duty, for the more iriiportant ser- 
vice in the field. 

The veteran reenlistments, which kept up the strength 
and character of the Connecticut Regiments in the field, 
amounted during the year to three thousand six hundred 
and forty-seven. These were secured through recruiting 
agents sent to the various organizations, with authority to 
offer the veteran's bounty of seven hundred and two dol- 
lars, and a furlough. The continuance in the ranks of those 
who had come to understand somewhat of the art of war, 
was a proof of their patriotism, adding immensely to the 
effectiveness of the forces in the service of the government. 
The regiments in this way kept up the high repute which 
had gained for them a particular celebrity, and made them 
justly proud of the position they had attained. Colonel 
Selden and Captain Gallup were detailed by the Governor 
to visit the Connecticut Regiments in and about New Or- 
leans for this purpose, where they succeeded in reenlisting 
a large proportion of those hitherto connected with them. 

On the return of these veteran regiments to the State for 
their promised furlough, they were received with overwhelm- 
ing demonstrations of rejoicing and affection. Public re- 
ceptions were awarded them, and welcoming addresses from 
prominent citizens, only voiced the popular admiration for 
these heroes of many a hard fought fight. They were 
greeted with an enthusiasm, which the fact that they were 
home for a brief respite, only served to deepen. Our people 
had become accustomed to exhibitions of popular feeling on 
witnessing departing regiments ; but it was a new expe- 
rience this of welcomins; home those whose tattered ban- 



RECEPTION OF FURLOUGHED REGIMENTS. 



119 



ners and bronzed faces told the pathetic story of their suf- 
ferings and achievements. 

" I saw the soldiers come to-day 

From battle-fields afar ; 
No conqueror rode before their way 

On his triumphal car ; 
But captains like themselves on foot, 

And banners sadly torn ; 
All grandly eloquent, though mute, 

In pride and glory borne." 



The Governor, in paying a well-deserved tribute to the 
veterans of the renowned Thirteenth, gave expression to 
the feelings of all patriot hearts, when he said, " Let me tell 
you that so long as this heart beats, it will beat with love 
and gratitude for the men who have offered themselves as a 
bulwark to the nation. We know the dangers which you 
have braved have not dampened your ardor, nor quenched 
your patriotism Those at home appreciate your ser- 
vices and your devotion." There was something truly grand 
in the popular enthusiasm these regiments awakened in the 
people, and on returning to take part in what was felt to be 
the death-grapple with the rebellion, they were strengthened 
anew for their sacrificial service by the benediction of their 
fellow-citizens, and the grasp of loving hands. 

Norwich had a share in the welcome extended to these 
furloughed regiments. On March twenty-ninth, the Eight- 
eenth, mustering about six hundred strong, under Major 
Peale, came home for a short visit. In consequence of de- 
lay at New York, it did not reach the city till near midnight, 
but even at that unseasonable hour was warmly received by 
the waiting crowd, and having been escorted to the hall, 
where a bountiful collation had been provided, was formally 
welcomed by Mayor Greene. The regiment had seen hard 
service, and borne with steadfast courage the reverses that 



I20 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

had attended our arms in the Shenandoah Valley. The 
casualties of battle had thinned its ranks, and many of its 
members were still in prison ; but this only added to the 
interest with which our citizens regarded the splendid regi- 
ment they had sent out amid such proud rejoicings, two 
years before. The city had watched with deepest solicitude 
its varying fortunes, and when it took its departure for the 
field again, it was greeted with every expression of the 
people's good-will. Halting before the residence of the 
Governor, the latter made a short address, congratulating 
Major Peale on the good service which the regiment had 
rendered while under his command, and expressing the 
hope that the imprisoned officers might soon rejoin their 
comrades, and share in the conflicts that awaited them. 

Norwich had given to the war its best blood, and while 
many a brave citizen was brought back for the last rites of 
sepulture, this was the only returning regiment it had been 
permitted publicly to welcome. It was with special grati- 
tude too, and joy, that it greeted the return of many officers 
and privates, who held honored positions in the veteran 
regiments Hartford and New Haven had publicly received. 
All our citizens could join in the words addressed by one 
of the speakers to these furloughed veterans : " We hoped 
for great things from you, and I proclaim before you, that 
our hopes have not been disappointed. We are proud of 
you." 

The year closed with a most decided gain on the part of 
the Union Armies. Grant's campaign had been the most 
sanguinary of any thus far, but it had accomplished in the 
main his end. He aimed to overpower and crush by sheer 
force the rebel army, and he had effectually done it. He 
had forced it back, at great cost of life 'tis true, and made 
it take the position of an army defending the rebel capital. 
The power of the Confederates never received such damag- 



RESULTS OF THE YEAR'S CAMPAIGN. 121 

ing blows, as in this campaign, which began on the Rapi- 
dan, and ended in front of Petersburg, and across the 
Weldon Railroad. 

Some idea of what our armies accomplished in the last 
ten months of the campaign, will throw some light on the 
losses of the rebels : — 

Guns captured, three hundred and fifty-four. 

Total number of prisoners taken, forty-four thousand nine 
hundred and seventy-three. 

Rebel generals put hors du combat, twenty-five, not in- 
cluding those wounded in connection with Lee's army. 

" Our late reverses have done much towards preparing 
our people for extreme sacrifices," said the " Richmond 
Sentinel," indicating the despair that had settled upon the 
Confederate leaders. At the close of 1864, there was no 
longer any doubt of the speedy and successful issue of the 
war. The year had been one of hard fighting, but of great 
material successes. Norwich had lost some brave oflficers 
in the Virginia campaign, and the regiments of the State 
had held advanced positions in the Potomac Army, suffer- 
ing in consequence quite severely. The year, however, de- 
parted, leaving all full of hope, and the signs of the long 
prayed for termination seemed at hand. 



VIII. 

I86I-I865. 

THE whole number of men furnished by Connecticut 
during the war, for the service of the United States, 
for the several terms of service, of all arms, and inclusive of 
army and navy, was fifty-four thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-two. The following is the summary, according to 
careful count of the rosters of the various regiments and 
organizations, and represents the actual number of men in 
service from the State. 



Three MontJis Service. 
Three Regiments, Infantry, 

Nine MontJis Service. 



2,402 



137 



One (Third) Independent Battery, Light Artillery, 
Six Regiments Infantry (22d, 23d, 25th, 26th, 

27th, 28th), 5,602 

Three Years Service. 

One ( I St) Squadron of Cavalry, .... 166 

One ( I St) Regiment of Cavalry, .... 2,611 

Two (ist and 2d) Regiments Heavy Artillery, . 6,086 

Two (ist and 2d) Batteries, Light Artillery, . . 516 
Seventeen Regiments Infantry (5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 
9th, loth, nth, i2th, 13th, 14th, 15th, i6th, 

17th, 1 8th, 19th, 20th, 2 1st), .... 23,727 



CONNECTICUT'S CONTRIBUTION TO UNION ARMIES. 1 23 



Tivo Years Service, or less. 

Two Regiments Infantry, C. T. (29th and 30th), . 1,690 

Veterans. Reenlistment in the field, . . . 3,647 

Volunteer enlistments in the United States Navy, . 2,135 
Enlistments in United States Army and Veteran 

Reserve Corps, ...... 1,044 

Recruits obtained in Rebel States, . . . .1,156 

Substitutes, for enrolled men, not drafted, . . 3,849 

Substitutes, for drafted men (of draft of 1864), . 89 

Drafted men (by draft of 1864), . . . 15 

Total, 54.872 

Reducing the above credits to the standard of three years, 
the account of the State stands (taking Adjutant-general 
Morse's figures) thus, not including the three months' men. 



Nine Months' Men, 
One Year Men, 
Two Years' Men, 
Three Years' Men, 
Four Years' Men, 
Not known. 



5,602 

529 

25 

44,142 

26 

1,804 

Total, 



Equal to 



1,400 

176 

16 

44,142 

34 
1,804 

47.572 



Of the enlisted men connected with the various regi- 
ments and organizations, one thousand and eighty-four 
(1,084) were killed. ' Six hundred and eighty-three (683) 
died from wounds. Three thousand and eighty-nine (3,089) 
died from disease. Three hundred and eighty-nine (389) 
were reported as missing. Five thousand four hundred 
and fifty-one (5,451) were honorably discharged prior to the 
mustering of the regiments with which connected. Four 
thousand three hundred and sixty-one (4,361) were dis- 



124 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



charged for disability. Forty-nine were dishonorably dis- 
charged. Fourteen hundred and eighty-eight (1,488) were 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. Twenty-seven (27) 
were executed. Six thousand two hundred and eighty-one 
(6,281) deserted. Thirty-five (35) were drowned. Nineteen 
(19) were taken out of their regiments by civil authority. 
Fifty-six (56) were dropped from the rolls. From these 
statistics, it appears that one thousand three hundred and 
twenty-three (1,323) more men died of disease, than were 
killed or died from effects of wounds received. The whole 
number of commissioned officers furnished by Connecticut 
during the war was nineteen hundred and sixty-two (1,962), 
of whom, eighty-four (84) were killed, forty-two (42) died in 
consequence of wounds received while in the service, and 
seventy-nine (79) died from disease. 



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126 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Among the general officers furnished by Connecticut, 
numbering in all thirty, Lyon, Mansfield, and Sedgwick 
were killed on the field of battle. The aggregate loss to 
the State of commissioned officers is reckoned at two hun- 
dred and twenty-nine. 

The total number of men inclusive of unassigned recruits 
and substitutes, furnished by Norwich for the war, for the 
several lesser terms of service, of all arms, not counting 
those in the Navy or those enlisting in other States, was 
over thirteen hundred ; of these, one hundred and fifty-five 
(155) lost their lives, thirty-six (36) being killed in battle, 
one (i) was accidentally shot, thirty- one (31) died of wounds, 
and eighty-seven (87) of disease contracted while in ser- 
vice, of whom twenty-two (22) met death in rebel prisons. 

The whole number of commissioned officers furnished 
by Norwich was one hundred and fifty-five (155). This 
includes several who were natives of the town, but who, 
having removed to other parts of the country, received their 
appointments from other States, and also several officers in 
colored regiments, or in other general service, who were 
commissioned by the United States. The number credited 
to Norwich, and commissioned by the State, was about one 
hundred and sixteen (116), of whom thirteen (13) lost their 
lives, five (5) on the battle-field, five (5) died of wounds, 
and three (3) of disease. 

The whole number of men apportioned to Connecticut 
under the different quotas, reduced to the three years' 
standard, was forty-one thousand four hundred and eighty- 
three (41,483). The number furnished by the State, reduc- 
ing all the dift'crent terms of service to the three years' 
standard, was forty-eight thousand one hundred and eighty- 
one (48,181), which shows a surplus of six thousand six 
hundred and ninety-eight (6,698) in three years' men, with- 
out reference to the quota under the call of December. 



OFFICERS AND MEN FURNISHED BY THE TOWN. 12/ 

1864. Under this last call no troops were required to be 
furnished by the State, as no quota was assigned by the 
government. 

It is a satisfaction to be able to record the fact that Nor- 
wich raised its quota under the several apportionments 
made by the Adjutant-general, and when the war closed, she 
had a surplus in her favor above the different calls made 
upon her, to furnish her proportion of the troops required by 
the General Government. In the early part of the war the 
town contributed from the resident population to the service 
of the country. The raising of volunteers was under its 
own management until July, 1863, up to which time through 
liberal bounties and the popular maintenance of the war- 
spirit, there was no lack of enlistments. After the above 
date the recruiting business was conducted by the provost- 
marshal of the district, and substitutes and hired recruits 
were largely procured to meet the call upon the town for 
men. Notwithstanding the largely increased expenses of 
the town, necessitated by the war, there was no curtailment 
in the usual appropriations for schools, for the poor, for gen- 
eral public and civic improvements. There was never a 
more generous spirit displayed in providing for all that re- 
lated to the town and city's needs, than during the years of 
this gigantic civil strife. The war, in fact, created for Nor- 
wich, as it did for other places, new business enterprises, and 
there was even an augmented industry which gave to these 
trying years the appearance of outward thrift and prosperity. 
City improvements were projected as in ordinary times, and 
the citizens, while constantly called upon to give, were able 
to meet, in the spirit of unquestioned liberality, all the appeals 
which came to them. Private and public charity received 
a new impulse, and all classes learned the great lesson of 
self-sacrificing benevolence. One of the brightest chapters 
of the war, is the one which contains the history of the 



128 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Nation's offerings to general benevolent purposes. In no 
other way was so strikingly displayed the earnestness and 
ability of the people, not only to meet the military neces- 
sities of the conflict itself, immense as they were, but to pro- 
vide as they did, with marvelous and unstinted liberality, for 
the usual and exceptional charities of those crucial years. 

The city, during the war, became quite noted for its armo- 
ries. These were very extensive, and for the time added 
largely to the industrial enterprise and growth of the town. 

A writer in "Harpers' Magazine" in 1864, describing 
the activity displayed in this line, thus wrote concerning 
what was doino- in this branch of labor : — 



" We bid the reader to Norwich, rather than to some other of 
the many similar enterprises which have grown up in various parts 
of the land, because the works there, are of all others, the first in 
the magnitude of their operation, and in the assurance of perpet- 
uity, when minor establishments may, and no doubt will, pass with 
the passing of the necessity which has called them into existence. 

"The ease and celerity with which the capitalists and artisans of 
Norwich, and of so many other places, have at a moment's call, 
turned from their looms and their spindles of a life-time, to so 
untried, so intricate, and so difficult a lot as that of the manufac- 
ture of arms, is scarcely less astonishing, than is the wonderful 
success which has followed their efforts. 

" That the national works, as those at Springfield, should be, 
as they have been, trebled even in extent, as soon as the enlarge- 
ment was required, is highly creditable to the public capacity and 
energy ; but how much more commendable and gratifying is it, 
that such an enterprise — guaranteed in its result and reward by 
the treasury of a great nation — has been in a degree more than 
rivaled by individual etTort, and that effort made boldly in the dark, 
almost without precedent, and in a new and most difficult labor. 

*' The capacity of the Norwich Arms Company is greater than 
was that of the government foundries at Springfield, before their 
extensive enlargement at the commencement of the war, and is 



INDUSTRIES CREATED BY THE WAR. 



129 



nearly half as great as is that of these works, now in their in- 
creased extent. With their present machinery and accommoda- 
tions, the Company are able to produce about four hundred fin- 
ished muskets per day, or two hundred of the Springfield arm, 
and as many more of the new and beautiful breach-loading rifle. 
Just now, as we write, the works are producing about twelve 
hundred muskets, three thousand bayonets, and two thousand 
locks, per week, besides rifles and carbines. The product of the 
works in their present capacity would reach a value of nearly a 
quarter of a million of dollars annually, in their yield of four 
hundred muskets or other arms daily, at the government price of 
twenty dollars each." 

In addition to this large armory, there was an equally 
enterprising establishment for making pistols, under the 
charge of Smith & Wesson, and another quite as prosper- 
ous, run by Allen, Thurber, & Co., besides the Bacon Arms 
Company, which is the only one that has continued its 
manufacturing in Norwich. In fact, during the war Norwich 
showed more thrift than ever before or since. Of course 
much of the business was such as the military necessities of 
the times had created, and could hardly be expected to be 
permanent, or always as remunerative. Still it is a matter 
of regret that some branches of industry were permitted to 
be removed hence, to places which they have helped to 
build up, and where they have proved of permanent and 
pecuniary advantage. 

Norwich, as it appeared in war-years, was indeed " a wide- 
awake little town, as vociferous in sounds of busy and 
thriving industry as any place of its size in the good old 
State of steady habits, or in all the thronged length and 
breadth of Yankeedom." Its brilliant war record, the public 
gifts of its citizens for patriotic and charitable purposes, 
the deep interest felt in the success of the war itself, and the 
readiness to contribute in any way to that grand result, all 
stand as memorials of the energy and loyal zeal of the town. 



IX. 




I86I-I865. 



NAVY. 

And is the old flag flying still, 

That o'er your Fathers flew, 
With bands of white and rosy light, 

And fields of starry blue ? 
Aye ! look aloft ! its folds full oft 

Have braved the roaring blast, 
And still shall fly when from the sky 

This black typhoon has past ! " 

O. W. Holmes. 



THE records of the Navy during the war will constitute 
one of the proudest chapters in its history. At the 
breaking out of the rebellion it had only ninety-four war 
vessels of all classes, designed to carry two thousand four 
hundred and fifteen (2,415) guns. Only forty-three of these 
ships were in commission. The deep-seated patriotism and 




' .^^^^^ 




i^^ 



I 



I 



CREATION OF THE NAVY. 



131 



generously proffered resources of the loyal masses of the 
country, provided in the speediest possible time a volun- 
teer army equal to the demands of the unprecedented 
emergency. 

The Navy, however, had practically to be created, and 
this could not be done with the same rapidity. And yet in 
a very brief period of time, the deficiency in this arm of the 
service was supplied, and six hundred vessels were provided, 
which maintained not only an unrelaxed blockade from the 
Chesapeake to the Rio-Grande, but penetrated and patrolled 
our rivers with a flotilla of gun-boats, and captured blockade- 
runners, chiefly with British owners, to the value of thirty 
millions of dollars ($30,000,000), Over two hundred war- 
ships were constructed, and four hundred and eighteen 
merchant vessels (of which three hundred and thirteen 
were steamers), were conveuted into ships of war. There 
were fifty-one thousand five hundred men in the naval ser- 
vice at the close of the rebellion, as contrasted with seven 
thousand six hundred at the beginning. 

The ordnance of the department was by mechanical and 
inventive skill greatly improved, and the " Monitor," which 
rendered such timely and unexpected service, was among the 
products of this awakened attention to the navy. By the 
latter our armies were nobly supported in the engagements 
on the coast, and the Mississippi River, as well as at Forts 
Henry, Donelson, and Shiloh. There were no braver deeds 
performed than by officers and men in the naval service, 
and to them was largely due the successful termination of 
the war itself The loyalty of those in the navy was of the 
noblest type, and though there were defections on the part 
of officers at the beginning of the rebellion, numerous 
enough to occasion embarrassment and dishonor, yet the 
subsequent service rendered by those who remained true to 
the flag, reinforced by volunteer recruits, made ample atone- 



132 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



ment. It is but justice to these gallant men, and those as- 
sociated with and under them, to make in every possible 
way this public acknowledgment- 
Less has been written concerning the exploits of the 
Navy and Marine Corps, than of the volunteer armies, re- 
sulting from the fact, that the several States have not 
shown that interest in the former that they had in the regi- 
ments composing the latter, the roster of whose officers and 
men they were careful to preserve. 

We know not the names of those who served in the navy, 
but the soldiers who enlisted, the officers commissioned 
in the army, had their respective military records kept for 
them, through the Adjutant-generals of the several States, 
and perpetuated by means of the carefully compiled and 
published registers of the volunteer forces raised. 

When the proclamation announcing the blockade of the 
Southern ports was issued, the Navy Department was com- 
pelled to prepare for service all the public vessels which 
were lying dismantled at the various yards. Vessels of 
every kind that could be purchased, or chartered, were hur- 
riedly collected, divided into two squadrons, and placed 
along the coast. One of these two, denominated the Atlan- 
tic Blockading Squadron, under command of Flag-officer 
Charles Stringham, had for its field of operations, the entire 
coast, from the eastern line of Virginia to Cape Florida. 
The other, the Gulf Squadron, under Flag-officer William 
Mervine operated from Cape Florida westward to the Rio 
Grande. 

The task of blockading the coast was unattractive, and 
required the most unceasing vigilance, and yet was carried 
out with remarkable strictness, and maintained to the close 
of the war with increasing efficiency. The expedition to 
Hatteras Inlet in August, 1861, was the first of a series of 
naval engagements, which resulted in the reoccupation of 



EXPLOITS OF THE NAVY. 



133 



important points along the seaboard. The Atlantic Block- 
ading Squadron was subsequently divided into two : the 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, to guard the coast of 
Virginia and North Carolina, under Captain Louis M. Golds- 
borough ; and the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, un- 
der Captain S. F. Dupont, to watch the coast from the 
northern boundary of South Carolina to Cape Florida. 
The Gulf Squadron was likewise divided into the Eastern 
and Western Blockading Squadrons ; the latter was as- 
signed to duty on the coast, from and including Pensacola 
to the Rio Grande, and was intrusted to Captain D. G. 
Farragut. 

In addition to these four large squadrons, it was found 
necessary for the navy to place a flotilla on the lower Poto- 
mac, and also one on the Mississippi and its tributaries. 

By all of these squadrons was conspicuous service ren- 
dered, and some of their exploits will rank among the most 
brilliant in the annals of naval warfare. The North At- 
lantic Blockading Squadron captured Hatteras Inlet, August 
twenty-eighth, 1861, General Butler commanding the co- 
operating military force. Roanoke Island was taken on 
February eighth, 1862, Goldsborough commanding the fleet, 
and General Burnside the army. Fort Fisher fell before 
the combined attack of this squadron under Rear-admiral 
Porter, January fifteenth, 1865, one of Connecticut's most 
brilliant soldiers. General Terry, leading the auxiliary land 
forces. 

By the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Port Royal 
was captured, November seventh, 1861, Captain Dupont in 
charge of the fleet, and General T. W. Sherman of the army. 
The West Gulf Blockading Squadron, under Farragut, bom- 
barded successfully in April, 1862, the forts guarding New 
Orleans, which led to the surrender of the city to the troops 
under General Butler. The defenses of Mobile Bay were 



134 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

captured August fifth, 1864, General Gordon Granger di- 
recting the military force. 

The Mississippi Squadron, under Connecticut's gallant 
Admiral A. H. Foot, took part in the capture of Fort Henry, 
February sixth, 1862 ; under C. H. Davis, secured posses- 
sion of Memphis, June sixth, 1862 ; under Porter, made the 
famous passage of the Vicksburg batteries, April sixth, 
1863. These by no means exhaust the achievements of the 
navy, for our ships of war were everywhere managed with 
great skill and courage, and the squadrons, whether engaged 
in cruising, or in such naval battles like those named, did 
honor to the nation's flag. The service rendered was of a 
most varied character, and so effective too, as to entitle this 
arm to the praise and gratitude of the whole country. Had 
it not been for the friendly help, and unlawful cooperation 
Great Britain afforded to rebel privateers and blockade run- 
ners, as well as its peculiar affection for Confederate pirates 
who preyed upon our commerce in ships built in English 
ship-yards, and fitted out in violation of all existing inter- 
national law, the Confederacy would not have lasted as 
long as it did, nor won such infamy for its piratical deeds 
on the high seas. Of this England is probably now con- 
vinced, and the recent Geneva award is but a mild assess- 
ment of the damage occasioned us, for which she was 
proved before the world to be culpably responsible. 

The Confederate Navy was made up at first of officers 
formerly in the United States service, who at the breaking- 
out of the rebellion resigned, thus hoping to escape the 
charge, which was none the less deserved, of being traitors. 
At that early period, our government had not gotten over 
its fatal tendency to deal leniently, so that the resignations 
of these runaways were accepted, instead of having their 
names stricken in ignominy from the naval rolls they had 
disgraced. These were the first to oft'er themselves to the 



NAVAL RECORDS OF NORWICH OFFICERS. 135 

Confederate Navy, and though educated, honored, and cared 
for by our government, in the hour of its peril, they re- 
nounced its service, its flag, and their fealty, to tender their 
service to those plotting its overthrow. To the honor of the 
North, it may be said, that by far the greater proportion of 
traitors were from border States, or else from the " sunny 
South." And the moiety of Northern officers that became 
turncoats, had lived just long enough in Dixie to have their 
loyalty endangered. 

So far as Norwich was concerned, comparatively few en- 
tered the navy. Though near the sea-board, and with more 
or less interest in this arm of the service, our volunteers 
preferred enlisting in the army. The State, however, had 
a distinguished representation in the navy, as the names of 
Foote, Lanman, Gregory, Rodgers, and others, abundantly 
show. The number of her citizens holding commissions 
during the war is estimated as high as three hundred. 

Our town stands credited with eighty-nine men, who en- 
listed at various times, and were mustered into the naval 
service of the country. Several of these received honorable 
appointments as commanders, paymasters, and masters of 
vessels. They maintained the reputation for courage and 
serviceableness, which those who had entered the army 
had won. 

The names of many of the naval recruits cannot now be 
obtained, so that the roster of those in this department must 
necessarily be somewhat incomplete. We are able to pre- 
sent only brief accounts of most of those who enlisted in 
the navy, and regret exceedingly that we cannot furnish a 
full list of all who served on any of our ships of war, and 
who counted on the quota of volunteers raised by the town 
for the national service. Once or twice during the war, 
eftbrts were made by the town officers to secure, through in- 
quiry and advertisement, the names of those who entered 



136 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



the navy, but they were unavaiHng. We subjoin as per- 
fect a list as it was possible to make out, believing that it 
is complete, so far, at least, as containing the names of 
those who held naval commissions. 

Joseph Lanman was the ranking officer in the service ol 
the country from this town. He was born in Norwich July 
eighteenth, 1811, and from personal predilections entered the 
navy at an early age. He received the appointment of mid- 
shipman, January first, 1825, and was ordered to join the frig- 
ate " Macedonian," of the Brazil Squadron, in 1827. In 1830, 
he was attached to the sloop " Peacock," of the West India 
Squadron. Promoted to Passed-midshipman June fourth, 
183 1, he next joined the schooner " Dolphin," Pacific Squad- 
ron. Serving in these early years with great fidelity and 
skill, he rose steadily by promotion through the various 
grades, until attaining his present well-earned rank of Rear- 
admiral. 

His distinguished service extends over a period of forty- 
eight years, and is one in which the town takes a just pride. 
One of its own boys, he has now for nearly a half century 
been in the government's service, filling every position he 
won, with stainless honor, and has come back now to his na- 
tive place because reaching the age with which, according to 
naval rules, active service ends. An officer of wide expe- 
rience, acknowledged courage, and devoted patriotism, he 
served through the years of the late war, without having a 
choice as to place or duty, cheerfully obeying orders, and 
flying from his vessel's mast-head the flag that he helped to 
make respected at home and abroad. 

In 1848, Admiral (then Lieutenant) Lanman was compli- 
mented by being made the bearer of dispatches from the 
commanding officer of the Pacific Squadron to the authori- 
ties at Washington. He was assigned to special duty in 
1849-51, and in 1864-65, commanded the frigate "Minne- 



NAVAL RECORDS OF NORWICH OFFICERS. 



"^17 



sota," of the North Blockading Squadron. The last years 
of his active service were spent in command of the South 
Atlantic Squadron, cruising off the coast of Brazil. 

Some of our citizens who have watched with admiring- 
interest his long and honorable career, remember him when 
as midshipman he began his naval service. Among the 
episodes of this early period of his life was the following. 
He had been promised by one, who from the first took no 
ordinary interest in his course, a sword, whenever he received 
his first commission. The latter came to him in 1835, 
when he was commissioned lieutenant. His friend, not 
forgetful of the promise made to the youth when beginning 
his public life, immediately took measures to make it good, 
and finding what the " Regulations of the Navy " permitted, 
procured an officer's sword and belt, and dispatched them 
to him with the accompanying note : — 



Norwich, June 12, 1837. 

My dear Sir, — Not having forgotten the pleasure I promised 
myself some years since, on your entering the United States 
Navy (January first, 1825), of presenting to you a sword on your 
receiving a commission, I seized the earliest convenient opportu- 
nity after learning the fact, to procure one, which I should have 
presented ere this, had not my frequent absence from home, and 
your infrequent visits to your friends prevented. I learnt on in- 
quiry that I was not at liberty to indulge my taste, but must be 
governed by the rules and regulations of the Navy Department 
in the selection. 

Will you please accept the accompanying sword and belt, 
which I trust will only be used in self-defense, and in the defense of 
your country, and receive assurances of regard, with which I have 
the pleasure to be. 

Your friend and obedient servant, 

G. L. Perkins. 
Lieutenant Joseph Lanman, U. S. Navy. 



138 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



To this note the youthful Lieutenant replied with that 
courteousness of speech and manner which through all these 
years of service have characterized his intercourse with his 
fellow officers and men, as well as with those whom he met 
at home and abroad : — 

Norwich, Conn., 13 June, 1837. 

Dear Sir, — Your very friendly note of yesterday, together with 
the sword and belt, I have duly received. For these valued testi- 
monials of your esteem be pleased to receive my unfeigned thanks. 
Should our common country call me to duty in its defense, be 
assured, my dear sir, that the recollection of the terms of your 
very flattering note will inspire a confidence and zeal in the 
service of no ordinary cast. I need not assure you that a sword 
presented by a friend and fellow townsman will not be suffered to 
tarnish while in the possession of your 

Obedient servant, 

Joseph Lanman, U. S. Navy. 
Col. G. L. Perkins, Norwich. 



That sword is still a valued memento of a friendship yet 
green, and has not been more sacredly kept, than the honor 
and loyalty, which so long ago plighted, have now been 
tested by almost fifty years' service to the country. We 
have here the promise of the young officer, with life and 
its experiences before him, and its fulfillment, as seen in the 
completed record of the Rear-admiral, and both are mat- 
ters in which Norwich has no ordinary interest. 

Naval officers have not a choice of where, or how they 
shall serve, and to some, even in time of war, it falls to do 
duty where it is not publicly noticed, and where there is 
opportunity for little more than fidelity, and the patient ac- 
complishment of what is ordered. 

The second attack on Fort Fisher afforded a signal proof 
that the man who woidd do his duty well, whether it was of 



NAVAL RECORDS OF NORWICH OFFICERS. 



139 



a conspicuous nature or not, could bear himself with dis- 
tinction, where the service brought him under the more 
immediate notice of the people. 

In this great naval engagement, the most brilliant one of 
the whole war, Admiral (then Commodore) Lanman was 
selected to lead the second line in his flag-ship, " Minne- 
sota." 

The fleet and land forces on transports arrived off the 
fort, January thirteenth, 1865, and the next day, under cover 
of the guns of the former, the troops effected a landing. 
On the fifteenth the combined attack by land and sea was 
made. At nine a. m., the squadron was signaled to attack 
in three lines, and by eleven all the vessels were in posi- 
tion. Each had opened fire as it took its place in line, and 
the bombardment was kept up furiously all day. By three 
o'clock the troops were in readiness, and the signal to 
change the direction of the firing was given, when the 
guns were turned on the upper batteries away from the 
point where the assault was to be made. 

All the steam whistles were blown, when the troops and 
sailors and marines dashed ahead, nobly vying with each 
other to reach the parapet. The sailors were armed with 
cutlasses and pistols, and were expected to treat the fort as 
a vessel, and board it. They went forward promptly on the 
sea-side, pushing boldly up to the fort, until checked by 
a murderous fire of grape and canister. Notwithstanding 
this hot fire, officers and men in the lead rushed on ; some 
even reached the parapet, a larger number got as far as the 
ditch. While the assault on this side was stayed, Terry with 
his troops came up on the other side, and as the attention 
of the rebels was diverted, effected a lodgment in the fort, 
gaining two traverses. The latter are immense bomb- 
proofs, about sixty feet long, fifty feet wide, and twenty feet 
high, numbering seventeen in all. Here our men, as Porter 



140 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



in his official report says, " fought like lions," fighting their 
way inch by inch, chasing the rebels from traverse to tra- 
verse, and continuing this hand-to-hand conflict till far into 
the night. When the capture was signaled to the fleet, the 
men on the various vessels joined in making the welkin ring 
with their repeated and hearty cheers. Thus ended one of 
the most remarkable battles on record, resulting in the cap- 
ture of Fort Fisher, pronounced stronger than the MalakofF 
tower, which defied so long the combined power of England 
and France. Seventy-five guns, some of them superb rifle 
pieces of very heavy calibre, fell into our hands, with twen- 
ty-five hundred prisoners, including two rebel generals. 

It was on the whole the most decisive coiip-dc-inain of 
the war, brilliantly executed, and of immense practical ad- 
vantage. In no other engagement did the army and navy 
cooperate so harmoniously, while the fourteen hundred sail- 
ors and marines bore themselves with dauntless courage, 
losing three hundred and nine, in killed, wounded, and miss- 
ing. The forty-four vessels poured an incessant fire on the 
fort, delivering hot shot and shell at the rate of four a min- 
ute for eight hours, expending in the entire bombardment 
fifty thousand shell. 

Taking into account the character and number of the 
vessels, the size and calibre of their guns, and number of 
men, it was the greatest naval armament ever brought to- 
gether, and the result was the grandest ever achieved by 
the combined forces of army and navy. 

In this action Commodore Lanman detailed from his vessel 
two hundred and forty officers and men to join the assaulting 
column ; and reported, concerning those remaining, " every 
one performed his duty to the utmost of his ability ; the work- 
ing and practice of the guns could not have been better, and 
many excellent shots were made." He also superintended 
the firing of his vessels, witnessing how they were man- 



NORWICH OFFICERS IN THE NAVY. I4I 

aged during the engagement, and personally directed the 
force under him. It was a most fearful bombardment, and 
at its close Commodore Lanman's beard, hair and clothes 
were completely covered over with saltpetre. 

Admiral Porter, in his official report, thus speaks of 
Commodore Lanman : " Commodore Joseph Lanman was 
selected to lead the line, consequently he led into action. I 
was much pleased with the way in which he handled his ship, 
and fired throughout the action ; the whole affair on his part 
being conducted with admirable judgment and coolness. 
I recommend him to the consideration of the Department, 
as one on whom they can place the utmost reliance, place 
him in any position." In addition to this public notice of 
his bearing in this battle. Admiral Porter addressed to him 
the following private letter, expressing his personal appre- 
ciation of his gallant conduct in this engagement, and 
acknowledging his indebtedness to him for so efficiently 
seconding him in the arduous service assigned to him, the 
successful issue of which reflected such glory on the whole 
fleet. 

The letter is published here, after special application to 
Admiral Porter had been made for this liberty. He cor- 
dially assented to the request of the committee soliciting the 
favor, stating in his reply to the latter, " The compliments I 
paid Admiral Lanman were very sincere on my part, and 
well deserved on his. It aftbrds me great satisfaction to 
know that his fellow citizens take an interest in his reputa- 
tion. I think the navy generally has received very little 
credit for the part it took in the events which have such a 
bearing on our present and future happiness." 



10 



142 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

ADMIRAL PORTER'S LETTER TO COMMODORE LANMAN. 

North Atlantic Squadron, U. S. Flag-ship "Malvern," 
OFF Fort Fisher, January 17, 1S65. 

Commodore : You will proceed to Hampton Roads with your 
ship, and assume charge of the vessels stationed at that point, 
regulating the guard vessels according to the orders heretofore 
issued. 

Your authority will extend no further than to the Magazine 
near Norfolk ; that, the Receiving, Ordnance, and School vessels 
being within the Navy Yard jurisdiction. You will also take 
charge of the vessels in York River, and inquire into their effi- 
ciency, and how they have conducted matters in my absence. 

Permit me to express to you on this occasion the high apprecia- 
tion I feel for your services in reducing this formidable work, and 
the gallant manner in which you with your ship have on several 
occasions led the fleet into action. 

I well appreciate all such matters. I am not one to forget them, 
or to lose an opportunity of bringing them before the notice of 
the government. 

I thank you at the same time for the kind personal feeling you 
have always displayed towards myself, and the readiness in which 
your ship has always been kept for any service required of you. 

I hope soon to see you in Hampton Roads, — from whence you 
will report your arrival to the Honorable the Secretary of the 
Navy. 

It may be thought desirable to keep your ship in thorough re- 
pair, and I think she ought to go into dock as soon as possible. 

Very respectfully yours, 

David D. Porter, 

Rear-admiral. 
To Commodore Joseph Lanman, 

Comd'g U. S. S. " Minticsotal''' 



NORWICH OFFICERS IN THE NAVY. 



143 



Charles C." Adams. Appointed Acting Assistant Pay- 
master, May 6, 1861, and ordered to the U. S. Steamer 
" Dawn," Commander William Chandler. She was sta- 
tioned on York River, Va., for blockade duty. While here, 
Mr. Adams had his suspicions roused concerning the loyalty 
of the commander. The evidence of this fact increasing, he 
at once preferred charges against Commander Chandler, 
which were sustained before a Court of Inquiry, and the 
officer "disgracefully dismissed from the United States Ser- 
vice, October 26, 1861." Mr. Adams was soon after de- 
tached from the "Dawn" and ordered to join the " De 
Soto," commanded by W. W. Walker, and doing blockade 
service in the West Gulf Squadron, from the S. W. Pass of 
the Mississippi River to the Rio Grande. 

The following extract from a letter written while on the 
" De Soto," will give an idea of the nature of the blockad- 
ing service. The writer, after detailing some of the hard- 
ships of the latter, gives the following interesting narrative : 



" On the morning of the eleventh (January, 1863), a large lugger 
was discovered inside of Vine Island, but soon disappeared. At 
ten A. M. she was again seen moving slowly to the eastward. At 
eleven a. m., Acting Master G. W. Ward, of New Haven, volun- 
teered to catch her. Our commander told him to take his boat 
and do as he pleased. At 12.30 p. m. Ward was in full chase. 
At 4 p. M. the lugger hove in sight, and at 6 p. m. was an- 
chored as a prize near our ship, and the prisoners brought on 
board. She has certainly proved to be a very valuable prize, 
as she has been the means of making valuable captures since. 
The day after her capture, she was fitted out and manned with a 
crew of twelve men, under the command of Acting Master Mar- 
tin, and Master's Mate Portinger, both active and enterprising 
young officers. They returned in eight days, having captured four 
boats and eight prisoners, with small arms, having also gained 
very valuable information in regard to vessels expected from 



144 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Havana bound to Grand Caillou Bayou, with contraband goods. 
On the 19th two vessels were fitted out for an expedition to cap- 
ture vessels from Havana, trying to run cargoes under English 
colors, to the most convenient port in Louisiana, — the " Phenix " 
commanded by Captain Ward, the " St. Joseph" by Mr. Martin. 
During the 24th, Mr. Ward captured three boats and ten prison- 
ers ; Mr. Martin four boats and one prisoner, all armed with 
double guns, pistols, bowie knives, etc. ; all of which, of course, 
were confiscated. Nothing of material importance occurred, if 
we might except the taking of a few boats, and boarding one of 
our own men-of-war, supposing her to be an enemy, till the 27th, 
when a schooner was discovered to the eastward of Grand Cail- 
lou Bayou. We waited till she was in the position we wanted 
her, and at 3 p. m. gave chase. At 5 P. M. we ran alongside the 
schooner, making her a prize. It was a daring act, and well 
performed, for the vessel was expected by the troops stationed 
there, and a small gunboat was cruising in the neighborhood to 
protect her. You must bear in mind, they were close under the 
land, and in very shallow water. They must have been seen by 
the troops, and had they possessed a particle of pluck, would 
have annihilated our boats. She proved to be the notorious 
schooner "Major Barbour," from Havana, trying to get to New 
Orleans with a cargo of coffee, powder, salt, sulphur, leather, 
acids, quinine, and seventy thousand cigars, first quality. 

We took a number of prisoners, among them one who claims 
to be a Mexican vice-consul at Charleston, who has been engaged 
in the laudable business of shipping cargoes of coffee from Rio 
de Janeiro to Savannah, being on his return from the former 
place when captured. The cigars are good. I smoke several 
for you every day. 

Our prize leaves for the North to-day, under charge of Acting 
Master Ward, with her officers and prisoners. Her passengers 
we send by the steamer " Connecticut," now in sight." 

In 1863 he was ordered to join the " Conemaiigh " at Win- 
gaw Bay, S. C, inider Commander Real Worden. The latter 
being relieved on account of ill health, by Commander Shu- 



NORWICH OFFICERS IN THE NAVY. 1 45 

feldt of Connecticut, the vessel participated in the attack on 
Wagner and other forts. Shufeldt and his officers and crew 
were complimented for their gallantry by Admiral Dahlgren, 
in presence of the commanding officers of the fleet. In 
December, 1863, he was transferred to the " Proteus" of the 
East Gulf Squadron, which had orders to cruise about the 
Bahamas and coast of Cuba, in search of the rebel priva- 
teer " Florida." After four years of active duty, Mr. Ad- 
ams was detached May 5, 1865, and on October i, 1865, 
resigned. 

" When I entered the service, I fully and uncompromisingly 
determined, let the result be what it might, to do all in my power 
to destroy the institution of slavery, and bring before the proper 
authority, any persons giving aid, comfort, or sympathy to the 
enemy. I succeeded in leading many slaves to liberty, but hap- 
pily for the service, there were few rebel sympathizers in the 
navy." 

Wm. a. Aiken. Commissioned Acting Assistant Pay- 
master, U. S. N., August 10, 1861, and shortly after ordered 
to the steam gunboat " Curlew," at Charlestown Navy 
Yard. Resigned to accept the appointment of Quartermas- 
ter-general of Connecticut (with rank of Brigadier-general), 
July 10, 1862. The following is his account of the first 
naval expedition of the government, in which he, together 
with Commander J. W. Bentley, arid other Norwich men 
participated. 

" Our first port of destination was New York. Soon after ar- 
rival there the vessel was ordered in pursuit of the steamer which 
had just previously started for Europe, with the rebel commis- 
sioners, Mason and Slidel on board. 

'' The cruise was ineffectual. We next put into Hampton Roads, 
and for some days awaited the arrival, one by one, of the fleet of 
war vessels and transports, intended for an expedition against 
the Southern Coast, at some point then unknown. 



146 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



"The mystery of our destination added spice to the excitement 
of preparation. 

" The daily arrival of frigates, sloops of war, gunboats and 
steam transports filled with troops, made our season of delay one 
of cumulative interest. The desire to get right down to the busi- 
ness of real war, however, made all impatient of detention. 

''On Tuesday, October 29th, 1861, at 5.30 a. m., the signal 
gun was fired from the flag ship " Wabash," and the fleet got 
under way, bound no one knew where, except the powers in com- 
mand, until revealed by the opening of the sealed orders given 
to every commander of a vessel. These orders indicated Port 
Royal, S. C, as the objective point. 

" The fleet encountered a severe gale a little south of Hatteras, 
which scattered the vessels and caused much solicitude on the 
part of the officers for the safety of the smaller vessels of the 
squadron. 

" On Monday, November 4th, six days out, Port Royal was 
sighted. During the day most of the fleet arrived ; the effects 
of the gale being quite perceptible on several of them. 

" At 3.35 p. M., the advance shoreward commenced. Some 
of the vessels of heavy draft struck upon the bar at the harbor 
entrance and remained fast for some time ; none, however, receiv- 
ing serious damage. 

" About 5 o'clock p. M., four rebel steamers hove in sight from 
the arm of the sea behind the island bordering the coast. They 
advanced within long range of our gunboats, which now occupied 
positions a mile nearer shore than the transports. For half an 
hour shots were actively exchanged without serious effect, when 
the rebel gunboats retired. 

" The night was quiet. At sunrise next morning the rebel 
gunboats put in a second appearance. The gunboats "Ottawa," 
" Seneca," and " Curlew," advanced to meet them. About two 
hours were passed in active practice at long range. Before the 
skirmish was concluded we got within range of the heavy guns of 
the forts on Hilton Head and Bay Point, the former command- 
ing the entrance to the port from the south^ the latter from the 



NORWICH OFFICERS IN THE NAVY. 



147 



north. As nothing was to be gained by a further advance until 
preparations were completed for the general attack, our gun- 
boats returned to the squadron. 

" Wednesday, November 6th, was passed in active prepara- 
tions for the event which all were awaiting with impatience. On 
the following morning about niile o'clock the signal 'up anchor' 
was hoisted, and all were soon under way to take position in line 
of battle. The squadron was divided into two parallel sections 
in the advance. To the Paymaster was assigned the duties of 
signal officer, together with that of noting the current incidents 
of the action as a basis for the official report. At 10 a. m. the 
engagement was opened from the guns of Fort Walker, Hilton 
Head, followed instantly by the fort on Bay Point opposite. The 
flagship promptly responded, and each vessel as it moved within 
range took up the strain. As we advanced, the rebel steamers, 
now increased in number to eight, retired. 

" For about an hour and a half, during which time the squad- 
ron was slowly moving towards the forts, an incessant fire was 
kept up on both sides, the ponderous missiles filling the air with 
that direful screech which tries the nerves more than the deafen- 
ing roar of the heaviest ordnance. 

" From eleven a. m. to about one p. m. the squadron moved 
in a circle or ellipse, alternately engaging at close range Bay 
Point, then Hilton Head. 

" Notwithstanding the effect of the tremendous hail of iron 
descending upon the devoted forts, they replied with wonderful 
activity. At half past one their fire began to slacken. The 
gunboats then took position very close to Fort Walker, pouring 
into it a hot flanking fire. At about two o'clock the batteries 
ceased firing and the occupying troops could be seen moving in 
disorderly retreat into the country on the 'double quick.' 

" At about three o'clock the line of battle which had been 
broken up during the engagement, was again formed above the 
forts, and the squadron moved slowly down abreast of them. 

" When opposite, ' All hands on deck ! ' was called, and officers 
and men sent up ringing cheers for the victory. 



148 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



" Within fifteen minutes the Stars and Stripes replaced the 
stars and bars on the flagstaff of Fort AValker. 

" Letters, captured in the forts, indicated that the intended 
destination of the expedition had been fully known by the rebels 
and that they felt confident of their ability to repel any attack. 

" The great fleet of transports,-containing the army of occupa- 
tion, being signaled to advance, now came up, and the spectacle 
became exciting beyond description as the thousands of men 
covering their decks rent the air with their enthusiastic cheers. 

" Thus ended the first naval engagement of magnitude during 
the war." 



John W. Bentlev, was commissioned May 24, 1861, 
as First Acting Master in the volunteer navy, and 
ordered to join the U. S. S. " Wabash." In October fol- 
lowing he was transferred to the steam sloop " Pawnee," 
which was one of the vessels in Admiral Dupont's Squad- 
ron, engaged in the cayture of Port Royal, S. C. In 
August 1862 he joined the steamer "Connecticut," on which 
he served, until ordered to the steamer " Shenandoah," June, 
1863. Promoted Commander, March, 1864, he was assigned 
to the steamer " Banshee," and was preparing to put to sea> 
when he was taken sick and died at his residence in this 
city. May 27, 1864. 

Warrington D. Roath, was appointed Acting Master 
in the navy, 1861, serving on the gunboat " New London," 
imder Commander Read. Promoted Acting Volunteer 
Lieutenant. July, 1863, he was assigned to the command 
of the U. S. brig " Bohio," afterward to the " Brignonia," of 
the North Atlantic Squadron, Rear-admiral Porter com- 
manding. Resigned March 7, 1865. 

Lewis G. Cook. Commissioned Acting Master, Decem- 
ber 19, 1 86 1, and assigned to steamer "Virginia," of West 
Gulf Squadron, under command of Admiral Farragut. Sub- 



NORWICH OFFICERS IN THE NAVY. 



149 



sequently transferred to the Potomac flotilla, he was honor- 
ably discharged — 1865. 

George E. Martin. Appointed Paymaster's Clerk De- 
cember 30, 1 86 1, and served on U. S. steamers " Norwich " 
and " Mendota." Commissioned Acting Assistant Paymas- 
ter, November, 1864, and ordered to steamer " Adela." Hon- 
orably discharged August, 1865. Reappointed Paymaster's 
Clerk, August, 1865, and joined U. S. ship "Supply," sailing 
for Hong Kong, where he died of cholera, August 6, 1867. 

George W. Huntington, was commissioned Acting 
Assistant Paymaster, U. S. N., October, 1863. Assigned 
to duty in the South Atlantic Squadron, and joined the 
steam gunboat " Ottawa." Engaged mostly in blockade 
duty, he was present with his vessel in attacks on various 
rebel fortifications along Southern rivers, and was the first 
to open communication with Gen. Sherman on his great 
march to the sea. The vessel participated in the recapture 
of Fort Sumter, in February, 1865, and also in a combined 
military and naval attack on some important batteries, 
twenty miles north of Charleston, S. C. While the " Ot- 
tawa " engaged the batteries in front, the soldiers landed 
below, and prepared to advance on the rebels. The troops 
hardly landed, when it was known in Charleston, and they 
hastened to escape from the latter, before General Gilmore 
should surround them. " It is a great satisfaction to us, that 
we have had a part in one of the great achievements of the 
war, but it is a greater satisfaction to know that, whatever 
may be its immediate cause, the thing is a fact, Charleston 
is ours. But a few more such facts are needed to solve the 
peace problem, and we can afford to wait for them." Hon- 
orably discharged November, 1865. 

Amos D. Allen. Appointed Paymaster's Clerk, Novem- 
ber 9, 1863, commissioned Acting Assistant Paymaster, 
October 21, 1864, and ordered to join steamer " Western 



150 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

World," of North Atlantic Squadron. Honorably dis- 
charged, September 5, 1865. 

Charles H. Cole, Jr. Appointed Paymaster's Clerk 
October 31, 1864, and attached to U. S. steamer " Western 
World." Honorably discharged, June, 1865. 

Frank H. Arms. Commissioned Acting Assistant Pay- 
master, April 14, 1864, and ordered to join U. S. steamer 
" Memphis." Still in service. 

Francis S. Wells. Commissioned Acting Volunteer 
Lieutenant, May 7, 1863, assigned to command of U. S. 
steamer " Daylight," North Atlantic Squadron. Trans- 
ferred subsequently to command of U. S. steamer " Aries." 
Honorably discharged, 1865. 

James H. Nash. Commissioned Acting Ensign, January 
20, 1863, and ordered to join store-ship " Brandywine " at 
Norfolk Navy Yard ; afterwards attached to the North At- 
lantic Blockading Squadron. Honorably discharged, 1865. 

Robert B. Smith, Commissioned Acting Volunteer 
Lieutenant, December 3, 1863, was assigned to the com- 
mand of the steamer " Nita," East Gulf Squadron, Acting 
Rear-admiral Theodore Bailey, commanding. Honorably 
discharged, 1865. 

John T. Perkins, entered the navy, September 4, 1861, 
as landsman. Promoted to Paymaster's Steward, he served 
in the " Stars and Stripes " the first year in the North At- 
lantic Blockading Squadron, and took part in the engage- 
ments at Roanoke Island and Newbern. The next two 
years were spent in the East Gulf Squadron. He was hon- 
orably discharged, November 4, 1864. 

William M. Perkins, enlisted in the navy, September 
17, 1 861, as first class boy ; joined the steamship " Florida." 
Sailed in the Port Royal expedition under Dupont. In 
November, 1862, joined the frigate " Colorado " at Ports- 
mouth. Was transferred to Cairo, 111., and ordered to the 



NORWICH MEN IN THE NAVY. 



151 



ram " Lafayette." Served on the Yazoo River, and in the 
passage of the Vicksburg batteries ; also in the first and 
second Red River expeditions. Honorably discharged, 
September 17, 1864. 

J. H. Jewett, enlisted as seaman, August 28, 1861. 
Served on gunboat " Rhode Island " and frigate " Santee." 

Edward Francis, served as ordinary seaman in the 
navy. 

Charles Tisdale, enlisted in May, serving as first class 
boy. 

Edward Tisdale, entered the navy and served as first 
class boy. 

George Clarke, served in the navy as Paymaster's 
clerk. 

Albert Smith, entered the navy, and served as Pay- 
master's clerk. 

William Fanning, enlisted and served in the navy as 
ordinary seaman. 

A. E. Fuller, served in the navy in the capacity of 
clerk. 

Henry Hempstead, enlisted in the navy and served as 
landsman. 

Charles E. Breed, enlisted in the navy, April, 1864, as 
Assistant Engineer, died April, 1865. 

John P. Kehr, served in the navy, and died July 30, 
1862. 



X. 



^■7 






^ -V^ x.^ 



^ ^ 




SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



1861-65. 



Work, Patriots, for the Union 

Till the hour of triumph comes ! 
When the lusty shouts of victory 

Mingle with rolls of drums ; 
Till the shadowy clouds of treason 

Have floated fore'er away, 
And the sunrise beams of hope and peace 

Tell of a brighter day." 

C. B. Howell. 



AT the very commencement of the war the citizens of 
Norwich turned their attention to making provision 
for the relief of soldiers' families. The first grand rally of 
the people on Wednesday, April eighteenth, had this object 
in view, no less than the encouragement of enlistments. 




( nul/lfiuJ^i^dumJ 




SOLDIERS' RELIEF.— CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



153 



and with generous promptitude they commenced subscrip- 
tions to a fund, which to the end of the war was more than 
adequate to meet every call upon it. This action on the 
part of the citizens was in advance of the measures adopted 
subsequently by the town for the systematic relief of the 
families of soldiers, by bounties and otherwise, and as an 
instance of the spontaneous liberality of the people in pro- 
viding for the immediate needs of the first volunteers, it is 
deserving of special mention. 

The patriotism of the men and women of Norwich, of 
ever}' grade of means, was from the first pronounced and 
unwavering, as this splendid record abundantly shows. 
Mr. Amos W. Prentice stood at the head of this " Patriotic 
Fund Committee," rendering in this, as in other responsible 
positions he was called to fill during the eventful years of 
the war, most efficient and untiring service. Mr. Charles 
Johnson was appointed treasurer, and with a loyalty as de- 
cided as it was uncompromising, received the subscriptions 
to this fund, and aided in administering the same. His 
personal correspondence with the soldiers was very exten- 
sive, and his generous admiration of their patriotism made 
him a ready helper of all whom he could befriend, and the 
best almoner of the public bounty that could have been 
selected. 

The subscription list was the grandest one which ever 
received the signatures of our citizens, both when we con- 
sider its object and the unprecedented liberality to which it 
showed the people could rise in a trying hour. The original 
roll on which the names of the subscribers were signed, is 
carefully preserved by the treasurer of the fund, as a proud 
memento of the patriotism of our citizens, as well as an 
historic relic which the passage of the years will convert into 
a precious heirloom for other days and generations. 

The following are the names, and in the order in which 



154 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 




they were signed, on this paper, to whose suggestive 


title 


we have ah-eady alkided : — 




"THE SINEWS OF WAR." 




Wm. A. Buckingham . . . $i,ocx3 


B. W. Tompkins 


$100 


David Smith . . . 






500 


George Perkins 


50 


Wm. P. Greene . . 






1,000 


Joel W. White 


100 


J. Lloyd Greene . . 






500 


A. F. Gilman 


25 


John F. Slater . • . 






500 


E. P. Slocum 


25 


L. F. S. Foster . . 






• 300 


S. B. Meech 


25 


I. M. Buckingham 






• 300 


Samuel C. Morgan .... 


200 


Leonard Ballon . . 






• 300 


E. 0. Abbot 


100 


Ebenezer Learned 






• 300 


Pierce & Robertson .... 


50 


Chas. Johnson & Son 






300 


F. Y. Winship 


25 


C. B. Rogers . . . 






• 300 


William Prentice 


50 


Breed, Prentice, & Co. 






500 


Gurdon P. Cottrell .... 


25 


Henry Bill .... 






• 300 


Gurdon Chapman .... 


25 


George L. Perkins 






200 


L.W.Carroll 


300 


E. R. Thompson • • 






200 


Charles Spalding 


100 


Joseph Selden . • . 






100 


I. Johnson 


50 


James D. Mowry . . 






100 


W. T. Almy 


50 


Frank Johnson . . . 






100 


H. K. Hammond 


50 


F. M. Hale .... 






50 


Charles N- Farnam .... 


300 


Clarke, Harrington, & C 


o 




50 


A. H. Hubbard 


500 


E. Winslow Williams 






100 


William C. Osgood .... 


50 


S. H. Grosvenor . . 






100 


Norton Brothers 


500 


John T. Adams . . 






100 


Erastus Williams 


100 


N. C. Brakenridge 






100 


W. L. Nichols 


25 


James A. Hovey . . 






100 


Franklin Nichols 


50 


William Kelley . . 






50 


E. Edwards 


25 


James S. Carew . . 






100 


Gurdon Jones & Co 


25 


A. Brewster .... 






100 


Lewis Edwards .-.'.. 


50 


Julius Webb .... 






100 


M. Safford 


25 


C. B. Webster .... 






100 


R. Farnsworth 


100 


Enoch F. Chapman . 






50 


A. J. Currier 


100 


George G. Bottom . 






50 


R. B. Mowry 


100 


A. Y. Hebard . . . 






50 


J. M. Huntington and W. H. 




Gardner Greene . . 






100 


Huntington 


1,000 


William Noyes . . 






50 


John P. Gulliver 


100 


Sidney Turner .... 






50 


John G. Huntington & Co. 


100 


J. Leavens & Son 






50 


William P. Nash 


50 


Wm. R. Hitchcock . . 






50 


S. R. Parlin 


50 


James N. Perry . . 






25 


Barstow & Palmer .... 


100 


O. P. Rice .... 






50 


Andrew & Nash 


100 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



155 



R. M. Haven $25 

S. H. Osgood 100 

George W. Smith 100 

S. & S. B. Case 100 

Z. R. Robbins 50 

P. St. M. Andrews .... 25 

Avery Smith 50 

E. G. Bidwell 50 

H. H. Stariiweather .... 50 

Joseph A. Starkweather . . 50 

Lorenzo Blackstone .... 300 

H. B. Cruttenden 25 

John W. Allen ... . . 500 

Frederick Prentice .... 100 

E. F. Hovey 25 

Robert Revelle 25 

Theodore F. McCiirdy . . . 100 

Wilson Potter 50 

Gardner Thurston .... 25 

Willoughby & Co 100 

Edward Chappell 100 

Alvan Bond 50 

Alfred P. Rockwell .... 50 

Daniel W. Coit 200 

Joseph T. Thurston .... 50 

A. H. Vaughn 50 

A. S. Robbins 50 

Mrs. Russell Hubbard ... 50 

Wareham Williams . . . 100 

J. H. Almy 50 

A. Clark 50 

Hiram B. Crosby 50 

J. Halsey 50 

Jedediah Huntington . . . 300 

William H. Law 100 

Augustus Bowen 25 

Augustus Bowen, Att'y for Wm. 

R. Potter 50 

Charles E. Dyer 25 

Lewis E. Stanton 25 

George Coit 50 

L. H. Maples 25 

Benjamin Durfey 50 

Richard P. Tracy 10 

Asa Fitch 500 



Louis Mitchell . . 
W. R. Wood . . 
Charles A. Rallion 
William P. Greene, J 
Benjamin D. Greene 
Joseph II. Holm 
James L. Hubbard 
Charles Lee . . 
Russell Ri.x . . 
E. P. Partridge 
Nathan Sears . 
Chauncey Palmer 
Samuel Mowry 
Chester Clark . 
Samuel Prentice 
Owen Stead 
Nathan P. Avery 
T. C. Gordon . 
Charles Browning 
Charles C. Fuller 
C. C. Thompson 
Parley Philipps 
Norris G. Lippitt 
Willard Bliss . 
John T. Wait . 
Daniel F. Gulliver 
L. H. Smith . 
William W. Coit 
J. Treadwell Walden 
Joseph Williams 
George Loomis 
Henry Ruggles 
Mrs. Benjamin Lee 
A native-born non-resident 
Lewis A. Hyde 
John Dunham . 
Richard Colburn 
J. G. Hinckley . 
Horace Col ton 
William McCune 
Jesse Caulkins . 
William W. Avery 
Pliny Brewer . 
Oliver P. Avery 
Miss E. A. Dwight 



$25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 

100 

100 
50 
50 
25 
50 

100 

50 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
50 
50 
100 

25 
100 

50 
50 

100 
50 
50 
50 
25 

100 

25 

25 

75 
25 
10 

50 
25 
25 
40 



156 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Mrs. B. Lee (additional) . . 
G. A. Jones & Co. (additional) 

Charles B. Piatt 

Otliniel Gager 

Richard P. Tracy (additional) 

Peter Nelson 

Mrs. John A. Rockwell . . 

R. P. Stanton 

Isaac H. Bromley .... 
Lewis Hyde . . ... 

Wm. Elting & Co 

James M. Peckham .... 
Mrs. N. C. Reynold .... 
William B. Wilcox .... 

J. N. Perkins 

B. Boardman 

J. L. W. Huntington . . . 

Amos E. Cobb 

Hakes Brothers 

Tliomas J. Ridgway .... 

William Jennings 

Palmer Smith 



$5° 
75 

25 

50 

15 
10 
100 
10 
25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
50 
25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
25 



J. B. Shaw $25 

Edward Coit . . ... 30 

A. B. Haile 25 

C. G. Child 25 

Thomas Byrnes 25 

A. H. Emmons 25 

John Eggleston 25 

John Eggleston (Trustee) . . 25 

J. W. Hooker 50 

George W. Kies 25 

E. A. Huntington . . . . 25 
H. G. Ransom 25 

F. S. B 100 

C. Starr Brewster 100 

William Bond 100 

John F. Arnott 50 

S. A. Whitney 25 

Mary W. Goddard .... 20 

William Williams 400 

Alfred Mitchell 100 



Grand total 



^21,395 



One of the subscribers to the above fund drew his check 
payable to " The Stars. and Stripes," while one of the lady- 
contributors sent in a silver cup, made in 1811, and held 
in the family as a valued heirloom, accompanied by the fol- 
lowing note : — 
"Mr. Johnson, Treasure?-, — 

" Dear Sir : I have no money to give you, but this old cup 
has been in my family through five generations. It is small, but 
true. May it not have passed through one revolution to help 
some brave boy now. I have given my younger son to his coun- 
try, with regret that his older brother ^ cannot be with him. 

" Yours, * * * *." 

Another lady contributor wrote thus : — 
" Mr. Chas. Johnson, Treasurer, — 

" Dear Sir : At a time when the women of our country with 

1 This elder son here referred to returned from business pursuits in another 
part of the world to enlist, and lost his life on the field of battle. 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. I 57 

willing hands to work, and warm hearts to feel, are naturally 
anxious to do all in their power to help and to cheer the brave 
men who go forth to battle for the glorious flag which from our 
childhood we have been taught to hold sacred, — may I, who can 
do little else than bid them ' God-speed,' be permitted to add my 
mite to the fund for the benefit of the families of the noble band 
in whose hearts is enshrined the honor of their country, which, 
with God's blessing, they will ever defend. It is not in my power 
to send ready money, but I beg your acceptance of the inclosed 
coupon — forty dollars. 

" Very truly yours, 

" E. A. D. 

"Norwich, April 22, 1861." 

It should be stated in this connection, that in conse- 
quence of the generous provision of the town for the relief 
of soldiers' families, and for the promotion of enlistments, 
elsewhere spoken of at length, the contributors to this fund 
were not called upon to pay in but fifty per cent, of 
the amount they severally subscribed. Some, however, had 
promptly paid their entire subscriptions at the time they 
made them, and declined to receive back the portion to 
which in equity, and by vote of the committee, they were 
entitled. The fund was wisely administered, and brought 
timely relief and cheer to many a brave soldier, or needy 
family. There are letters held by the treasurer which at- 
test the heartfelt gratitude of those who by it were assisted, 
while to the very close of the war, and even longer, did 
this fund hold out, proving a source of supply, until all 
immediate war needs had ceased. This was not the only 
fund raised by public contribution for the relief of soldiers, 
and those dependent on them. On the thirtieth of August, 
1862, in the great war meeting, the doings of which we 
have already described, our citizens raised considerably over 
twenty thousand dollars. This was paid over directly to 
those to whom the moneys were personally promised on 



158 THE NORWICPI MEMORIAL. 

condition of enlisting, or to the families of those who by 
these pledges were induced to volunteer. 

Nor does this end the tale of citizen benevolence. The 
aggregate of these free-will offerings would mount up to a 
greatly augmented sum, if all that was given for objects 
connected with the war had been recorded. But many were 
the individual gifts that escaped public notice, and never 
were reported. The costly and elaborate swords presented 
to various officers by individual citizens, represent only one 
item of expense in which not a few were very lavish, while 
at different times most generous subscriptions were made 
for the comfort of those of our soldiers confined in Southern 
prisons. In addition to a Union thanksgiving collection in 
November, 1863, and a contribution made at the same time 
by the Second Congregational Sabbath-school for this ob- 
ject, there was a fund of four hundred and twenty-three 
dollars raised in the beginning of 1864, three hundred and 
fifty-eight dollars of which were the result of the " Soldiers' 
Relief Ball." In April, 1864, at the Union headquarters 
in this city, where numbers of our citizens had gathered to 
rejoice over the election news, a sum of two hundred dol- 
lars was contributed " to be applied especially for the bene- 
fit of the privates confined in Richmond, who suffer most." 

There certainly never was a time in which private benev- 
olence had so many calls upon it, as during the war, and 
in no equal period in our national history was so much given 
by individual citizens. A new era of Hberality and of char- 
itable enterprise seemed to be opened by the war, and the 
people responded to every appeal for help with unprece- 
dented generosity. 

While we cannot specify how much our citizens did in- 
dividually or in the aggregate, it is enough to know that 
they became ready contributors to all the great charities 
which the sufferings incident to our struggle had created. 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. I 59 

Governor Buckingham stood at the head of " the Connecti- 
cut Chaplains' Aid Commission," and in support of the work 
of this organization, our people, either singly, or as gath- 
ered in the different churches, gave liberally. The objects 
it had in view, were to supply all Connecticut Regiments 
with chapel tents, to provide camp libraries and newspa- 
pers, and in every practicable way to cooperate with chap- 
lains in their labors for the mental and moral welfare of the 
soldiers. 

To those grand organizations, which did so much to miti- 
gate the hardships of the soldiers, and to rob the battle- 
field of its horrors, — the Sanitary and Christian Commis- 
sions, our citizens were interested and regular donors. 
They never failed to meet generously the repeated calls 
the " Soldiers Aid Society " of this city made upon them 
for pecuniary assistance, and it is to the credit of their be- 
nevolence, that all classes shared in it. The giving was 
not done by the rich alone, but those of humbler means 
were proportionately as benevolent, while many a donation 
came from those who were in really straightened circum- 
stances. It would make a memorial of lasting interest to 
this community could the full hst of all that was given dur- 
ing the war by the people, be here presented item by item, 
but in the absence of this, we have reported enough to show 
that never before were all animated to such an extent by 
the impulse of a genuine benevolence. 

The war was emphatically an epoch of deeds ; words 
went little ways unless coupled with brave actions, or gen- 
erous gifts. Philanthropic sentiments were reckoned of 
little account, unless converted into such personal labors 
or benefactions, as they naturally prompt to, if sincere. 

Our soldiers in the field were made the recipients of 
private beneficence to an extent that made them feel that 
those at home counted it a privilege as well as a duty to 



l6o THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

minister in any way to their comfort. Following with a 
fond pride the course of those who went out from the town, 
to fight for all that was dearest, the community felt, and 
by their actions showed, that the soldiers were entitled to 
all they could do for them and theirs. 

Nor was our citizen patriotism all of one type, — for 
though it prompted some to give in the manner already 
described, it led yet others to such personal service and 
sacrifices as in many cases were never publicly known. 
One of our citizens, who gave of his own time and effort to 
aid the government, too infirm to become a soldier, besides 
being exempt by age from military service, secured for him- 
self a " representative recruit," at an expense of nine hun- 
dred dollars, and kept him in the Union army. 

Jared Dennis, living at Norwich Falls, contributed five 
able-bodied sons to the army. Another citizen sent one 
son into Captain Chester's company, giving him a Spartan 
father's good-by, in these words, — " Do your duty, my 
son ; if you fall, your brother shall take your place, and 
after him I shall go myself" 

Nor was it by giving only, all important as that was, 
that our citizens at home showed their devotion to the 
National cause. There were voluntary services rendered 
to the Governor, which converted not a few into " tempo- 
rary aids" to him, amid the duties and anxieties which at 
the commencement of the war pressed heavily upon him. 
Col. George L. Perkins volunteered to bear dispatches from 
Governor Buckingham to the Secretary of War at Washing- 
ton, and on Tuesday the twenty-third of April, was dis- 
patched by his Excellency, being the second " envoy ex- 
traordinary," sent from Norwich to our then beleaguered 
Capital. He had a memorable experience, going " cross- 
lots," as he termed it, in order to reach that city. Commu- 
nications were known to be severed, and to get through 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. l6l 

Maryland was no easy task, for secessionists and traitors 
were thicker than hornets. However, all went well as far 
as Philadelphia, where according to the narrative of Colonel 
Perkins, " I determined to take the cars to Perrysville, and 
from thence to Annapolis by boat, accompanied by Major 
Ames, Quartermaster of the. Massachusetts troops. Mr. 
Felton, President of the Philadelphia and Baltimore R. R. 
gave us a letter to Colonel Dare, commanding at Perrysville, 
requesting him to place one of the company's boats at our 
service, and put on board a military escort of twenty-five 
men. We left in the latter without delay, though not with- 
out some apprehension, as it was reported that two steam- 
tugs were in the bay to attack any boats conveying troops 
to Annapolis." 

Arriving safely, and reporting to General Butler, they were 
forwarded by him on a military train to the Junction, and 
thence by cars, in company with the New York Seventh, 
and the Rhode Island Regiments under Governor Sprague, 
reached Washington at noon, Friday, April twenty-si.xth. 

During his necessary detention at Annapolis, Colonel 
Perkins had a chance to observe General Butler, who had 
opened this new route to Washington, by which Baltimore 
was temporarily avoided. While at his head-quarters, an 
officer, somewhat new to his duties, reported to him, and 
meekly waiting to be assigned somewhere, for it was very 
late, ventured to ask, " Where am I to sleep. General .-'" The 
latter turning upon him a look never pleasant to contem- 
plate, replied with considerable emphasis, '* Young man, do 
you take me to be chamber-maid to this military post .'' " 
This extinguished the youthful soldier's desire for sleep, and 
the sleepless Colonel, who might have enjoyed the poor boon 
thus unsuccessfully solicited by his junior, kept an upright 
position till his train left at midnight. 



J 62 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



On reaching the Capital he reported at once to Secretary 
Cameron, whose porter, taking in his full commanding fig- 
ure, and supposing him to be some distinguished magnate, 
bore his card up in advance of a number of other less 
fortunate messengers from Northern States. Here his 
errand was soon made known, and answering dispatches 
placed in his hands for Governor Buckingham. Colonel 
Perkins brought back the first reliable report as to the 
number of troops in and about Washington, and other 
facts, which showed in what imminent peril the Capital 
had been up to this date. He met on his return the Sixty- 
ninth Regiment of New York, fourteen hundred strong, 
guarding the railroad from Annapolis to the Junction, 
with orders from General Butler, " to shoot every one seen 
meddling with the track, as you would a dog, and tumble 
his body down the embankment." He also passed, en 
route for Washington, Major Sherman, afterwards the dis- 
tinguished General, with a United States Battery of four 
guns. 

He reported, as doing guard-duty at the White House, 
Hon. Cassius M. Clay, commanding one hundred and 
twenty-one volunteers armed with rifle, revolver, and 
knife. Hon. Abraham Wakeman of New York, was pa- 
trolling as sentinel before the Presidential mansion, when 
he went to call on Mr. Lincoln. An alarm was given a 
night or two previous to his arrival, on which occasion this 
unique company of " Honorables," was formed in five min- 
utes, several in stocking feet, with orders from Clay, " to 
fire deliberately and fire low, and at the proper time use 
the knife ; " adding, as only a Kentuckian of his stamp 
could, " I am fond of chopped meat." 

These are facts I glean from the very interesting letter, 
wliich conveyed in full to Governor Buckingham, the re- 
port of the journey and the discharge of the commission 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



163 



with which intrusted ; and with Colonel Perkins' own sum- 
mary, Tgive this as one chapter in the varied services in 
which many afterwards bore an equally important part : — 

" I passed through Egypt {i. e., Maryland) without being 
shot, though in perils of robbers, in perils of mine own 
countrymen, in perils by plug-uglies, in perils in the city, 
and in perils among false brethren. In weariness and 
painfulness, in watchings, in hunger and thirst, in fastings 
often, and in the night-dampness." 

On the eighteenth of June, 1861, IVTr. E. P. Slocum, 
agent of Adams' Express, who always took a lively in- 
terest in the well-being of our soldiers, advertised that he 
would take packages to them free of charge. He supposed 
many in the community, who had friends and kindred in 
the three companies Norwich had now in the advance of 
the Union army, would be glad to avail themselves of this 
opportunity to have conveyed to such anything that would 
add to their comfort, and be pleasant reminders of those 
they had left behind them. The advertisement hardly ap- 
peared, before bundles and boxes and packages of all sizes 
and descriptions began to be delivered, and it seemed as 
if all the people were actuated by one common impulse. 

However, Mr. Slocum bravely stood to his generous 
offer, and complacently looked on the accumulating pile 
of good things, of which he was to be the gratuitous al- 
moner, and giving full time for all who felt disposed to get 
their contributions to his office, crowded now to the full 
with donations, he started with the proposed free load. 
Three large express wagons were required to convey the 
goods to the Depot. Arriving in due time in Washington, 
he sought most diligently for the means of transporting 
his precious freight to the expectant boys, who were now 
encamped on Virginia's sacred soil. 



164 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

After only such vexatious delays, and magnificent ram- 
bles from one end of the city's expanse to the other in 
search of a vehicle and driver, he succeeded in chartering 
two ancient steeds, a couple of adolescent darkies, and the 
waitcd-for-wagon. He loaded up and started for the Old 
Dominion. Getting by the inquisitive pickets, numerous 
enough to prevent any over-long trot with the fiery cours- 
ers, he neared the camp. 

Discovered while yet a great way distant, the narrator, 
Mr. Bromley, thus presents the scene : " Mr. Slocum was 
greeted by the familiar voice of Joab Rogers, who had lifted 
up his eyes, and discerned him afar off. The alarm once 
given, the progress of our missionary was a continued ova- 
tion. The boys rushed out bare-headed, bare-footed, or 
in any costume that came handy, and cheered, and shouted 
' Hi,' and cheered, and when they got tired of that, gave 
several rounds of cheers. 

" Once in the camp, the boxes were unloaded, and opened 
in a twinkling. Then the boys stopped shouting", for they 
found this a difficult matter while doing picket duty on the 
good things, and crowding cartridges of pies and cakes, and 
other sundries down their throats, which seemed to have be- 
come double-barreled for the occasion. Everybody came out 
strong in that sudden exigency, and Mr. Slocum thought 
the spectacle was worth travelling a great way to behold. 

" The boys appeared well, brown, and hearty, having ex- 
perienced a considerable average addition to their bulk and 
weight. As a sporting item, it is well enough to mention 
that his ebony jockeys achieved the entire distance from 
Camp Tyler to Washington, not over ten miles, in five hours." 

This may serve to show how soon these " first things," 
which the necessities incident to war set our people to 
doing, lost the charm of novelty, and became matters of 
only ordinary significance, though none the less important 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



165 



and helpful. This is the story of the first boxes sent to the 
soldiers, but as already stated, such gifts soon became very 
frequent, and were sent regularly, with a liberality and 
thoughtfulness that made them of invaluable service to our 
boys, when in camp, hospital, or prison. 

Among other objects for which the Governor dispatched 
Special Agents, and which showed his thoughtful, wide 
reaching care, was to look after Connecticut soldiers in the 
hospitals of the West and Southwest. Capt. L. A. Gallup, 
formerly of the Twenty-sixth Regiment, was in August, 
1863, entrusted with this duty, and reported as follows, on 
his return from this mission of mercy : — 

Norwich, Conn., September 10, 1863. 
To his Excellency, Wm. A. Buckingham. 

Sir: Agreeable to your instructions issued to me, August 25, 
1863, directing me to visit those hospitals in which were left sick 
and disabled soldiers by Connecticut regiments, while en route 
from the Department of the Gulf to Connecticut, and ascertain 
their condition, I have the honor to report that I left Norwich on 
the evening of August 25th, and proceeded directly to Memphis, 
Tenn., at which place the first soldiers were sent to hospitals after 
leaving Port Hudson, La. The medical director at Memphis in- 
formed me that the Connecticut soldiers left at that place were in 
Adams and Union Hospitals. Visiting these, I ascertained that the 
Twenty-sixth Regiment sent to Adams Hospital, August ist, twelve 
enlisted men, and that the Twenty-eighth Regiment sent to Union 
Hospital, August 14th, nineteen enlisted men. Of this number, 
twelve have died, twelve had been sent to Connecticut, and seven, 
all members of the Twenty-eighth, were then in Union Hospital. 
Leaving Memphis, August 31st, I returned to Cairo, 111., where 
I ascertained that two members of the Twenty-eighth Regiment 
had been admitted into the Post Hospital at that place, x\ugust 
17th. Both had recovered, and been sent to Connecticut. From 
Cairo I proceeded to Mound City, 111., where I ascertained that 
twelve enlisted men of the Twenty-sixth Regiment were ad- 



1 66 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL 



mitted into the United States General Hospital at that place, 
August 3d, and that eleven enlisted men were admitted from the 
Twenty-eighth Regiment, August 17th. Of the number, nine 
had died, two had been sent to Connecticut, three were then in 
hospital, and one could not be accounted for. 

From Mound City I proceeded to Chicago, 111. There two com- 
missioned officers and one enlisted man were admitted into the 
Soldiers' Home, August 4th, and nine enlisted men were admit- 
ted into the military department of the Marine Hospital, and 
one enlisted man into the Post Hospital. 

These were all members of the Twenty-sixth Regiment. Of 
this number six enlisted men had died, and the other seven had 
been forwarded to Connecticut. Leaving Chicago, I arrived at 
Toledo, Ohio, September 5th, and there learned that five enlisted 
men, members of the Twenty-sixth, were admitted into the In- 
firmary in that city, August 5th. This entire number had died. 

I am not aware that Connecticut soldiers were left at places 
other than those mentioned, while en route to Connecticut from 
the Department of the Gulf. 

As to the condition of the men left at Memphis, I would say, 
that six of the seven were reported as "doing well," and would 
be strong enough to proceed in a short time to Connecticut. The 
other one " was failing," and would not survive many days. 
Two of the three in Mound Hospital were recovering flist, and 
one was in a dying condition. 

I was assured by the surgeon in charge of those hospitals, 
that those from Connecticut who were remaining, would be pro- 
vided with transportation and rations, and forwarded to Connect- 
icut as soon as it was thought advisable to do so. 

Although it is painful to know that so many of our number 
have died, when within a few days of their homes, I am happy 
to say that the hospitals of which they were inmates, are com- 
modious and well regulated. Those who survived, admitted 
that they received every care and attention. I would state that 
the graves of those who have died, have been properly marked. 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 1 67 



SUMMARY. 

Total number admitted into hospitals, 74 

Total number who have died, 32 

Total number sent to Connecticut, 31 

Total number remaining in hospitals, 10 

Total number not accounted for, i 

— 74 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

L. A. Gallup. 
Hon. W. A. Buckingham, 

Governor of Connecticict. 

Where all were so patriotic, it is not possible to individ- 
ualize the labors of many, for like the men of whom 
Macaulay speaks in his "Lays of Ancient Rome," 

" Then none was for a party ; 
Then all were for the State, 
Then the great man helped the poor, 
And the poor man loved the great." 

And yet for memorial purposes, we may justly venture 
to make special mention of those, who because of their 
position or means were enabled to render service, which all 
now remember with gratitude, and speak of with pride. 

W. A. Buckingham, who was the chief executive of the 
State from 1859 to 1866, was foremost in all patriotic work, 
not less in his private than in his public and official capacity. 
He has left a proud record of noble, earnest service in a 
critical period of the Nation's history. To his keen appre- 
ciation of State and National affairs, his promptness of 
action, Connecticut was indebted for the leading position 
which she held during the war. Commanding the confi- 
dence of his fellow citizens to an unwonted extent, he was 
trusted as few men have been before or since in similar of- 
ficial stations, and he maintained to the last the respect and 
gratitude of the Commonwealth. His best and highest title 



1 68 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



will ever be the one he gained for his signally devoted and 
able administration of affairs, in a time of unprecedented ex- 
citement and peril, — " Connecticut's War Governor." 

Early foreseeing in the agitation of the South which fol- 
lowed the election of Mr. Lincoln, the beginning of a fear- 
ful conflict, he began to prepare for it. In January, 1861, 
he had wisely ordered the purchase, on his own responsibil- 
ity, of knapsacks, cartridge-boxes, bayonets, and everything 
belonging to the full equipment of at least five thousand 
men. In April, when the war broke out, he at once re- 
solved to discard all smooth-bore weapons, and arm Con- 
necticut troops with the best rifles. The money necessary 
to do this, he decided to raise by loans, pledging for se- 
curity his own private fortune, but this the immediate prof- 
fers of loyal men, and the tenders of the banks, made un- 
necessary. 

The State, through his promptitude, aided as he was by 
able and energetic coadjutors, put her troops into the field in 
advance of others, better armed and equipped at the first, 
than those from other States, and this too, without a dol- 
lar's expense to the Federal Government. The latter made 
requisitions upon the Governor, which were promptly filled, 
such as a Light Battery for Rhode Island, and a second 
one for the authorities at Washington. On request of the 
Governor of Ohio, he was able to furnish him four thousand 
sets of equipments for the soldiers of his State. 

When the second call was issued by Mr. Lincoln for 
troops, and only a limited supply of clothing and camp 
equipments were in the government store-houses. Governor 
Buckingham was the first to apply in behalf of the quota of 
Connecticut, through a special agent, Mr. E. H. Owen, of 
Hartford, and on the principle " of first come, first served," 
the orders were issued to make over the supplies on hand 
to this State. The result was that our troops were the 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



169 



earliest equipped and escaped the sufferings that were ex- 
perienced by those of other States, who on arriving at the 
appointed places of rendezvous were kept waiting for their 
necessary blankets, clothing, and tents. 

The General Assembly of 1861, appropriated three thou- 
sand dollars for the payment of personal expenses incurred 
while in the discharge of official duties, but this gratuity he 
generously declined in 1866, adding as his reason, "that 
public burdens have rested so heavily upon the people dur- 
ing the past five years, that I do not feel willing to draw 
from the Treasury money thus appropriated." 

During part of the time of his long career as Chief 
Executive of the State, he turned his salary over to some 
patriotic object, devoting, in one instance, more than the 
year's income, to the relief of the families of volunteers. 

To have been Governor of Connecticut for the most mo- 
mentous years since the Revolution, called to the position 
by the voice of the people, and continued by repeated re- 
elections, is enough for the patriotic ambition of any man ; 
to have served with zeal, unsullied integrity, and an unfal- 
tering faith in the Nation's cause, is more honor than often 
falls to mortals in this world, and such honor, as -alas, can 
be trusted to but few. 

Connecticut will ever remember with pride, and Norwich 
hold in grateful recollection — the unwearied services of 
him who was able to grasp the various interests of the public 
good, and accomplish well the enormous work thrown upon 
him, who was capable of being the exponent and also the 
leader of public sentiment, who could steady the heart of 
his State, and yet stimulate the Central Government in the 
path of justice. 

Hon. Wm. P. Greene, whose name will ever remain with 
us as a synonym of the purest patriotism and benevolence, 
was especially active in all movements in aid of the war. 



170 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Unobtrusive in whatever he did, few knew how generous 
and extensive were the gifts he made to the soldiers, or 
those dependent upon them. Many an incident, illustrative 
of his loyalty and liberality, lingers in the memory of not a 
few in this community, who never refer to him but with 
feelings of admiration and real affection. When called on by 
Colonel Young and Mr. James D. Movvry, for his contribu- 
tion to the" Sinews of War " Fund, he replied with that cour- 
tesy and deliberate utterance which characterized him, " Put 
me down, gentlemen, for whatever I ought to give," and dis- 
missing them with this, for his final answer, they depart- 
ed, and put him down for what alone all knew would satisfy 
him ; for his name never stood against any subscrijjtion, 
second in amount to that of any other citizen. On learning 
that Capt. J. B. Dennis of the Seventh Regiment had borne 
the expenses incident to the recruiting of his company, he 
and his noble daughter. Miss Lizzie Greene, reimbursed him 
for all his outlay. The latter, assisted by her brother, the 
Hon. J. Lloyd Greene, then added the very acceptable gift of 
blankets for each member of the company. As the Eigh- 
teenth Regiment was drawn up in line, to receive the regi- 
mental colors, on the afternoon of their departure from Camp 
Aiken, Mr. William P. Greene advanced to the front of the 
company raised in the village which bears his name, bade 
the boys an affectionate good-by, and presented them 
with a beautiful inlaid box containing one hundred and one 
two dollar and a half gold pieces. Capt Davis, acknowledg- 
ing the gift, wrote back from Fort Henry, Baltimore, the 
following note : — 

VV.M. P. Greene, — 

Kind Sir : I desire in behalf of the company which I have 
the honor to command, to express to you our sincere thanks for 
the munificent gift to us on Friday last. . . . Each member of 
the company will value his gift, not so much as a matter of in- 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



171 



crease to the liberal bounties of the government and town, but as 

a token of remembrance from a warm and liberal friend. Not 

less do we prize those words of counsel and advice, as you bade 

the Greenville boys an affectionate good-by. They will not be 

forgotten. We will return with the good reputation with, which 

you complimented us. 

Respectfully yours, 

Henry C. Davis. 

Henry B. Norton v^^as another of our citizens whose ser- 
vices, ever generous and unceasing, endeared him to all 
Norwich soldiers. His name is one which they speak to 
this day with the warmest feelings. Quick to perceive 
what should be done, and eager to help wheresoever he 
could, he rendered the most timely assistance to the Gov- 
ernor. Superintending the transportation of troops, the 
chartering of vessels, the purchasing of army supplies in 
the early period of the war, and thereafter attending person- 
ally to the wants and comforts of our men in the field, his 
labors were invaluable. Soldiers came to feel that if he 
was on the look-out for them, they would not suffer for the 
lack of anything his thoughtful care and means could pro- 
vide. Members of the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Regi- 
ments write him down as their friend ; one whose presence 
and aid tided them over many a day of pressing need. His 
services, from first to last, were the free-will offering his 
patriotism alone inspired him to render, for he declined all 
commissions, and refused every tender in the way of com- 
pensation. 

Hon. Lafayette S., Foster, who ably represented Con- 
necticut in the United States Senate for twelve years, includ- 
ing those of the war, was also among our most active and 
patriotic citizens. Rendering distinguished service in Con- 
gress, and attaining an eminent position in that body, he 
was, when in Norwich, an earnest supporter of the war 



172 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

measures of his town. In his place in the Senate he gave 
his advocacy to all that could help our armies, and sustain 
the integrity of the government. Inflexibly independent, 
with honor and honesty untemptable, he spoke and voted 
only and always according to his own convictions. With 
nothing of the politician about him, holding fealty of con- 
science above allegiance to mere party, his course was all 
the more noble and patriotic, because at times it compelled 
him to differ from measures that were deemed popular, and 
imperiously pushed by the political leaders, by whom dis- 
sent is not infrequently stigmatized as disloyalty. His 
voice was heard in most of our war-meetings, and no one 
sought with greater earnestness than he, to encourage 
enlistments, and sustain the hopefulness of the people. 

Dr. C. B. Webster deserves to be ranked as one of the 
most patriotic and useful of our citizens during the rebellion. 
In December, 1862, he made a tender of his services to 
the government, and was appointed Assistant Surgeon, and 
ordered for duty to Camp Barker, which was then the tem- 
porary home of the thousands of fugitives from slavery. 
These ex-slaves flocked to Washington in great numbers, 
and in all conceivable conditions of destitution. Dr. Web- 
ster was soon put in charge of what was called " Contra- 
band Camp Hospital," where the medical care of these 
fugitives fell upon him ; and some idea of the nature of 
the arduous work he performed while here, can be obtained 
from the fact that during the winter of 1862 there were thir- 
teen hundred cases of small pox. 

In the autumn of 1863, the freedmen were removed across 
the Potomac to the Arlington Estate. Here Dr. Webster 
continued in service till the spring of 1864, doing for the 
physical comfort, as well as moral and mental improvement 
of the contrabands all that a thorough devotion tot heir 
every interest could suggest. In this work the anti-slavery 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 1 73 

principles of a life-time found opportunity to incarnate 
themselves in untiring and noble labors. Believing in 
the manhood of these enfranchised bondsmen, he sou^-ht to 
instruct them in all that related to their daily living, and to 
the duties incident to their state of freedom. This sort of 
work greatly interested our ovyn people, and they made Dr. 
Webster the distributor of boxes of supplies and clothino- 
which they sent to him at different times. 

In the spring of 1864, owing to prostration induced by 
malarial fever. Dr. Webster was forced to resign. After a 
short rest, he accepted an appointment from the Sanitary 
Commission, and went to Huntsville, Ala., as medical in- 
spector of troops. About this time the " Hospital Train Ser- 
vice," for the transport of sick and wounded soldiers to the 
North was extended, and he again accepted the appointment 
from government of Assistant Surgeon, and was ordered 
to the charge of a hospital train running from Nashville 
and Louisville. In this service he continued till near the 
close of the war, having under his care other hospital trains, 
clearing out the hospitals at Chattanooga and Nashville, to 
make room for the new arrivals from Sherman's army on its 
march to the sea, and for those brought in from the battle 
near Nashville. It was while here that Governor Bucking- 
ham, ever mindful of the comfort of Connecticut troops, 
appointed Dr. Webster agent to look out for any of the 
latter who might be in the various hospitals under his 
charge. The Fifth and Twentieth Regiments, which were 
in this Department, shared thus in his faithful ministries. 
For this extra service, he declined compensation, and 
though in the employ of the State, labored as a volunteer, 
his name never appearing on the pay-roll of the Common- 
wealth. 

The Sanitary and Christian Commissions furnished him 
liberally with all needful supplies for sick and wounded sol- 



174 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

diers, thus enabling him to provide with generous hand for 
their physical and spiritual wants. Few men labored with 
more self sacrificing devotion ; a true friend of the soldier, 
an ardent advocate of the rights of those whom " military 
necessity " obliged us to liberate, he was emphatically the 
man of all others to do the work he did. 

Quartermaster-general Aiken rendered also efficient aid 
in his position, cooperating with the Governor amid the 
press of his duties, the successful performance of which 
was not a little due to the cordial assistance of official 
associates. General Aiken bore the first dispatches, which 
the authorities at Washington received after the outbreak 
of hostilities, assuring them of speedy assistance, on the 
part of a loyal governor of a loyal State. He reached 
Washington at ten p. m., Wednesday, April 24th, and, re- 
porting immediately to General Scott, found him at his 
headquarters, attended only by two members of his staff. 
After he had read the paper from Governor Buckingham, 
which General Aiken presented, he said, excitedly, " Sir, you 
are the first man I have seen with a written dispatch for three 
days. I have sent out men every day to get intelligence of 
the Northern troops ; not one of them has returned. Where 
are the troops .''" At ten o'clock the next day General 
Aiken calling on President Lincoln, found him alone in 
his business room up-stairs, looking towards Arlington 
Heights, through a wide open window, near which stood a 
spy-glass, or telescope, which he had just been using. After 
reading the dispatches directed to him, with measured em- 
phasis, and amid evident depression of spirits, he asked, 
" What is the North about .'' Do they know our condi- 
tion ? " Before General Aiken left Washington that day 
he saw the white flag run up over the Capitol, which was 
the signal that the first Northern troops had arrived, and 
soon the famous Seventh Regiment of New York entered 



SOLDIERS' RELIEF. — CITIZEN-SERVICE. 



175 



the city, bringing hope and assurance of safety at a most 
critical moment. 

Col. J. H. Almy is another of our citizens whose labors 
were of a nature entitling him to special mention and re- 
gard. Commissioned as Assistant Quartermaster-general, 
he established himself in New York, devoting his whole 
time to facilitating the transit of our troops, to minister- 
ing to the wants of the sick, and looking out for the gen- 
eral welfare of Connecticut soldiers. With noble efficiency 
throughout the war he discharged the duties of his respon- 
sible post, and with admirable executive ability saw that 
the sick and wounded were cared for, and that his office 
should afford such help and information as the throngs 
that visited it sought. His disbursements for the needy 
and sick were very large, and met by the expenditure 
in part of his own salary, and in part by the generous 
contributions of the sons of Connecticut. The daily gen- 
eral business of his agency showed the versatile service 
and earnest devotion of the man. Among its duties were, 
the collection of back-pay and bounties ; correcting errors 
in passes and descriptive lists ; obtaining of furloughs ; re- 
ception of boxes of sanitary goods and the prompt ship- 
ment of the same to their several destinations ; care of bas:- 
gage ; procuration of regimental flags, guidons, together 
with musical instruments for various bands, and small arms 
for officers ; discharges for sick and disabled soldiers, and 
responses to letters inquiring for the missing, sick, or 
dead. At the end of four years his record showed that 
more than two hundred thousand soldiers of Connecticut 
and other States, sixty thousand of them sick and 
wounded, had passed through his hands, all receiving 
transportation, many being otherwise assisted. His office 
was like unto " Interpreter's House," in Bunyan's story. 
He himself was a universal good Samaritan, as the num- 



176 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

bers of those he cared for with a brother's sympathy and 
liberality can attest. Connecticut had no more useful ser- 
vant than he was, and his best eulogy is in the gratitude of 
soldiers, who never think of him without invoking blessings 
on him for his kindly work. 

The following testimony by Adjutant-general Williams 
was borne to the efficient and varied efforts put forth by 
Colonel Almy, during the war: — 

" The services of Colonel John H. Almy, of New York City, 
who was appointed by your Excellency as Assistant Quartermaster- 
general for the purpose of extending aid to our volunteers pass- 
ing through the city, and to assist and advise the friends of sick 
or deceased soldiers, have been of the most extended and bene- 
ficial character. His whole time has been devoted to this noble 
object, and the zeal and efficiency of his labors can be attested by 
thousands of grateful hearts. The sick and wounded soldier re- 
turning to his home has always found in him a friend whose sym- 
pathies were wrought into practical form, and many an anxious 
wife, mother, or sister has received valuable advice and directions 
in their efforts for the relief of a suffering husband, son, or brother 
in the field or hospital." 

It is to the credit of our town, that so universally our 
citizens were eager to render any and every assistance to 
the cause, and to those who went forth to do battle in its 
behalf, of none could it be said " facile princeps," for the 
motto of the royal crest seemed to have been adopted 
by all, " Ich dien," — I serve. In this home-service all 
classes of our people were zealous to share, and they 
brought to it a self-sacrificing, generous spirit, that makes 
it worthy of honorable record. 



XI. 




THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 



1861-65. 

" No sword have I, no battle-blade, 
Nor shining spear ; how shall I aid 
My country in her great crusade ? 

" I am a woman weak and slight, 
No voice to plead, no arm to fight, 
Yet burning to support the Right." 

Caroline A. Mason. 

THE Story of our war will never be fully or fairly writ- 
ten, if the achievements of woman in connection 
with it are untold. And yet their names are not to be 
found in official reports, nor gazetted for brilliant deeds, 
such as made many a soldier a hero in the country's sight. 
It was in hospitals, in Relief Associations in their native 



178 • THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

towns, in private ministries to the comfort of those they 
had sent forth with their benedictions, that the patriotism 
of American women was seen and felt. 

The record of Norwich in this respect is one which is de- 
serving of lasting remembrance and honor. All that could 
be done by our ladies to provide for and encourage our 
soldiers, was done, with a rare persistency and devotion. 
From the memorable Sabbath, which followed the Presi- 
dent's first call for troops, when they sewed all day on the 
outfit of the first Norwich company that went forth to the 
strife, clear through the long years of the war, they were 
unwearied in their zeal to do for the comfort and cheer of 
those in the army. 

Beginning, as was just stated, their public labors in 
behalf of the soldiers, on Sabbath, April twenty-first, they 
continued these noble efforts, which the stern necessities 
of the crisis made for a while so urgent, for a number of 
days. As the result of their associated work in this form 
they made up nineteen hundred shirts of flannel, and 
checked cotton, besides other articles of apparel required 
by the soldiers for their outfit, which were never reported. 
It was owing to their timely services, so cordially and un- 
falteringly rendered, that the first companies from Norwich 
were put in readiness for their prompt departure. 

During these busy, exciting days, when the Norwich 
ladies met daily in Breed Hall to sew, the following was the 
favorite song, which ofttimes relieved the tedium of their 
work, and gave expression to the feelings, which at this 
early stage of the war were well-nigh universally shared. 
The song was written by one of their number, who sub- 
sequently became a leading spirit in connection with the 
" Soldier's Aid," and was first sung by a choir of young 
ladies on the balcony of the " Wauregan House," on the 
occasion of the departure of Captain Chester's company. 



THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 179 

" What means this wild rush and commotion, 

In our homes once so peaceful and free } 
Why burns every patriot's devotion, 

For his country to die, if need be ? 
'Tis that traitors heap insult upon her. 

Now they boldly come forward to view, 
And our flag trails in dust and dishonor, 

The flag of the red, white, and blue. 

" Our flag to our eyes is the emblem 

Of all that the soul holds most dear ! 
To defend it, we'll show the proud boaster, 

Northern men neither tremble nor fear ! 
In such danger 'tis no time to dally. 

We'll swear to be faithful anew ; 
Party names all forgetting, we'll rally . 

Round the flag of the red, white, and blue. 

" O my country ! to-day on thy altar 

Our best treasures most freely we lay ; 
In thy honor no true man will falter, 

But boldly stand up, come what may ! 
While we breathe, we'll desert her cause never, 

We'll all to our colors prove true, 
The Flag of our Union forever — 

Three cheers for the red, white, and blue." 

E. P. 



The " Soldier's Aid Society " was soon after organized, 
and was the chief organization which the patriotism of 
Norwich ladies made so serviceable to the soldiers in the 
field. Its history, from the commencement to the close of 
its existence, forms a splendid memorial of their earnest 
efforts in ministering to the comfort of Connecticut troops. 
The Society was organized in September, 1861, under a 
call to furnish woolen stockings for the soldiers. Dona- 
tions of yarn were received, and quickly by willing fingers 
transformed into warm socks. Considerable finished work 
was also contributed. At Governor Buckingham's sugges- 
tion, an arrangement was soon made for supplying regi- 



l8o THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

mental hospitals ; and the ladies of Norwich assumed the 
especial care of the Sixth, Eighth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth 
Regiments. They called upon the ladies of New London 
and Windham Counties to cooperate, who generously re- 
sponded with the proffer of their services. The Society 
found an increasing field of usefulness opened before it, 
and sought, with the necessities engendered by the long 
continuance of the war, to enlarge its operations. This 
of course added to the labor of those connected with the 
organization and made the tax upon time and personal ser- 
vice by no means small. At the head of this Aid Society, 
stood Miss Elizabeth Greene, whose untiring zeal and 
personal superintendence secured for it that efficiency and 
widening scope, which made it second to no other kindred 
association in the State. With time and means at her own 
command, her work in connection with the Society was 
one prompted by the purest patriotism, while her executive 
skill and womanly tact kept up the interest in it, and 
rallied to its enthusiastic support all classes in the commu- 
nity. Long will she be remembered, by those whom she 
befriended ; and among the many titles she won, for her 
rare graces of character, and her devotion to other's good, 
none will place her higher, or be cherished longer, than 
the onc'her war labors especially gained her, — " The sol- 
dier's friend." She put her whole heart into her sacrificial 
serving during the years of the rebellion, and made the 
sympathy and help of Norwich women felt by Connecticut 
troops wherever they were to be found, in camp, hospital, 
or prison. With Miss Greene were associated two other 
ladies, who shared with her the management and personal 
direction of the Society's labors — Miss Carrie L. Thomas, 
and Miss Eliza P. Perkins. With a fidelity and ardor that 
•was steadfastly maintained, they stood to their posts of 
laborious service, ably systematizing and seconding the 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. l8l 

great work the Society had in hand. Miss Emeline Nor- 
ton, towards the latter part of the war, held a responsible 
position in the Society's management, and gave of her time 
and strength to keep up its efforts. 

In the first year of its existence the Society received : — 



October. By thirty-three subscriptions from Norwich Ladies $139 65 

October 26. By the Nightingales 29 33 

November. By the Norwich Patriotic Fund . . . 200 00 

December. By Personal subscriptions 57 94 



Total for 1861 



^26 92 



For the second year (1862) the receipts were 



By Norwich Ladies .... 
Norwich Gentlemen . 
The Nightingales .... 
Christ Church .... 
East Main Street Methodist Church 
Greeneville Congregational Church 
Sachem Street Methodist Church 
Central Methodist Free Church 
St. Mary's (R. C.) Church . 
First Congregational Church 
Broadway Congregational Church 
Central Baptist Church 
Second Congregational Church 
Universal ist Church . . ' . 
Grace Church .... 
Trinity Church .... 
First Baptist Church 
Christ Church Fair 
Music Vale Seminary . 
Three Concerts, 152, 48, and 144 
Soldier in Potomac Army 
Soldier in Eighteenth Regiment 
Miscellaneous .... 

Subscribers .... 

Lisbon Lady ..... 
Ladies' Association, Old Saybrook 



5291 43 
250 54 

43 50 
67 00 

38 58 
go 00 

49 50 
63 00 

52 54 

lOI CO 

192 19 

53 86 
497 65 

40 00 
25 00 
71 00 
18 20 

710 00 
15 00 

344 00 

50 CO 

1 00 

5 05 

37 00 

5 00 

2 00 



1 82 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Patriotic Fund $200 00 

Lyceum Lecture Committee 55 °° 

Total for 1862 . . . . $3,369 04 

The receipts for the third year (1863) were as follows : — 

1863. By Norwich Ladies $468 67 

Norwich Gentlemen 1,211 70 

Nightingales 130 90 

Wendell Phillips 50 00 

Miscellaneous 21 27 

Patriotic Fund 100 00 

Christ Church Collection ...... 75 75 

Montville Congregational Church 8 80 

Thompson Soldiers' Aid ...... 22 95 

Mystic Island 16 00 

Hopeville Young People's Soldier's Aid ... 10 00 

" Up Street " 20 00 

Contributors . . . . . . . . 6 50 



Total for 1863 .... $2,142 54 

So far as the accounts of the " Aid " can be made out, 
from the monthly reports published in the daily paper, the 
receipts for the fourth year (1865) were as follows : — 

1864, Nov. to 

1865, Sept. By Christ Church Collection $25 00 

First Congregational Church . . . • 96 53 

Collections 143 28 

Hume's Reading ....... 147 25 

Contributors ....... 674 36 

Miscellaneous 9 43 

Sale of Photographs ...... 40 50 

Soldiers ......... 25 co 

Sale of sundries ....... 14 90 

Juvenile Society . . . . . . . 15 00 

Total from Nov. 1864, to Sept. 1865 . $1,191 25 

This hardly represents the exact receipts of the " Aid for 
the years 1864-65," but owing to the loss of the Society's 



THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 183 



account-book, it is given as the nearest approximate returns 
possible under the circumstances. 

The number of articles sent off by the " Soldiers' Aid," 
so far as they can be itemized, are as follows : — 



Total. 

Bed-sacks 460 

Quilts 1,213 

Sheets 2,021 

Blankets 290 

Pillow-sacks 392 

Pillovv-cases 2,018 

Pillows . . 1,139 

Flannel Shirts l>993 

Cotton Shirts 2,359 

Second-hand Shirts • . '. . 793 

Drawers 1,519 

Wrappers 403 

Socks 6,587 

Bandages. 

Lint and Old Linen. 



Total. 

Slippers 623 

Towels 3,122 

Handkerchiefs i,773 

Mittens 1,264 

Pincushions 613 

Thread-bags 441 

Coats 79 

Vests 84 

Pants 65 

Bound Books 438 

Wine — Bottles 284 

Vegetables — Bo.xes .... 2 

Pickles — Boxes 30 

Dried Fruit and Jellies. 



These various articles were distributed thus : 







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THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 185 



Besides the supplies forwarded to these enumerated regi- 
ments and associations, the " Aid " was solicited to con- 
tribute to the following, and did so with a generous hand. 
Hospital at Fort Schuyler ; National Freedmen's Society, 
Washington ; First Regiment S. C. Volunteers ; New Haven 
General Hospital ; Freedmen at Port Royal, Dr. Peck ; 
Freedriien at Washington, Dr. Webster ; Chesapeake Hos- 
pital ; Fortress Monroe, Miss Ramsey ; Mrs. J. G. Piatt, 
Washington ; Mrs. Tyler, Philadelphia ; Freedmen at New- 
bern. 

MONEYS EXPENDED BY THE " AID." 



For Flannel $3, 181 57 

For Ticking 267 17 

Sheeting, Shirting, Calico 1,348 55 

Toweling 16 00 

Medicines I33 40 

Transportation, Carpentry, 

Sundries i>529 34 



Yarn $i,i43 48 

Mittens 72 23 

David's Island Hospital . 65 00 

Connecticut State Agent . 25 00 

Needy Soldiers and families 128 00 

Total from 1861-65, $7)909 74 



All the clothing and surplus funds remaining on hand at 
the close of the war were distributed, through the " Aid," for 
the benefit of soldiers and their families. 

These statistics give but little idea of the personal labor 
of the ladies. For the articles they sent away had for the 
most part to be made up, and represent an amount of work 
which only the industrious hands of women could perform, 
and which was a serious tax upon their time and strength. 
Then, in addition to this simple plying of the needle, on 
them fell largely the work of collecting the funds they 
received, representing an amount of solicitation which 
cost many weary walks, and the most diligent persistency 
in presenting the claims of the Society to individual con- 
tributors. 

In the fall of 1862, when all the churches in Norwich took 
up in behalf of the " Aid " a collection, this generous action 
on their part was secured through the efforts of a special 



1 86 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

committee, consisting of Mrs. Charles Johnson and Mrs. 
John B. Young, who took great pains in bringing the matter 
before all the several church committees. The result was, 
that all the congregations, including St. Mary's (R. C), re- 
sponded. To the faithful and cheerfully rendered service 
of these two ladies was the exchequer of the Society in- 
debted for the handsome sums it received from the 
churches. 

In September, 1862, the ladies of Christ Church held a 
fair, for which they worked with the utmost enthusiasm, and 
from which they netted for benefit of the " Aid " seven hun- 
dred and ten dollars. In April, 1864, after the most pains- 
taking preparation, an elaborate exhibition was given in 
Breed Hall, for the " Soldiers' Aid," lasting through the 
greater part of a week. The programme, which was changed 
each evening, embraced tableaux, charades, statuary, of the 
most finished description. Amateur vocalists of the city, to- 
gether with White's Band, contributed their services for the 
occasion. Many of the costumes were procured from out 
of town, and every possible effort was made to render 
the entertainment of unequaled variety and completeness. 
Between fifty and sixty ladies and gentlemen took part, 
and their representations were with every advantage that 
appropriate costume, and study of the characters personated, 
could secure. The exhibition was the most artistic and 
successful ever witnessed in this city, and reflected the 
greatest credit upon the committee, who spent most of their 
time for three weeks in arranging for it. 

To Miss Gertrude May, Mrs. David Young, Miss Eme- 
line Norton, Miss Hannah Ripley, Miss Elizabeth Greene, 
Mrs. Gardiner Greene, and Mrs. John B. Young, who, with 
rare taste, and patient labor, projected and superintended 
this unique entertainment, was the " Soldiers' Aid " in- 
debted for the handsome resultant of nearly nine hundred 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 187 

dollars. The public appreciated their patriotic services, 
and the exhibition was attended throughout by large crowds, 
eliciting the heartiest applause. Some of the charades were 
composed for the occasion, while many of the tableaux were 
original. Not a few of our citizens well remember the in- 
tense enjoyment these entertainments afforded, and recall 
even now with just pride the industry and zeal of those 
who wrought their patriotism into so delightsome and useful 
a form. 

Aside from its regular work of preparing and forward- 
ing supplies to the sick and wounded of our soldiers, the 
" Aid " not infrequently sought to diversify and add to its 
usual labors. 

In November, 1862, in response to an appeal of Colonel 
J. H. Almy to furnish pies for the Thanksgiving dinner of 
the Connecticut soldiers encamped on Long Island, the 
" Aid " received one hundred and sixty pies of various 
kinds, which were carefully packed in boxes and promptly 
forwarded. These indispensables of the Yankee's Thanks- 
giving feast were keenly appreciated by the soldiers, and 
brought back some feeling acknowledgments. 

Again, in November, 1864, the "Aid" issued an appeal 
to the public for contributions toward furnishing a " Thanks- 
giving " to Connecticut Regiments. Somehow there was a 
sort of secret power to these appeals of the Society which 
made them always effective. The ladies of the " Aid " had 
the art of putting, as well as doing things, that made them 
successful in all their patriotic undertakings. So it proved 
in this instance, for their report runs thus : — 

" Received five hundred and seventy-four dollars, two hundred 
and fifteen turkeys, one hundred and nniety-nine pies, thirty-three 
chickens, ninety-six cans of tomatoes, four and three-quarters 
barrels of apples, twelve tongues, forty-five bottles of pickles. 
Also, divers roast geese, spare-ribs, beef a la mode, corned beef, 



1 88 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



roast veal, brown bread, sugar, cheese, oranges, crackers, ginger- 
bread, cake, crullers, doughnuts, cookies, ginger-snaps, nuts, rai- 
sins, plum-puddings, tobacco. From out of town, — two boxes 
of turkeys, etc.. North Stonington ; two barrels turkeys, chickens, 
etc., and one box of apple-sauce, Dayville ; one large box roast 
turkeys, Windham ; three smaller boxes roast turkeys, chickens, 
etc., Danielsonville." 

All told, these contributions filled twenty-one barrels and 
seven boxes, and were forwarded to the Eighth, Ninth, 
Tenth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Twenty-first, and Twenty- ninth 
Regiments. Three hundred dollars were spent for turkeys, 
chickens, etc., for Connecticut soldiers on the James River, 
and in the Shenandoah Valley. One hundred dollars were 
appropriated for purchasing supplies for sick and wounded 
soldiers of the State in Washington hospitals. One hun- 
dred and seventy-four dollars were applied to the Thanks- 
giving pleasures of sick and wounded soldiers and returned 
prisoners at David's Island. The stores were generously 
conveyed free of charge by Adams' Express to New York. 
Such remembrances as the ladies of the " Aid " received 
from the happy soldiers, can be better imagined than de- 
scribed. One of the turkeys forwarded had a note attached, 
addressed " to any soldier or sailor who may receive this 
Thanksgiving gift," and brought back promptly this feeling 
acknowledgment : — 



Camp of Mounted Rifles, i 
Kautz's Cavalry, A^ovember 25, 1864. \ 



Mr. 



, Dear Sir : I have just risen from eating a good 

dinner off your turkey, — a jolly good soldier's dinner ; and with 
it was received your kind and sympathising letter, which added 
good sauce, making a kind gift the better from feeling how truly 
you felt for us who are in the field, facing the common foe. It 
is not in the power of my pen to describe the feeling of satisfac- 
tion and pleasure, and of gratitude, we all feel that those at 





.^^ 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 1 89 

home could think of the poor soldier. Accept the thanks of one 
who really enjoyed your bounty. May the good God spare you 
to eat many Thanksgiving dinners, restore yours in safety to you, 
and prosper you in all the pursuits of life. Accept, again, the 
grateful thanks of one who enjoyed your kind gifts, with this ac- 
knowledgment of its safe arrival and proper disposition. 
Your grateful and obliged friend, * 

A Mounted Rifle. 

Lieutenant-colonel Peale wrote back a warm letter of 
thanks in behalf of the regiment, whose Thanksgiving 
bounties made them feel peculiarly loving towards the " Sol- 
diers' Aid." No more welcome " birds " could have been 
sent to the brave men who were still roughing it amid 
war's duties and hardships, than these savory turkeys and 
chickens, and to a New England soldier it was next to be- 
ing at home, to have one of the.se pleasant reminders of 
the great family feast of the year, well supplemented with 
a genuine Yankee pie. 

The following letter from Dr. C. B. Webster, to the " Aid," 
will show the nature of his labors, and the assistance which 
was cheerfully accorded him : — 

Washington, Febmary 7, 1863. 

I learn that the " Soldiers' Aid "in Norwich will cooperate 
with friends of the contrabands in providing clothing for these 
destitute people. You may have learned already that I am sta- 
tioned at the Contraband Camp Hospital in this city. Seeing 
every day the pressing wants of the sick at this camp, my 
thoughts turn at once to benevolent friends in Norwich, whose 
hearts and hands have ever been ready for every good work. 

We have here about eleven hundred refugees from slavery. 
More than three hundred are sick and under medical treatment. 
Government furnishes to them army rations and medicines. For 
many supplies almost indispensable to the sick, and for clothing 
of all kinds these people must still look to the liberality of be- 
nevolent friends. 

13 



IQO THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

This demand is met to some extent by the Quakers of Phila- 
delphia and New York, but with the numbers to be supplied 
here, at Alexandria, at Fortress Monroe and the great South- 
west, and these numbers likely to increase, it will be seen that 
the call is urgent. These people come with their little all, con- 
tained in most cases in a bundle or box, which a woman can " tote " 
upon her head. Their great possession they consider their free- 
dom. 

The camp is constantly changing, and this is the reason of 
the continual demand for clothing. The able-bodied find employ- 
ment soon after arrival, and go out, leaving their places to be 
supplied by new comers, who sometimes arrive to the number of 
one hundred and fifty a day. Many of these, however, become 
sick from exposure on their journey, and are obliged to remain. 
They need stout clothing, of the coarsest material, large, thick 
shoes for both men and women, and socks are greatly in demand. 
Anything, literally anything, in the shape of a garment of any 
kind can be put to immediate and good service. Nothing can 
come amiss. 

We have two hundred patients in the Small-pox Hospital. We 
greatly need clothing wherewith to furnish them when they are 
able to go out, after recovery, or for decent burial. Many thou- 
sand must die in the transition from bondage to freedom, and it is 
sad in the extreme to see the sufferings of great numbers of these 
poor people, alleviated only by the thought that they die free, 
and do not leave their children slaves. 

May I not appeal through you to many kind friends of the poor 
in Norwich for the ability to supply a portion of the pressing 
want ? 

The " Aid " at once issued their call for contributions, and 
with the usual success. Many a box went to this camp 
from this Society which attested the wide sympathy of the 
ladies, and the promptitude with which they responded to 
every new appeal for help. 

The " Soldiers' Aid," as will be seen from the facts already 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. I91 

given, sent their supplies wherever needed, and did not con- 
fine their ministries to Connecticut regiments exckisively. 
They were as impartial in their serving as such patriotic 
ardor as they manifested could alone have made them. 

Among the many fortunate recipients of their favors 
was the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers, un- 
der command of that brave soldier Colonel Higginson. 
He was among the first to advocate the emancipation of 
the slaves, and the enlistment of the most capable into the 
military service of the United States. And ever ready to 
do what he so eloquently urged as an act of justice and a 
measure fraught with incalculable benefit to the Union 
cause, he accepted the colonelcy of the first regiment of 
blacks organized in South Carolina. 

Our " Aid " had the honor of contributing the first box 
of supplies to these swarthy soldiers, and their noble Colo- 
nel sent the ladies the following acknowledgment : — 

Headquarters First Regiment S. C. V., | 

Camp Saxton, February 13, 1863. ( 

: Your inestimable box arrived here yesterday in perfect 



order, the packing being worthy of the contents. It was re- 
ceived with delight by Dr. Rogers and myself, and all the greater 
from the fact that since our last successful expedition our thoughts 
have been much occupied with sickness, and we have been com- 
pelled to enlarge our hospital accommodation. This is, I find, 
the sickly period of the year for the negroes — February and 
March, — while the summer is such for the whites. The physique 
of these people is peculiar. They have not the toughness of the 
whites, but instead of this have greater susceptibility, both of 
disease and cure. 

They have a great tendency to pneumonia and pleurisy, and 
the only way is to take each case very promptly, when they can 
be cured with the facility of children, while twenty-four hours 
delay may prove fatal. You will see how directly this bears on 



192 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

the importance of hospital conveniences, and this gives a pecu- 
liar value to your donation. 

It is the only donation we have received from the North, ex- 
cept a box of mittens just received from Worcester, for the use 
of our guard at night. The nights here are often uncomfortably 
cold, ice forming in the tents, though the days are warm. Just 
now. however, we are having weather like our Northern May. 

It is impossible to command this people and not become at- 
tached to them. Under military organization they are so prompt 
and ready in service, so cheerful and patient in action, so free 
from inconvenient vices, and in general so confiding and so little 
troublesome. 

On the other hand, in battle they show a fiery energy which 
must give them an important part in the history of the war. I 
feel sure that no one who aids their usefulness will have reason 
to repent it. 

With sincere thanks, in behalf of the regiment, to the " Sol- 
diers' Aid Society," I am most cordially yours. 

Thomas W. Hioginson, 

Cohniel Coniinaiiditig First Regijiient S. C. V. 

Aside from those ladies we have already had occasion 
to name, there w^ere others whose fervid loyalty prompted 
them to services deserving special mention. 

The " Soldiers' Aid " received an invitation to be repre- 
sented in the great Northwestern Fair, held in Chicago, in 
October, 1863, under the auspices of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion. The response was prompt and hearty, and resulted 
in the preparation and shipment of a large box filled with 
articles and gifts from the ladies of this city and vicinity. 
These donations were exhibited first in the large windows 
of the " Soldiers' Aid" room, making a display which was 
creditable to the taste and industry of the .contributors. 

A letter from one who visited the Fair makes the fol- 
lowing reference to this handsome donation from the 
"Aid'': — 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. -193 

" As a Norwich boy, I am proud of the part that was taken 
by its citizens in not only sending some beautiful articles to the 
Fair, but also sending a delegation to see them. And here let 
me say that 'Old Connecticut' was represented by one of the 
handsomest booths, and some of the finest articles on exhibi- 
tion. God bless her ; she has done her part towards giving our 
brave soldiers over sixty-five thousand dollars. Who says we 
of the Northwest can ' leave New England out in the cold ' 
after this." 

The " Aid Society " acqtiired a wide reputation for its 
efificiency, and calls were made upon it from various parts 
of the country. It kept such a steady stream of supply 
flowing toward the needy in our army, that abroad the im- 
pression prevailed that it must be a much larger organiza- 
tion than it really was. It had indeed a wider constituency 
than that represented by Norwich ladies, indefatigable in 
good worki^ as they were. For, to the honor of the ladies 
of New London and Windham Counties, it should be re- 
corded, that they generously contributed of their money 
and effort to it, and the Relief Associations formed in the 
adjoining towns wisely and cordially became auxiliaries to 
it. So that it was the grand " Soldiers' Aid Society " for 
Eastern Connecticut, with its headquarters here, and the 
leading spirits to whose direction and peerless devotion it 
owed its name and usefulness, were residents of Norwich. 
Now that we can look back and review its history, a juster 
estimate than ever before can be formed as to that unwearied 
labor and sacrifice, which through all the years of our war 
made this agency so widely beneficent in its influence. 
Hereafter the " Soldiers' Aid Society " of Norwich will be- 
come the historic witness to the earnest patriotism of the 
ladies of this town, and of those who in New London and 
Windham Counties contributed to its treasury and stores o^ 
supplies. 



194 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

We presume very few of our citizens had at the time 
any very just idea of the amount and extent of the work 
done by the ladies connected with the " Soldiers' Aid." 
Their rooms in the Rockwell Building were always the 
scene of the utmost activity. Here were delivered boxes 
and packages from auxiliary societies scattered throughout 
the adjoining counties, where they were carefully repacked 
and forwarded to their destinations. 

All the boxes they sent off, were with but few, if any ex- 
ceptions, safely received ; a fact quite creditable to the 
business tact and care of the managers at the rooms. Had 
it been possible to find the letters received by the " Aid," 
acknowledging the supplies sent forth by it, they would have 
best revealed how widely distributed were its stores, how 
keenly appreciated by the recipients, and how prompt and 
generous were the responses to those who appealed to this 
Society for help. 

Among the knitters of stockings, was a Mrs. Prudence 
Stoddard, of Noank, aged ninety-four, who sent in with a 
pair of her own knitting, a note, stating that she had had 
the privilege of knitting stockings for our soldiers during 
three wars, beginning with the Revolution. Another lady 
in Lisbon, aged ninety-one, sent in to the " Aid " one pair of 
stockings, and one pair of mittens, her own handiwork. 
Mrs. Cady, of Norwich Falls, and Mrs. Thomas Lathrop, of 
Norwich Town, aged ninety-two, contributed stockings knit 
by their yet nimble hands. 

Among the most efficient of the societies, auxiliary to 
" The Soldiers* Aid," was the one supported by Norwich 
town ladies, whose activity in every good cause entitles 
them to the highest praise. The name adopted for this 
sister " Aid Society " was, " The Nightingales," and with 
most commendable zeal and generous emulation did they 
labor through the years of our conflict, contributing to the 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 195 



" Norwich Aid " a steady stream of the choicest stores, and 
articles for the comfort of our troops. 

It originated about the same time that the " Aid " did, 
under Mrs. Henry Thomas and Mrs. Daniel W. Coit. 
These two ladies were ably assisted by others, until for 
constancy and effectiveness in their beneficent giving and 
working, the Nightingales were unsurpassed. 

This Society kept no books of its own, and only a part of 
what it accomplished appears in the incomplete reports we 
have given of the " Soldiers' Aid." Everything contributed 
to the latter by it, was carefully recorded, and no auxilliary 
was more regular or generous in the offerings it made to 
the cause. 

The Nightingales had a quiet method of working, rather 
characteristic of all their charitable undertakings ; but it 
was exceedingly productive, and the soldiers in the field or 
hospital soon came to recognize what came from them. 
They cooperated so continuously with the larger Society, 
that the two seemed more like one organization divided into 
branches for convenience in laboring. 

Miss Carrie L. Thomas was among the most active in 
keeping the Nightingales to their devoted work, and served 
as a sort of secretary, reporting to the " Aid " their contri- 
butions in money and supplies. 

The Greeneville ladies acquired a high name for their pa- 
triotic devotion to the soldiers. They were steady contrib- 
utors to the " Soldiers' Aid," and were unflagging in their 
zeal to do whatever would prove helpful to those who were 
sick or in want. In 1863, they forwarded two boxes of sup- 
plies to the Union prisoners in Richmond ; one box was 
sent to Libby, and the other directed to Belle Isle. 

By the colored ladies in Norwich was organized, February 
tenth, 1864, the first " Aid Society," to render assistance to 
the sick and needy in the two colored regiments sent forth 



19^ THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

by the State. Mrs. Walter Burr stood at the head of this 
association, and with the circle specially interested in its 
operations did much for the welfare of the members of the 
Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Regiments. The record of the 
doings of this agency has unfortunately been lost, which 
prevents our giving a summary of what was accomplished. 

The following interesring incident, memorializing the 
patriotism of one of our Norwich ladies, now gone to her 
exceeding great reward, is worthy of record here. She was 
among the most active in doing aught that was possible for 
the comfort of the soldiers, though her labors were so unob- 
trusive, that not all knew of their extent. Among her 
papers the following memorandum was found, which will 
recall her to those who shared with her in the works to 
which she and others gave themselves during our exciting 
war years : — 

" July 4, 1864. 

" To-day, the anniversary of our glorious independence, I have 
completed the one hundredth pair of socks that I have knitted for 
the brave soldiers, who are nobly sustaining the honor of our 
country on many a hard fought battle-field. God grant them 
success. Theirs will be the glory when the Stars and Stripes 
wave over a united nation. For them are our prayers, and to them 
we look with hopeful hearts for the restoration of peace and pros- 
perity in all our borders. The soldier who receives this pair of 
socks will gratify me by advising me of the same." 

The answer came back after her death, and was a response 
that showed a brave and thoughtful soldier had been the 
recipient of her humble gift. 

On the completion of her fiftieth pair, a similar note had 
accompanied it, to which there was returned the following 
grateful acknowledgment : — 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 197 

Steam Transport " Atlantic," 

Mississippi K\nv.v., Sc'ptembi'7- ^o, 1863. 

Dear Madam, — I received a pair of stockings, just before 
leaving Vicksburg, in which was a note stating that they were the 
fiftieth pair you had knitted, and donated to the soldiers. You 
say your prayer is always "for those who are battling for right 
and their country." Would that the same was felt and uttered by 
all we leave behind us in the North. I much regret that we 
have foes both North and South to contend with, but we must 
trust in " Him who rules all things," and feel that right and jus- 
tice will in the end triumph. 

We are enduring hardships and privations that but a few 
months since seemed almost impossibilities ; are doing it to pro- 
tect our once glorious and yet much-loved country. We have 
left those behind who are dearer than life itself, and have rallied 
for the protection of the " old flag." We must, we shall succeed. 
Many have already fallen, and many more will doubtless meet a 
soldier's fate before the rebels are conquered ; and if it is decreed 
we shall no more in this life meet our dear ones at home, may 
God in mercy grant that we may meet where parting is no 
more. 

Allow me to thank you for these stockings ; thank you for the 
kind interest you manifest in the welfare of the soldiers, and may 
I think that 1 have an interest in the prayers of the donor, 
though a stranger. 

We have now started on an expedition to the relief of Gen- 
eral Rosecrans, and expect to have to march some three hundred 
miles. 

Excuse, and believe me very respectfully 

Yours, 

W. H. Keeling, 

Co. H, First Battalion iT,th U. S. Infantry {General 
S/iertnan's Army Corps), Cairo, Illinois. 

Among the most patriotic and devoted of our ladies dur- 
ing the rebellion, was Mrs. Dr. Webster. She shared in the 



IQS the NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

toils of her husband among the Freedmen, and subsequently 
served with him in his hospital work, becoming a valuable 
assistant through her own tender ministries to their comfort 
and relief. 

When in Washington, while Dr. Webster had charge 
of the Freedmen's Camp, she commenced the first school 
ever taught among them. 

At Springdale Camp at Arlington, she opened a day 
school, attended by from fifty to sixty pupils. While at four 
other contiguous camps, she had schools every other day. 
At first she taught these neglected ones, just out of slavery, 
and in utter ignorance, from cards hung upon the camp 
buildings or upon trees. As they advanced, she had a sup- 
ply of suitable books procured for them. In this way she 
had, in all, the supervision of between five and six hundred 
scholars. Writing concerning them at one time, she said : 
" Twelve or fifteen out of this school of fifty are making 
rapid progress, learning as fast as any children, and all are 
well. Some are learning arithmetic remarkably fast." 

Again, when at Huntsville, she had charge of the school 
for the freed children. At this early date it was far from 
popular to have anything to do with these unfortunate 
people. She had the honor of being a pioneer in what has 
since become an extensive and confessedly noble work. 
Many were the ludicrous as well as painful scenes she 
witnessed, while laboring in behalf of the Freedmen. 

The following extract is from a letter of another of our 
Norwich ladies, who labored with signal zeal and devotion 
among the Freedmen of Newbern, showing to what works 
of beneficence an earnest patriotism prompted some of 
them. 

" LIFE AMONG THE FREEDMEN AT NEWBERN." 

'• We live in an apostolic manner, as far as a community of 
goods is concerned. Everybody borrows and begs of his neigh- 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 199 



bor. You cannot buy or hire anything in a respectable and 
civilized way. If we wish to ride, Lieutenant F. is head of the 
Ambulance corps, and furnishes as many ambulances as we wish. 

"The chief quartermaster is an intimate friend of the family, 
and we have many fiivors through him. Lieutenant K. is head of 
the engineer department, and when we wanted a bell hung, he 
detailed a man to do it. The bell was found in one house, the 
wire in another, and after some days work, we can at last get a 
servant into the house without going out into the rain and cold 
to call him. Tonight, as it looked like clearing, we went out in 
an ambulance to Howell's Camp, to the entertainment given to 
the school, but Mrs. Hawley supposing we would not come in 
the storm, put it off till to-morrow night. We went into the 
schoolhouse and saw the tree, which looked beautifully. It was 
an odd ride ; the night was very dark, and the driver missed the 
road and came near overturning amidst the stumps outside the 
camp. Returning we rode through the streets, and the camp 
looked very bright and cheerful. There are no windows to the 
houses, but you could see the red firelight shining through the 
cracks between the logs. Many of the doors were open, showing 
the bright wood fire, and the families sitting round. All was 
quiet ; we did not see a person outside, e.xcept the guards at the 
church door, but there was singing everywhere. 

"We heard 'Rally round the Flag, boys,' 'Shout the Battle- 
cry of Freedom,' ' John Brown's body/ and as we rode farther 
on, the voice of prayer from a little gathering, and one of their 
old wild hymns, ' Jesus died on the cross, on the cross for me.' 
I never shall forget this last evening of the year. 

"New-year's Day in Newbern. I have had many a happy New- 
years Day as you well know, but none so truly happy as this one. 
Last night I could not sleep, and really watched for the morning. 
At ten, we went to the Methodist church to attend Miss Canady's 
Christmas tree. She has shown a great deal of taste in making 
wreaths and adornments for the church, which has been newly 
white-washed for the occasion, and with the beautiful tree laden 
with presents (mostly from the Norwich box), presented a charm- 



200 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

ing sight. The flag of the school hung from the singing gallery 
and a large cross of box was placed in front of the tree. The 
scholars sang a New-year's greeting, then Mr. James made an ad- 
dress in his happiest manner, followed by the song. There were 
one hundred and eighty-eight scholars present, from grown up 
women to little five year olds. A great bag was arranged on a 
table in front of the tree for the youngest children, who all passed 
by in order, each one putting in a little black hand, and it was as 
good as a play to see their faces as they examined the gift, and 
then held it up for their mothers and fathers to see, who lined 
the galleries on either side, looking down upon them with eager 
eyes. The presents of the tree were marked with the names of 
the scholars. AVhen we had seen them given out we left, the 
children rising respectfully when we passed down the aisle. 
Everything passed off with the greatest order and propriety, far 
more so than many of our Christmas celebrations at home. 

" In the afternoon there was a union meeting of all the schools, 
at the church, when the banners, which had been made by the 
teachers, were presented to the respective schools, by an appro- 
priate speech. Three of these addresses were by colored men. 
They all sang and cheered, and had a glorious time generally. 
They then marched in procession "to the ' teachers' house,' where 
they formed in a hollow square, sang ' Rally Round the Flag,' and 
cheered President Lincoln, General Butler, and the teachers. 
Then they called in front of our house, sang ' America,' cheered 
Mr. James, General Peck, and General Palmer, and separated, 
each school marching off to its own camp, in military order. 

" At sundown Mr. Johnson and I had an ambulance, and taking 
two of the teachers, started for Howell's Camp. It had cleared 
off cold, and by the time we arrived we felt as though we must 
be at home in the North, we were so freezing cold. Mrs. Haw- 
ley's tree was splendid. The log schoolhouse and church was 
full to overflowing, and the lights being all on the tree, behind it, 
gave a charming effect, much like a bit of fairy land springing 
out of darkness. Some young soldiers who came with the 
teachers, made short speeches, helped the children sing, and we 



"THE SOLDIERS' AID SOCIETY." — WOMAN'S WORK. 201 

had a free and easy time. We had ' Rally Round the Flag,' 
' Old John Brown,' 'Happy Land,' and other cheery songs, and 
left at eight o'clock, only because we could not get back to New- 
bern unless we came away then. The camp is without the lines, 
and the bridge over the creek is taken up by the picket guard 
every night at eight o'clock." 

Thtis earnestly, throtigh associated efitbrt, did our ladies 
seek to do what they could for the comfort and cheer of the 
soldiers. This, however, did not exhaust their patriotic zeal, 
for some were desirous of performing military duty in the 
only way allowed them by law. Accordingly, at their own 
expense, they procured acceptable representative recruits, 
and presented them for enlistment in the service, and in 
this way had a personal representation in the ranks of the 
Union Armies. The government, to meet such instances 
of noble patriotism, had certificates engraved, and issued by 
the War Department to the persons furnishing such recruits, 
as an official acknowledgment of their public spirit, and 
devotion to the weal of the country. The first of these ever 
issued to a Connecticut lady, was received by Mrs. Augusta 
E. Ely ; her sister. Miss Elizabeth Green, being the honored 
possessor of a similar one. The example of these two pa- 
triotic ladies was followed by others here and throughout 
the State. 




XII. 




'' Dtcltc ct decorum est pro patria mori.'''' 
"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 

" We think with imperious questionings, 
Of the brothers we have lost, 
And we strive to track in death's mystery, 
The flight of each valiant ghost." 

" No fear for them! In our lower field 
Let us toil with arms unstained, 
Till at last we be worthy to stand with them 

On the shining heights they've gained. 
We shall meet and greet in closing ranks, 

In Time's declining sun ; 
When the bugles of God shall sound recall. 
And the battle of Life be won." 

John Hav. 

IT is with a peculiar tenderness we gather up for memo- 
rial purposes the many names which make our lengthy 
" roll of the dead." Here come back to us the remembrances 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



203 



of brothers, and sons, and citizens ; — those who might have 
looked forward to contented and busy lives in the various 
pursuits they left, but who went forth at the sacred call of 
patriotism, and fell in the cause they risked all they held 
dear to maintain. Here we behold in impressive form what 
our war tax was. These names represent the real sacrifices 
of families and the community. From the fields where they 
fought, the smoke of battle has long since rolled away, and 
great Nature has mantled with her verdure each mound and 
bastion, but the work they wrought, the end for which they 
yielded up their lives abides secure. " Other men labored, 
and ye are entered into their labors," so we solemnly con- 
fess it to be true with us. It is fitting, therefore, that we 
enshrine in memorial phrase these names, which will ever 
live as symbols of nobleness and signs of endearment. 
Wiser laws, humaner institutions, liberties enlarged, and 
faith exalted, — these are the crimsoned trophies their 
blood, with that of others, secured us. These shall pro- 
claim in language more expressive than human lips can 
utter, in forms more significant than sculptured marble can 
exhibit, the work and memory of our lamented dead. 

Of the more than twelve hundred Norwich citizens (in- 
cluding representative recruits) who served in the ranks of 
our armies during the rebellion, and helped on the high seas 
to maintain the honor of the old flag, who followed through 
temporary defeat to ultim'ate victory the national standard, 
and at last saw the rebel colors go down upon the Ap- 
pomattox, and shared in the rejoicings with which a grateful 
nation celebrated its final triumph, one hundred and sixty- 
seven lost their lives. Forty were killed by the bullet on 
the field, and the rest died in camp, hospital, prison, or after 
returning to their homes. These, embracing sixteen com- 
missioned officers, and one hundred and fifty-one enlisted 
men, constitute the oblation made by Norwich to rebellion. 



204 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Our list of the " unreturning brave" presents the names, 
so far as it has been possible to ascertain them, of all who 
went from this town, whether serving on its quota or not, 
and nobly proffered their own lives to secure the country 
from the perils that threatened its certain destruction. Our 
limited space and knowledge prevent us from speaking with 
equal fullness of detail of all these fallen heroes, whose sim- 
ple military records are here given. We do not claim for 
them any superior merit of devotion or courage over those 
who went from other towns and States, and met a like fate. 

We are justified in praising our own, for we knew their 
worth, and when they went forth to do battle in behalf of 
the cause their patriotism led them to espouse, they went 
in our names, and were followed by our prayers. It is meet 
therefore that we speak well of them, for we believe them to 
have been on the whole good soldiers and true men. They 
claim from us all a grateful remembrance. We cannot for- 
jret that those whom we here commemorate died in our 
places, and by their cheerful endurance of the hardships of 
their service, of death itself, saved the State. 

" Four hundred thousand men, 
The young, tlie brave, the true, 
In tangled wood, and mountain glen. 
On battle plain, in prison pen, 
Lie dead for me and you. 
For me and you — 
Four hundred thousand of the brave, 
Have made our ransomed soil their grave 
For me and you, 
Good friend, for me and you." 

To be a good soldier, to maintain an unblemished record, 
and command the respect of comrades and officers in all 
the trying scenes of war, is no easy task. 

Allusion just here may not be inappropriate to that which 
we shall have no opportunity of referring to- later in our 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 205 

narrative. Against some of the names on our " Roll of 
Honor," will be found recorded that which carries the im- 
peachment of disgrace, and it is a cause of sincere regret, 
at this late date, when the issues of the conflict have largely 
disappeared, to find our representatives in the Union armies 
branded with the word " deserter," or with what is indica- 
tive of ignominious punishment. 

We have preferred not to enter into any discussion as to 
the cases of such, but rather leave them to appear as they 
do, exceptional ; and from the fact that but few names are 
thus shaded over with aught dishonorable, to claim with 
greater confidence for our soldiers in general, a more than 
average record for courage and fidelity. 

We know but very little of the circumstances of those 
whose military history, according to the Adjutant's rolls, 
was not above reproach. And we are apt now to forget 
what some high-spirited and true men had to suffer from 
incompetent or severe officers ; what disappointments in 
the way of promotions, earned or promised, embittered 
them, and tempted them to unsoldierly conduct. There 
were well established instances where those who had of- 
fended, through thoughtlessness of consequences, or through 
unusual temptations, were treated with a military rigor 
which gave some army officers the reputation of arbitrary 
and needless severity. There were yet other instances 
where the accused were technically guilty, but the mitigat- 
ing circumstances so numerous, as to make the execution 
of the sentence impolitic, if not unjust. We do not claim 
that all our representatives proved in the army all that we 
fondly hoped they would. We simply bespeak a charitable 
judgment upon every soldier, whose record is not altogether 
stainless. Thankful ought we rather to be, that our boys 
bore themselves so well, and with such uniform honor For 
they were away from home restraints, and exposed to the 
14 



206 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

demoralizing influences inseparable from war ; they were 
often brought into contact with bad men, who had entered 
the army with unworthy motives ; many of them were in 
what they regarded as the enemy's country, and were 
tempted to chafe under that military surveillance which 
kept ihem from indulging in private forays upon what the 
rules of war obliged them to leave intact. 

There were, however, many instances of private daring, 
and self-sacrificing service, which more than counterbal- 
anced whatever brings discredit upon any on our " roll of 
honor." There were brave deeds performed by privates 
which never caught the eye of reporters, and so never 
found their way into the public papers. 

Of J. Dickinson Ripley, Hospital Steward of the Eight- 
eenth, who lost his life soon after the war closed, in the 
burning of the steamer " Commonwealth," at Groton, it is 
said, that after the battle of Winchester, in which he was 
severely wounded, he devoted himself first to dressing the 
wounds of his regimental comrades, leaving attention to 
his own sufferings till he had done all he could to mitigate 
the pain of those whom rebel shots had injured. 

Such instances of unselfish devotion to the comfort and 
help of others, we believe, were not infrequent ; and they 
redeem the common soldiers, those upon whom fell the bur- 
dens and few of the honors of the struggle, from the charge 
of being mere hirelings, indifferent to the high duties which, 
we claim, must have been inspired by patriotic feeling. In 
the pocket of a Union soldier, far gone with fever, was 
found a red morocco Testament, and a poor little note-book 
half soaked through with rain or swamp-damp, in which a 
few wandering pencil-notes were still legible, and this little 
couplet altered from an old song : — 

" Not a sigh shall tell my story, 
Silent death shall be my glory." 



'THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 20/ 

I will match that last line, has one well said, against the 
lines on whose simple feeling great poets have been floated 
into fame. 

In fact, it may be claimed that " it was the distinction of 
all the better class of volunteers that they bore, not only 
the brunt of fighting and the lassitude of defeat, but all the 
infirmity and skepticism of their comrades. And their 
moral power alone made them equal to it. The best men 
were centres of conscience, planted like flags that have re- 
ceived oaths that they shall never touch the ground. In 
other lands the nerve of standing armies, that which alone 
makes them trustworthy in war, and harmless in peace, is 
an immovably true and valorous body of ofl^icers. But the 
trustworthiness which volunteered for us was not designated 
alone by shoulder-straps ; it was a cohspicuous distinction 
of the private. The instinct of the soldier filled the gaps 
where incompetency fell and disappeared. He stepped into 
the place, and showed his commission till a better one ap- 
peared. He secured to nature time enough to grow her 
General, and fought it out on that line three years before 
he came." 

" The first campaign went on with treason and ravin fas- 
tened to the throat of the country, incompetency and inex- 
perience hugging every limb, unguarded expenditure and 
waste the impudent camp-followers of every regiment, and 
indefinite policy damping every cartridge. Into this bor- 
der-land the common soldier built his road ; at one end of 
it a hearth-stone that flickered more tremulously than ever 
with endeared life-breaths ; at the other he could not see 
the head-board at Andersonville and Salisbury ; nor the 
road thither blazed by the sharp edge of war. We have 
forgotten the weeks and months of popular depression, 
when our fate lay in the hands of these men at the front, 
who rallied instantly at the approach of genuine danger, 



208 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

and were disinfected of their doubts by the prospect of 
death." 

The doing one's duty with an army in the field, bravely 
and faithfully, is to exhibit a high order of manhood. It 
was the steady performance of the ordinary service, inci- 
dent to the camp, the march, the battle, that entitles our cit- 
izen-soldiers to the gratitude and praise of the country. We 
cannot but speak in highest terms of those to whom we 
owe so much, nor can we help believing that war's trials 
and responsibilities brought to most, if not to all our 
soldiers, an exaltation of character. Many a thoughtless, 
idle boy in our army rose, under the heroic excitement of 
our war of liberty, to a splendid and resolute manhood. 

Many were the deeds of sacrifice and devotion performed 
by rough, untaught men, while those little known before, 
awakened the admiration of beholders by their fortitude and 
patient faith. 

Here we have presented to us the names of those who 
looked death calmly in the face, and when life was sweetest, 
resigned it without a murmur. Putting a charitable con- 
struction on the faults of such as these, for they were not 
perfect, our object has been to render them the homage of 
our gratitude and praise ; and by such tributes as their 
memories still call for from us, to preserve in brief their his- 
tories. We point with tender hearts to these chaptered 
names, for they represent those who sacrificed their young 
lives that their fellow-men might live in safety and honor. 

" Lord of the ages, thanks 

For every pure career 
Of champions, in a hundred ranks, 

Who girt their armor here ; 
Then bore the day's long toil, 

Or laid a young life down, 
For duty, the dear natal soil, 

And the celestial crown." 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 209 



THE "UNRETURNING BRAVE." 

OFFICERS. 

De Witt C. Lathrop, Assistant Surgeon in the Eighth 
Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, died at Newbern, April 
18, 1862, of illness caused by over exertion in the duties of 
his office. Dr. Lathrop was born in Franklin, New London 
County, Connecticut, June 20, 1819. He graduated at the 
Yale Medical School, in 1845, and received his commission 
in his regiment September 21, 1861. His untiring devo- 
tion to the wounded and sick in Craven Street Hospital, 
following so closely upon the labor and exhaustion of the 
battle-field of .Newbern, taxed his strength beyond his 
powers of endurance, and brought on typhoid fever. With 
little thought as to his own condition, he confined his atten- 
tion to his patients, watching over them with the most solic- 
itous care. He was at once prostrated by the fever, and 
after some two weeks' illness died. He was an earnest- 
hearted patriot, and consecrated his whole energies to the 
duties of his position, and has nobly fallen in the service of 
humanity and his country. His funeral, which took place 
on the nineteenth of April, from the headquarters of the 
Sanitary Commission, was attended by the whole medical 
staff of his corps d'armee and by many of his friends The 
usual military escort of his rank was detailed by General 
Foster, Military Governor of Newbern, and the funeral ser- 
vices were most impressive and solemn. 

He was a noble instance of disinterested devotion to 
those under his charge, while in his profession he had the 
reputation of skill and faithfulness. He had endeared him- 
self to the soldiers to a marked extent, for he looked upon 
each one of them as his brother, and when any fell sick he 
was unremittins: in his attention. 



210 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

On the first attack of his disease, he was taken to the 
headquarters of the Sanitary Commission by Dr. Page, and 
there furnished with every convenience and comfort. The 
best nursing and medical attendance were provided for 
him, and everything done that friendly and sympathizing 
comrades could suggest, and it was while surrounded by 
these that he breathed his last. His remains were brought 
to Norwich, and public funeral services held in the First 
Congregational Church, Dr. Arms, Dr. Bond, and Rev. Mr. 
Gulliver participating, the interment took place at Wind- 
ham, the place of his early practice. He left a wife and 
three sons. 

Charles A. Breed. First Lieutenant Company D, 
Eighth Regiment. He had been in the war from the first 
summons, volunteering in Captain Harland's company of 
the Third Regiment. With true patriotism he entered the 
ranks, serving as a private in the three months' campaign. 
On his return with the company he reenlisted for three 
years, and was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Waid's company of the Eighth. He remained in the 
line until the twenty-fifth of December, 1861, when he was 
detached for duty on the Signal Corps, in which service he 
was engaged at the time of his death. He was in the bat- 
tles of Roanoke and Newbern, and distinguished himself 
for gallantry at the battle of Camden, and was commended 
in the official reports. While the regiment was encamped 
at Newport News, Lieutenant Breed was taken sick with 
an attack of typhoid fever, and after a short illness died, 
July 30, 1862. 

He was greatly beloved by all his comrades in the field, 
and all who knew him gave him their hearty praise as a 
brave, kind, and efficient officer. His character was of that 
open, genial, friendly nature that won for him the hearts of 
all with whom he was associated. His body was brought to 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



211 



this city in charge of Lieutenant Marvin Wait and private 
Michael Keagan, who had devotedly attended and nursed 
him in his last illness. His funeral took place at the resi- 
dence of his mother, on Church Street, and further services 
were held in Christ Church, whither the remains were car- 
ried. Rev. Mr. Walden, the rector, performed the impres- 
sive burial service, when the solemn cortege, composed 
of the Norwich Light Infantry under Captain Tubbs, the 
Norwich brass band, members of the Common Council, 
and friends, passed to Yantic Cemetery, where all that was 
mortal of the young soldier was laid in the grave. Dur- 
ing the passage of the procession the bells of the city tolled, 
and the flags were displayed at half-mast. At the cemetery 
the customary military salute was fired over the young 
hero's grave, and there consigned to mother-earth they left 
his precious dust. 

Marvin Wait was born at Norwich, Connecticut, on 
the twenty-first day of January, 1843. He was the son of 
John T. and Elizabeth Wait. His paternal grandfather, 
whose name he bore, occupied a prominent position as a 
public man and as a lawyer in New London County, from 
the beginning of the Revolution until the early part of the 
present century. His father, also well known as a promi- 
nent lawyer, was ardently desirous that the son should fol- 
low the profession of his ancestors. Accordingly the 
studies of young Wait were shaped with a view to this re- 
sult. He gave early tokens that he was possessed of an 
active, keen, and inquiring mind. He had a ready and 
retentive memory, a fondness for books, and an aptness for 
quotations and application of what he had read, that showed 
great intellectual ability and appreciation. This fondness 
for reading did not, however, divert him from the usual pur- 
suits and recreations of boyhood. No one entered with 
more hearty zest into all the sports and pastimes of youth. 



212 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Gifted with a ready wit, unusual conversational powers, and 
a keen perception of the humorous, he was always prepared 
with a playful answer or sparkling repartee. It is not easy 
to communicate to those who did not know him intimately, 
an idea of the traits which, in his early boyhood, made him 
such an idol of the home circle. It is sufficient to say that 
no one was ever more tenderly loved, or more fondly cared 
for than he, the only son of his parents. 

In 1858 he entered the Free Academy in Norwich, and 
there manifested the same ability which had marked his 
early studies. He showed a peculiar taste for all studies 
involving literary aptness, and in them he took a high rank. 
H-ere, also, was developed a fondness for declamation, in 
which, owing to his quick and thorough perception of the 
meaning of an author, he always excelled. 

This taste for, and appreciation of literature, was one of 
the most marked traits of his mind at this time, and at- 
tracted the attention of many of his older friends. The 
principal of the Academy, after Marvin's death, addressed 
a long letter to his parents, which speaks of his literary 
ability as indicating mental powers of a very high order. 
" In the department of the classics," writes Professor 
Smith, " I have rarely seen his equal, perhaps never his 
superior, in ability. In elocution he had no superior, and 
his command of language was also quite remarkable. His 
deportment at the Academy was without fault, and I do not 
remember that he ever received even an admonition." 

After he had remained at the Academy somewhat over a 
year, his parents sent him to Williston Seminary, at East- 
hampton, Massachusetts. While there he endeared him- 
self, by his generous and lovable traits of character and 
disposition, to all his acquaintances, as was evinced by 
letters received by his parents after his death, speaking in 
the most affectionate and tender manner of " our Marvin." 



1 





BF£WT MAJOR hPLEABNED. 
CeiDtainl''' Conn Art y 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 213 

After remaining two terms at Easthampton he entered 
the Freshman Class at Union College in the fall of i860. 
While in college he showed the same mental and social 
characteristics which had distinguished his prior student 
life. He made warm and earnest friends, and took a high 
rank in all classical and literary studies. Professor Hickok, 
in writing to his parents, condoling with them upon the 
loss of their son, pays a merited compliment to his character 
and ability, as manifested in his college life. After remain- 
ing at Union until the spring of 1 861, it was deemed ad- 
visable by his parents, on account of his health, which at 
that time seemed feeble, that he should leave college and 
endeavor to regain his full physical vigor. Accordingly, in 
March, i86i,he set sail for Europe and spent some months 
in foreign travel. 

During his absence the War of the Rebellion was com- 
menced, and the rebel privateers commenced to prey on the 
commerce of the United States. His journal of the voy- 
age shows that those on board the ship on the return voy- 
age had serious apprehensions of falling into the hands of 
those whom he calls "the pirates." 

On his return, he again entered college, and for a few 
months pursued his studies with great zeal and earnestness. 
But all around him was the fever of military excitement, and 
it seemed to him that it was his duty to volunteer for the 
defense of the Union. He left college, came to his home 
in Norwich, and begged permission of his parents to enlist. 
With great reluctance, yet unable to withstand his earnest 
desire, his parents consented that their only son, their pride, 
to whom they looked for a stay in their after years, should 
try the uncertain chances of war. 

General Harland had at that time just received the ap- 
pointment of Colonel of the Eighth Connecticut Volun- 
teers, and young Wait, with several of his associates and 



214 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

schoolmates, were enrolled as privates in Company D. Soon 
after the regiment left the State on its way to the seat of 
war, Marvin was detailed by the Colonel, who had known 
him from boyhood, to act as his Orderly. In the intervals 
of leisure consequent upon the routine of camp life, he 
made military tactics his constant study and practice, and 
soon became proficient in all the various duties of officer 
and soldier. 

Letters received from him at this time show how thor- 
oughly he enjoyed camp life, and how he saw the ludicrous 
side of its discomforts and privations. 

When the regiment reached Annapolis, it became neces- 
sary to organize a Signal Corps to accompany the " Burn- 
side Expedition," then fitting out, and two lieutenants 
were to be detailed from each regiment for that purpose. 
Marvin was promoted to a Second Lieutenancy in Com- 
pany H, and with his intimate friend, Lieutenant Breed, 
was examined, accepted, and transferred to the Signal 
Corps. 

This recognition of his merits was very gratifying to his 
parents and to himself. His letters at this time are full of 
brief and playful allusions to his promotion, coupled with 
anxiety that he may not fail in the discharge of his duties. 

The Signal Corps embarked on the schooner " Col. 
Satterlee," January ii, 1862. The vessel was old and ill 
fitted for the voyage, and in the storm which overtook the 
expedition, was delayed so that she arrived last of all the 
vessels at the rendezvous, and after great fears had been 
entertained for her safety. 

Lieutenant Wait entered on his duties as an officer of 
the Signal Corps, and the carefulness and accuracy of his 
observations and reports were soon noted by his superior 
officers. On the ninth of February, the battle of Roanoke 
Island was fouijht. Lieutenant Wait was on board the 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 21$ 

Steamer "S. R. Spaulding," and was constantly employed 
sending and receiving messages. Space forbids giving quo- 
tations from his letters, which are full of graphic and in- 
teresting accounts of this new life. He was soon transferred 
to the " Phoenix," and there remained until he went on 
board the " Virginia." The monotony of the life on board 
these vessels he found somewhat irksome, and longed for 
something more active. He regretted that he could not be 
present at the capture of Newbern, but soon after he went 
there, remaining, however, but a few days. His anxiety for 
active service was soon gratified, by his being detailed for 
signal duty at the reduction of Fort Macon, Beaufort, N. C. 
The accounts of the battle, from official and private sources, 
all give great praise to the Signal Corps for the part they 
took in the bombardment, and Lieutenant Wait, in the letter 
written to his mother the day of the surrender of the fort, 
modestly speaks of the compliments bestowed upon him 
by the commanding officer for his excellent work dur- 
ing the fight. For his gallantry in this action, Lieu- 
tenant Wait was awarded a signal battle flag, and was 
commended in the official reports. After the reduction of 
Fort Macon, Lieutenant Wait returned to Newbern, and 
on the eighteenth of May was detailed to take charge of a 
station at Batchelder's Creek. From there he returned to 
Newbern, discharging the routine duties of his office. He 
was promoted to be First Lieutenant in June, and on the 
second day of July, having rejoined his regiment, came 
with it to Newport News. In July, Lieutenant Breed, who 
had been his constant friend and companion, died. His 
body was sent home, and Lieutenant Wait was granted 
leave of absence to convey the remains to Norwich. This 
was the last time that his home-friends and relatives saw 
him. On the second of August, 1862, a little over a month 
before his death, he followed the remains of his friend to 



2l6 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



their last resting-place. At the funeral service, which was 
numerously attended, there were none who knew Lieuten- 
ant Wait, but noticed his noble and manly bearing at that 
time. He seemed to have grown into manhood since he 
entered the army, though he was not yet twenty years old. 

And now came the last month of his life. He left home, 
and on the nineteenth of August finally rejoined his regi- 
ment, after many wanderings, which he describes vividly in 
his letters. His last letter was to his mother, and is dated 
September sixth, 1862. Still with his regiment, the young- 
est officer there, he went through the battles preceding the 
fatal one at Antietam. How bravely he bore himself that 
day, all accounts agree. He was wounded twice, but did 
not leave the field. To quote from the brief memoir pub- 
lished by Lieutenant Eaton, — 

"The unflinching hero was first wounded in the right arm, 
which was shattered. He then dropped his sword to his left 
hand; he was afterwards wounded in the left arm, in the leg, 
and in the abdomen. He was then assisted to leave the line by 
private King, who soon met Mr. Morris, the brave, indefatigable 
Chaplain of the Eighth Regiment. The Chaplain then con- 
ducted Lieutenant Wait to the fence before alluded to, and pri- 
vate King returned to his company. Lieutenant Wait's last 
words to private King were, 'Are we whipping them?'^ A 
braver man than Marvin Wait never confronted a foe ; a more 
generoui heart never beat ; a more unselfish patriot never fell. 
Connecticut may well cherish and honor the memory of such 
sons." 

When the news of his death reached his native town the 
expression of sorrow and of sympathy with his parents was 
universal. Resolutions were passed by the municipal au- 

1 As the enemy advanced on the left flank of our regiment, they delivered 
an enfilading fire. It was under this fire that Lieutenant Wait was pierced by 
a niinnie hall (while laying wounded behind a low wall), which passed through 
his lungs from side to side. 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE. 



217 



thorities expressive of the public regret, while letters from 
many who knew him, testified to the parents of the private 
grief. He was the first commissioned officer from Norwich 
killed in battle. 

The body was brought home, and the funeral, at the First 
Congregational Church, was very largely attended. The 
Rev. Dr. Arms, his former pastor, conducted the services. 

The conclusion of the eulogy delivered by George Pratt, 
at the church, sums up the estimate of his character and 
achievements : — 

" What words can add beauty to such a life, or what praise 
ennoble such a death ? When we think of those who fell on 
that field, we count them all heroes — we name them all among 

the brave. 

" ' They died like heroes, for no recreant step 
Had e'er dishonored them, no stain of fear, 
No base despair, no cowardly recoil : 
They had the hearts of freemen to the last, 
Aiid the free blood that bounded in their veins 
Was shed for freedom with a liberal joy.' 

" Yes, the names of those who fell will be handed down with 
imperishable glory and lasting fame. Our children's children 
shall rise up and .call them blessed, for they died fighting on the 
side of the Right, in a contest between Right and Wrong. 

" Who would not be proud to be one of such a brave and im- 
mortal band .'' AVho would not be prouder still that where all 
were so brave, the one they loved became conspicuous for brav- 
ery? Such honor, rarely achieved, this young hero won. All 
alike, officers and soldiers, speak of his dauntless and conspic- 
uous courage. All tell of the way his brave and animating 
voice rang through the ranks of the men, urging them on to vic- 
tory. A century, had he lived so long, would have brought him 
no prouder moment in which to die. Dying, as he did, on the 
banks of that little creek, then unknown, now immortal, he be- 
came for us and ours, forever a name and a memory. 

" True, he lies here, unheeding all our praise, silent and cold 



2l8 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



in death. But what a sweet and inexpressible consolation it is 
to the living, that the one whom they mourn died honorably and 
gloriously. A long life, uneventful and insignificant, is for the 
many, — a glorious death, a lasting and honorable memory, is the 
boon of but a few. 

"To-day his native town writes him among her list of heroes ; 
his native State does him honor in the person of her Chief Mag- 
istrate ] the nation thanks his memory as one among those who 
saved her in the hour of peril. Such honor as we can pay is 
now his. We bury him here, far away from the field of his fame, 
in the midst of the scenes he loved so well ; knowing this, that 
although we may die and be forgotten, his name shall be honored 
and remembered, and as we lay him to rest, our hearts, one and 
all, say, " Brave spirit, noble young heart, farewell ! " 

COMMUISICATED. 

John L. Stanton, Captain Company G, Tvventy-isxth 
Regiment. Up to the time of the assault on Port Hudson, 
little had occurred to break the monotony of camp life. 
In May, 1864, the active service of the regiment began, and 
though of brief continuance, was severe. Stanton proved 
himself a good officer in the care he bestowed on his com- 
mand, and on the eventful day of its first engagement, 
showed himself possessed of the best soldierly qualities. 
In the regiment's charge upon the rebel batteries on the 
twenty-seventh of May, he led his men, cheering them 
onward, and when the fatal bullet struck him he was in 
advance of his company, swinging his sword, and urging it 
to follow him. He died instantly, and made one of the 
number of noble officers that fell that day, all of whom, by 
their personal prowess, reflected honor on the several regi- 
ments with which connected. Stanton's loss was deeply 
felt, and by his own men he was especially lamented. His 
courageous bearing on the field of conflict, all remembered 
with pride, and falling as a brave soldier should, with his 
face towards the foe, they paid him the tribute which his 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 219 

gallant bearing before them well deserved. A faithful offi- 
cer, a brave soldier, a true patriot, such will he continue 
to be in the memory of friend and comrade. 

Hervy FiTZ Jacobs was born in Thompson, Connecti- 
cut, on the third day of August, 1838. His parents were 
Joseph D. and Sarah C. Jacobs. On the twenty-ninth of 
September, 1856, he was enrolled as a member of the Nor- 
wich Free Academy. 

July 8, 1859, young Jacobs was admitted to the coming 
Freshman Class of Brown University. Those who knew 
him there will recall his mild blue eyes, his ruddy face, 
and his compact frame. As a scholar, his rank was above 
the average. During his first term in college he received 
the appointment of Class President. 

Early in 1861 Jacobs left college and entered the store, 
in Norwich, of his uncle, L. W. Carroll, Esq. Here the 
Rebellion found him. At the very outset of the struggle 
the question of enlistment presented itself to his mind, but 
the oft-repeated predictions of many over-sanguine prophets 
that sixty or ninety days would see the end of the war, 
together with his new formed business relations, sufficed to 
keep him at home. 

The year 1861 wore away, and then the early months 
of 1862, and still the rebellion existed with scarcely dimin- 
ished proportions. When the July call of the President for 
three hundred thousand men to serve nine months came, 
the question of duty became still more urgent. Accord- 
ingly as soon as the papers for a company of infantry were 
received in Norwich he was ready. His name was among 
the first upon the roll. This was August 28, 1862, and on 
September fifth the company was organized, at which time 
Jacobs was chosen Second Lieutenant. At once the young 
officer commenced the work of preparing himself and his 
men for active service. 



220 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



After two months' preparation in camp, the Twenty-sixth 
received orders to embark for New York, where it remained 
till December fourth. The regiment then embarked for the 
South, landing-, after a long and rough voyage, at Carroll- 
ton, Louisiana. It was here attached to the First Brig- 
ade, under command of General Neal Dow. 

On the 20th of May, 1863, the regiment was ordered to join 
General Banks' command in the vicinity of Port Hudson, 
where it took its position in the rear of the batteries of that 
fortress. Lieutenant Jacobs was gratified at the prospect 
He had often said that he would rather take the chances of 
battle than to return home without once having met the 
rebels face to face. At five o'clock on the same day of their 
arrival upon the field, they were ordered to " fall in " and 
charge the enemy's rifle-pits. The charge disclosed the 
fact that the pits were deserted, and also exposed the regi- 
ment for the first time to artillery fire. The division of 
General Sherman, to which the Twenty-sixth belonged, had 
moved up from the south of Port Hudson to meet General 
Banks' army which was descending from above. At the 
close of this day the two bodies of troops were not far apart, 
and Lieutenant Jacobs, with his company, was ordered to 
open communication with General Augur's pickets on the 
right. This movement was executed promptly in the face 
of the enemy. On the morning of the 27th of May, the 
troops were early in motion. The light artillery responded 
sharply to the rebel's fire, and there was every indication 
that serious work was at hand. After marching and coun- 
termarching, and advancing through thick woods until 
about two and a half o'clock, p. m., the Twenty-sixth with 
the other regiments of its brigade, was ordered to charge 
the rebel works. Out of about two thousand men in the 
brigade, one-fifth, or four hundred, were killed or wounded. 
The Twenty-sixth lost one hundred and seven killed and 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



221 



wounded. Of this number nine were in Company F (of 
which young Jacobs was an officer). After the repulse, 
Lieutenant Jacobs, regardless of the rain of rebel bullets, 
remained on the field, and rendered all the assistance in 
his power to his wounded comrades, till the company was 
ordered to reform with its regiment. It is the testimony 
of those who were with him in this his first engagement, 
that he showed coolness and bravery unsurpassed by any. 

Saturday, the 13th of June, was marked by skirmishing 
and heavy artillery fire all along the line. Every one was 
satisfied that this presaged a more general and determined 
strife on the morrow. The men of the Twenty-sixth were 
in fine spirits, and confident of success in the coming charge. 
The expected orders came, and before day-break, Sunday 
morning, the 14th of June, the regiment was called out. 
After marching several miles to the extreme left of the 
line, it was massed with the division, preparatory to the ad- 
vance. 

The following extract from a letter written on the field by 
Captain L. A. Gallup will give an idea of the charge, and 
the circumstances in which Lieutenant Jacobs received his 
wound. 

" It is said that our brigade advanced splendidly, deploying 
under a galling fire of shell and shrapnel. The rebels handled 
their artillery admirably. Lieutenant H. F. Jacobs had been 
detached from my company, to command Company A, which 
is next on the right of Company F. As we were advancing 
up the main road in column by divisions, in easy range of the 
enemy, we were ordered to deploy the column. Soon after the 
line had been' established and Lieutenant Jacobs had assumed 
command of his own company (A) a twelve pound shell exploded 
between the two companies, killing four and wounding sixteen 
men. Lieutenant Jacobs was among the latter. He was wound- 
ed by a ball from the shell, in the thigh, the bone of which was 
15 



222 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



injured. I assisted him as well as I could to shelter, finding that 
he was not bleeding, ordered two men to take him from the field, 
when I bade him good-by, and advanced up the road." 

The sad story of Lieutenant Jacobs' sufferings we may 
best gather from his own record. The following extracts 
are from his diary : — 

"The morning I was shot, the regiment deployed from column 
by division into a line of battle. We were advancing steadily in 
front of the works, the rebels firing all the lime. I called out to 
Company A, as I commanded it, ' Come on boys, we are going 
over the parapet,' and I thought so, when a ball brought me to 
the ground. I was wounded about six o'clock A. M. (14th June), 
and was carried from the field. I had to ride to the old cotton 
press, where my wound was dressed at seven p. M. I remained 
there till nine a. m., 15th, when I was carried to Springfield 
Landing, then by steamer to Baton Rouge. Was carried to 
Church Hospital ; wound very painful all night." 

yune 16, he writes : " Out of my head half of the time." 

June 18. " Oh how I suffered last night. The pain from my 
head — my wound was almost more than I could bear." 

yune 19. '•' It seems to me this morning as though I could not 
survive but a few days ; strength all gone. Was fighting and 
building fortifications all night under heavy fire. Have suffered 
much to-day." 

yune 21. " In great pain all day." 

yune 22. "Woke up this morning feeling quite smart, but 
have since been quite sick." 

yune 24. " Kept quiet as possible all day. Pain unceasing. 
Cannot sleep. Head hot almost all the time." 

yune 25. " Moved this morning from Church hospital to the 
Officers' Hospital. Was carried in my bunk. Got along well till 
I was taken out and put upon an iron bedstead, when the pain 
was excruciating." 

yune 26. " Am fast losing strength. Am conscious I must 
die. I wanted to live to get home, but it is all right. I have 
tried to do my duty here. I shall make arrangements to have 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



223 



my body embalmed when I am dead, and sent home, as I think 
it will be a consolation to all my friends to have it there. I have 
suffered much since I was wounded, as I have lain on my back 
all the time. I had as great prospects to live for, and as bright, 
as almost any one. I should like to live, but if it is designed to 
be otherwise I am reconciled." 

yune 27. " Feel quite smart this morning. Wound quite 
comfortable." 

yune 28. " Took some morphine last night, and slept till this 
morning. This is the best sleep I have had since I was wounded. 
Feel quite like myself." 

yune 29. " Slept till ten o'clock last night. Feel better now 
I can sleep. Head continues to feel heavy and dull. Think 
wound is doing well." 

yune 30. " Get along very well." 

[It is evident from the hand-writing, that he is fast de- 
clining, and is not getting along w^ell.] 

yuly 2. " Learned brother Wyman is sick with measles. Says 

will now go" (unintelligible). '"I expect to be on my way 

very soon." 

This is the last date against which the dying soldier 
wrote. Poor fellow, he ivas on his way soon, yet not to the 
home, visions of which doubtless filled his troubled brain, 
but to another and better home, where is neither sorrow^, nor 
crying, nor pain, nor death. Three days and his spirit re- 
turned to God who gave it. 

It was not till the middle of October that the remains of 
Lieutenant Jacobs arrived in Connecticut, when funeral ser- 
vices were held in the church near his father's residence, on 
the 20th of that month. 

" A large congregation evinced their deep sympathy with a 
most interesting family, in the great loss which they were called 
to deplore. The coffin and hearse were draped with war-worn 
flags of the Forty-seventh Massachusetts Volunteers, which were 



224 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

sent from Boston for the occasion, as a token of respect for a 
brave companion-in-arms. The pall was borne by the former 
commanders, teacher, and class-mates of the deceased. The ser- 
vices were conducted by the Rev. Messrs. Hawley and Dunning. 
The feeling incident to the occasion was greatly deepened by the 
fact that the same mail that brought the intelligence of the death 
of Lieutenant Jacobs, also brought the tidings of the death of a 
3'ounger brother in the same department. Thus were the obse- 
quies of two brothers of hope and promise observed the same 
day. Lieutenant Jacobs left his home in the freshness and inno- 
cence of boyhood, and was carried back to it in early manhood, 
a voluntary offering to the welfare of his country." 

At his grave, Eldridge Smith, his former teacher in the 
Norwich Free Academy, and Lieutenant-colonel Selden, of 
the Twenty-sixth Connecticut, bore their loving testimony 
to the worth of the departed. 

A beautiful monument of Italian marble marks the sjDOt 
where sleep the two patriot brothers. Military emblems — 
shield, sword, and musket — adorn two of its sides, while 
the remaining two are occupied with tablets, giving a short 
account of the departed. Beneath the record of the life 
of Lieutenant Jacobs are inscribed his last words : — 

" / die at the post of duty." Communicated. 

Theodore Burdick, Captain Company B, Seventh Reg- 
iment. He went out in Captain J. B. Dennis' Company, 
which was the first one recruited in Norwich for the war, 
holding the commission of First Lieutenant. He served 
with the regiment in the campaign in North Carolina, 
where it participated in the capture of Port Royal. Through 
the battles of 1862, he fought, receiving no injuries, and 
winning his promotion to the captaincy. 

In July^ 1863, the regiment took part in the attack on 
Fort Wagner, and in the charge made, which, for lack of 
support, was finally unsuccessful. Captain Burdick was 
killed, July 10, 1863. When last seen, he, with his gallant 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



-^3 



comrades, was bravely fighting on the edge of the parapet. 
Of the one hundred and ninety-one officers and men of the 
Seventh, only eighty-seven lived to return from this fatal 
charge. The regiment was commended for its courage, 
and Burdick personally did his part to sustain its honor in 
that terrible assault. While boldly leading his men, he met 
a soldier's death, and was among the numerous slain in 
that desperate encounter. He died in the very pride of 
his manhood, doing his duty ; and, like so many others, 
fell, with only a soldier's epitaph, — " Killed on the field of 
battle." 

Edward Payson Manning, Second Lieutenant Co. F, 
Twenty-sixth Regiment. Lieutenant Manning was born in 
Pomfret, Windham County, Conn., July i8, 1834. He was 
the youngest son of Deacon William H. and Lois P. Man- 
ning. His early life was not marked by any extraordinary 
experiences. The influences about him were calculated to 
develop the manly Christian character for which he was 
noted in after life. His education, though not collegiate, 
was liberal, and his natural abilities far more than mediocre. 
After finishing his studies, his inclination led him to mer- 
cantile pursuits, and for about three years he was associated 
with his brother, the Hon. James W. Manning, of Putnam, 
the present Comptroller of the State. In the Spring of 
1859, he came to Norwich, and became connected with the 
well-known paper house of A. H. Hubbard & Co., in which 
he was engaged when the war broke out. His daily life and 
exemplary deportment, his integrity and business ability^ 
his fine musical talents, and earnest labor in the church and 
Sunday-school, all served to gain for him many and val- 
uable acquaintances in Norwich. 

By nature. Manning was not inclined to military pur- 
suits ; nevertheless, from the commencement of the war he 
was earnest in its support, and contributed to its progress. 



226 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

He was restless under promptings of duty, while so many 
of his associates were giving themselves to their country. 
His affection for, and duty to, his aged and widowed mother, 
who clung to him, her youngest boy, like the ivy to the rock, 
influenced him to defer his enlistment. But the pure and 
patriotic spirit that animated him would not be hushed to 
silence, and on the 30th of August, 1862, he enlisted in 
the company recruited by Joseph, afterwards Lieutenant- 
colonel Selden. 

He immediately gave all his influence and time to re- 
cruiting, and secured several enlistments from adjoining 
towns. The company was rapidly filled to the maximum, 
and on its organization, Manning was appointed Second 
Sergeant The regiment proceeded to the Department of 
the Gulf, and joined the Banks' expedition against Port 
Hudson. At various times he was detailed as Acting 
Quartermaster and Adjutant, both of which positions he 
filled with honor to himself, and to the satisfaction of the 
regiment. On the death of Lieutenant H. F. Jacobs, of 
Company F, who was mortally wounded in the charge 
upon Port Hudson, June 14, 1863, Governor Buckingham 
appointed Manning to fill the vacancy. Wherever duty 
called him, he was faithful and cheerful. In all the en- 
gagements in which the Twenty-sixth participated, while 
he was Commissary sergeant, he was conspicuous for his 
bravery in caring for the wounded and dying upon the field. 
Whether on the march or in camp, whether on garrison 
duty or in the trenches, the commissariat of the Twenty- 
sixth was well and punctually supplied, which contributed 
to the efficiency of the regiment. 

After the surrender of Port Hudson, the regiment was 
ordered home, by way of the Mississippi River, to be mus- 
tered out, by reason of expiration of term of service. On 
his arrival in Norwich, Manning received the congratula- 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



227 



tions of his friends on his safe return, and apparently per- 
fect health. 

But he was almost immediately prostrated by malarious 
fever, which proved fatal to so many who had bravely faced 
bayonet and cannon on the bloody plains of Port Hudson. 
During his brief illness he was surrounded by the kindest 
friends, while for him the best medical attendance was se- 
cured. In his delirium his mind was with the Twenty-sixth 
in its journeyings, and with his friends who could not arrive 
in time to be present when the Master called him home. 

When told that death was approaching, his delirium gave 
way to reason, and with a cheerfulness that could only 
spring from Christian faith, he said, " // is well ; all is bright 
before me. Do all you can to comfort my mother." These 
were his last sane words. He sank rapidly, and on the 
morning of the 17th of August, 1863, the very day the 
muster-out papers were dated, he was summoned to the 
Army of Heaven, to answer the roll-call in the presence of 
the King of kings. 

He was deeply lamented by all who knew him, and those 
unused to weep gathered to do the last honors to the dead, 
and shed tears of grief over the departed. The place made 
vacant in society, church, and Sunday-school, and in many 
hearts, is vacant still, and his fragrant memory will ever be 
fondly cherished. L. A. G. 

Frederick E. Schalk, First Lieutenant Fourteenth 
Regiment, was born January 6, 1838, at Monsheim, Hesse 
Darmstadt, Germany. The date of his removal with his 
parents to America we do not learn, but only know that it 
was at an early age ; that prior to his residence in Norwich 
he lived for a time at Uncasville, in the same county. For 
some years before the war he resided in Norwich, as a 
clerk in a grocery store. At the beginning of the war he 
enlisted with young Nickels, of whom he was ever a close 



228 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

friend, in Captain (now General) Harland's company of the 
Third Connecticut. He served very creditably in the three 
months' campaign, and then returned to his old employer in 
Norwich. Soon after his return he joined the Broadway 
Congregational Church in Norwich. He was one of the 
first to enlist in the Fourteenth, — May 27, 1862, — still ac- 
companying Nickels, who came into the same company — E. 
Just before the regiment marched he was married to a lady 
in Lebanon, Connecticut. He was made a Sergeant before 
the company left the State, promoted to be Second Lieu- 
tenant May 16, 1863, and to a First Lieutenancy November 
fifth. 

In all the battles, skirmishes, and marches of the regi- 
ment, he bore his part honorably and well, never flinching 
from any post of honor or danger. Of vigorous constitu- 
tion and energetic yet cheerful disposition, he was ever 
ready for duty, for danger, or for fun and frolic. These 
qualities made him a great favorite, and somehow it seemed 
as if harm could never come to him. Yet in the terrific 
carnage of Spottsylvania, where the dear old Second Corps, 
to which the Fourteenth was attached, covered itself with 
glory by its brilliant charges, Schalk was stricken down by 
a bullet. He was removed to the Second Corps Hospital, 
at Fredericksburg, where, in plain view of the old battle- 
field of December 13, 1862, he ebbed away his life-blood 
and died. May 21, 1864; dying cheerfully and calmly, de- 
spite the absence of the dear ones at home for whom he 
longed. Perhaps, as he heard the little birds singing in the 
beautiful May morning, and looked out upon that bloody 
battle-field of six months before, where the rapidly spring- 
ing up green grass showed that Nature speedily repaired 
man's devastations, the roll of the guns of the contending 
armies a few miles away ceased to echo in his ears, and 
with the recollection of those divine words, " Not even a 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



229 



sparrow falleth to the ground without his knowledge," fears 
for the future of his dear wife passed away, and his spirit 
fled to the land " where the wicked cease from troubling, 
and the weary are at rest." 

The remains were taken home and the funeral held from 
the Baptist Church in Lebanon, on Sunday, June fifth. 
There was a very large attendance from the town, the sur- 
rounding country, and from Norwich, including some of 
the officers of his regiment. The funeral sermon was de- 
livered by Rev. Mr. Cunningham, from Genesis v. 24, and 
was pertinent and applicable. The remains having been 
embalmed, his friends were enabled to gaze upon the face 
of the young hero ere his coffin was closed. His sword 
rested upon the coffin, surmounted by wreaths of flowers. 
The body was escorted to the grave by the Norwich Light 
Infantry, his fellow-officers acting as bearers. The farewell 
volleys having been fired over the grave of him who had 
given his life so cheerfully for the cause of freedom in an 
adopted country, we left him " with his young fame about 
him for a shroud." H. P. G. 

Alfred M. Goddard, First Lieutenant Eighth. Regi- 
ment, was born in Marietta, Ohio, June 19, 1836. His 
parents removed to Norwich when he was quite young, and 
here he grew up, developing a character of rare beauty and 
force. Leaving his home at an early age to commence life 
for himself, he for that reason was less generally known 
than otherwise he would have been. Yet in the home 
where a peerless devotion to those he most deeply loved 
distinguished him, and by friends who were aware of his 
noble nature, he was held in i-everent and affectionate es- 
teem. None knew him but to admire his earnestness of 
spirit, his commanding self-reliance, his determined energy ; 
and all this tempered by a refinement and gentleness, which 
gave to his character unusual completeness. 



230 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

He was one of those choice spirits whose career is in- 
vested with all that can stimulate and instruct. Immersed, 
when quite young, in the cares and duties of a responsible 
business, he yet displayed a culture ordinarily looked for 
only in the man of letters. His criticisms on books that 
chanced to pass under his notice, betray a fine taste, united 
with unusual analytic power. His journal while in the 
Pacific abounds in the most graphic portrayal of life on 
ship-board, and on the Islands. Susceptible to all that was 
grand and beautiful in Nature, his descriptions of scenery 
in the Tropics and of the changeful ocean, near and upon 
which so much of his life was spent, can hardly be sur- 
passed. 

Entering, when still under age, the employ of Williams 
& Haven, of New London, Connecticut, he was by them 
sent out to the Sandwich Islands, and in connection with a 
branch house, resided about five years at Honolulu. Dur- 
ing that period he made several voyages to the Arctic 
Ocean, passing two years on McKean's Island, in the 
Southern Pacific. At the breaking out of the war, he was 
about leaving Honolulu for Mauritius. When the news 
reached him that hostilities had actually commenced, he 
was eager to leave at once for home, that he might enroll 
himself among those hurrying to the government's defense, 
but such were his business engagements, that fidelity to his 
employers required the prosecution of the voyage. So, 
with a disappointed heart, he endeavored to do the work to 
which he was committed, though his thoughts were with 
the brave men who were already marshalled for deadly con- 
flict with our foes. 

He writes in his journal as he started on this voyage, " I 
have been reading the ' Atlantic Monthly.' It is all war. 
How is this .-• I am trying to do my duty, and yet a deathly 
sickness comes o'er me when I think what a feeling of joy 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



231 



it would have given me could I have gone home and given 
up all for my country." At a later date he adds, " All my 
hope now is, that having chosen this path I may command 
myself and give my thoughts to the present, trusting that 
through some great good luck I may yet find myself among 
the New England heroes." Who of us imagined that on 
the far Pacific main there was a heart beating with such 
lofty patriotism ; reckoning as its chiefest trial that it could 
not share in our struggle for national existence. And yet, 
like thronging doves to their windows came the patriots of 
our land, travelling homeward from every quarter of the 
globe that they might swell the hosts who battled for truth 
and freedom. 

He speaks at this time of the change in his views of life, 
— " It is so real, so earnest, and can be so noble." Then 
reverting to his country, he remarks, " I begin to think the 
war is the best thing which could have happened to us. I 
know it must stir up our young men to action and fill their 
veins with new life. I honor the brave fellows and am 
proud of dear old Connecticut. The spirit of our Puritan 
Fathers is not yet dead." 

While at Mauritius, hearing of his father's sudden death, 
young Goddard hastened back with the utmost expedition 
that he might visit his bereaved mother and mingle with 
the afflicted family. Taking the East India route through 
the Red Sea and Europe, he arrived at his home in the fall 
of 1862. He hoped then to enter the army and gratify 
thus the deepest longing of his heart. But his business 
engagements compelled him to go back once more to the 
Sandwich Islands, and with great reluctance he turned his 
face toward the Pacific. He seemed at this time keenly 
sensitive lest his absence from the country while in so 
critical a condition should not be understood. Many are 
the journal entries which betray this fear. " If my choice 



232 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

could be recalled," he writes in one place, " I would go 
through anything to get upon the battle field." He speaks 
also of the moral issues of the conflict, demonstrating his 
ardent love of liberty for all classes — "It seems strange 
the country should have been ruled so long by this small 
party. (Slaveholders.) But the time for a change has 
come, and I think the curse of slavery will now be removed 
from our beautiful land." 

Dispatching with promptness his business at the Islands, 
and closing his connection with the firm he had served so 
long and well, he was enabled to return home in May, 1863. 
Then the cherished purpose of his soul seemed at length 
possible to be carried out. 

On the following July, he received a commission as First 
Lieutenant in Company B of the Eighth Connecticut 
Regiment, but was at once detached for duty on the Staff 
of General Harland, the former Colonel of the Eighth 
Regiment. In this capacity he rendered faithful service 
until March, 1864, when, at the request of officers and men, 
he rejoined his regiment. " It is a hard thing to do," says 
his diary, "but I am sure it is right." His associates on 
the Staff parted with him, not without the greatest reluc- 
tance and the most genuine regret. To General Harland 
he was strongly attached, and by him in turn was esteemed 
as an able officer and a personal friend. The heart which 
had chafed so when business prevented his connection with 
the army, was still dissatisfied with the less arduous duties 
of staff officer, so he took his place in the ranks, and the 
long yearning of his soul seemed about to be appeased 
when the hardships and dangers of the field were to be his. 

March 13, 1864, the regiment, under command of Col. J. 
E. Ward, left its old camp at Portsmouth, Va., and marched 
to Deep Creek, where it performed outpost and picket duty 
until April 13. Thence it was ordered to Yorktown, and 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 233 

was assigned to the Second Brigade of the Eighteenth 
Corps. Forming part of General Butler's command, it was 
engaged in a reconnoisance of the enemy's lines before 
Petersburg. On the morning of May 8, the regiment led 
the advance in an attempt to press back the enemy. 
Forming in battle line, it repeatedly charged the foe, 
driving him before them, and continued fighting till the 
ammunition was exhausted and the regiment was relieved 
by order, receiving, as it returned from the bloody field, the 
cheers of the whole brigade. It was in this action that the 
fatal bullet struck Lieutenant Goddard. While bravely 
fighting and cheering on his men in this his first battle, 
he fell, mortally wounded. 

The day before, his entry in his diary, when it was ap- 
parent an engagement was imminent, was both touching 
and significant, — " And the children of Israel prevailed, 
because they trusted in the Lord God of their Fathers." 
The day of the battle, Saturday, May 7, he wrote : ' 7 a. m. 
we go to the front with only arms and ammunition." Be- 
fore sundown he was borne from the field, and ere another 
day had gone, the knightly youth of high hopes and un- 
flinching courage passed away. Of his carriage on the day 
of battle, his Captain writes : " He was so thoughtful and 
considerate, not rash or impetuous, but cool and collected, 
ready for any emergency, willing for every duty. While 
most bravely fighting and cheering on our men, the fatal 
bullet struck him, and he was taken from the field. As he 
was carried past me, he said that he was wounded, but that 
he had done his duty. Most truly can I echo those last 
words." He had won in no common degree the esteem of 
officers and men, and his loss was felt by all. 

Upon the examination of his wound, he asked the regi- 
mental surgeon whether it was likely to prove fatal, adding, 
at once, that he thought it must ; in which opinion the sur- 



234 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

geon was obliged to concur. Immediately he added : " Tell 
my mother that I die in the front, that I die happy." Re- 
moved to the Chesapeake Hospital at Fortress Monroe, he 
lingered for little more than a day, suffering intensely but 
patiently. 

Writes one who knew him well : " He was one of the few 
men whom I have known in my life whose steadfast honesty 
was proof against all temptations, and his varied life ex- 
posed him to not a few." Another friend, intimately asso- 
ciated with him while in the army, wrote when the news of his 
death was received : " May God rest the soul of our martyr- 
hero. He is no more. But the memories which the thought 
of him suggests, are of the most tender and pleasing char- 
acter. How kind and unselfish he was. What a sturdy 
champion for everything just, noble, and right. How he 
loathed oppression and injustice. How he loved his coun- 
try." 

Few excelled him in the earnestness and unselfish devo- 
tion which so eminently characterized him. A whole- 
hearted consecration to others' good, made his career 
beautiful and his death glorious. While in the strength 
of his young manhood, God permitted him to die, and his 
death adds another to the list of heroes whose memory and 
example are the nation's heritage. 

Who dares tell us that such lives are brief, for 

" We live in deeds, not years ; in thought, not breaths ; 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial, 
We should count time by heart throbs. He most lives 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." 

John McCall, Captain Company K, Eighth Regiment. 
In the summer of 1861, when the government called for 
three hundred thousand men to array themselves under the 
national flag to crush the rebellion, among those who nobly 
responded to the summons was John McCall, of Yantic. 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE.' 



235 



He enlisted as a private in Company D, of the Eighth 
Regiment. At the election of non-commissioned officers 
for the company, he was chosen a Sergeant, and acted as 
such during the first few months after the regiment had 
been mustered into service. The death of Lieutenant 
Charles A. Breed, and the promotion of Captain Ward to 
be Major, opened the door for the advancement of young 
McCall, and he was first appointed Second, then First Lieu- 
tenant of his company. 

Skillful as an officer, faithful in the discharge of his du- 
ties, and intrepid on the battle-field, he won the con- 
fidence of his superior officers, and was subsecjuently pro- 
moted to the Captaincy of Company K, in which posi- 
tion he remained until his decease. 

He served under General Burnside during his North Car- 
olina campaign, and participated in the battles of Roanoke 
Island, Fort Macon, and Newbern ; and when the troops 
who had so nobly sustained the Stars and Stripes on the 
soil of North Carolina were called North to aid in driving 
the rebels from Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Eighth 
Connecticut came with them, and Captain McCall, ever 
ready to endure the privations, and share the perils of the 
battle-field, was again distinguished for his coolness and 
courage, in the sanguinary conflicts of South Mountain and 
Antietam. 

At the last-named battle, he was severely wounded by a 
minie-ball in the thigh, and being unable to leave the field 
with the regiment in its retreat, was taken prisoner, but 
immediately paroled. He was soon after exchanged, and, 
as soon as recovery permitted, again took command of his 
company. 

He was at Fredericksburg under General Burnside, — 
cool, cheerful, ready for any duty. At the siege of Suffolk, 
he was one of the band of two hundred who crossed the 



236 THE NORWICPI MEMORIAL. 

Nansemond in broad day-light, stormed Fort Huger, and 
held it in the face of ten thousand rebels, — one of the neat- 
est little achievements of the war. Captain McCall was 
ordered, with Company K of the Eighth, to take and hold 
the rifle pits commanding the approach to the fort. He was 
the first man to reach the land, and his part was strictly 
and gallantly performed. 

He was under General Butler in his expedition up the 
James River for the capture of Richmond. In the bloody 
conflicts that took place between the Union and the rebel 
troops on the banks of that stream, the Eighth Regiment 
was placed in the front of the battle, and the family of 
Captain McCall received a letter from him, dated but a day 
or two before he was shot, saying, that though many of his 
comrades had been wounded or killed in the successive 
struggles, that he had escaped all injury. The next intelli- 
gence received by his father, was a telegram, stating that 
his gallant boy was dead. 

At five o'clock on Saturday morning, May 14, the enemy 
had broken the flank of Brooks' division. There was a 
severe fire along the whole line, the men lying down and 
firing, Captain McCall in a sitting position. The fatal bul- 
let passed through his heart. He rose to his feet, saying, 
" I shall be dead in a minute," and fell backwards dead. 

The loss of this gallant comrade and able officer was 
severely felt by the brave old regiment. He was a general 
favorite with the officers and men, " a prompt, bold, enter- 
prising officer — a soldier by nature. He was stern and 
harsh when he believed it to be his duty, but in his usual 
conduct he was generous, just, and noble. As a compan- 
ion he was frank, genial, and lively, as a friend, manly and 
true-hearted." Few of our young men who have offered 
their lives on the altar of their country, leave a more un- 
sullied reputation for honor, bravery, and patriotism than 




^*^l 




CAP'^S™ CONN. VOLS 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 2^^ 

John McCall Brought home for burial, his grave hes near 
those of his lamented comrades-in-arms, Lieutenants Wait, 
Goddard, and Breed, in our beautiful cemetery along the 
banks of the Yantic. The Mayor and Board of Common 
Council attended in a body at his funeral service, and put 
on record this public testimonial to his character and pa- 
triotic devotion : — 

'■'•Resolved, That in the death of this gallant and truly meri- 
torious officer, this community has lost one of its brightest orna- 
ments, the regiment to which he belonged, an able, skillful, and 
courageous officer, ready at all limes to share the dangers and 
privations of the battle-field, and to offer up his life on his coun- 
try's altar." I. T. W. 

John W. Bentley, Acting Master U. S. N., died at his 
residence in Norwich, May 27, 1864, after an illness of little 
more than a week. He received his appointment as Acting 
Master in the Navy soon after the war broke out, and con- 
tinued in active service till his death. He was one of the 
officers of the " Wabash," Admiral Dupont's flag-ship, at the 
capture of Port Royal. Appointed to the command of the 
" Banshee," a captured blockade runner, just placed in com- 
mission, he was preparing to put to sea, when his fatal 
illness came upon him. He was a brave and skillful officer, 
and in whatever duty he was engaged, always secured the 
approval and commendation of his superiors. He was a 
genial, kind hearted man, and made friends wherever he 
was ; indeed few men had so extensive a circle of acquaint- 
ance, and among them all, so many warm, earnest friends. 

E. Benjamin Culver, Adjutant Eighteenth Regiment, 
was the only son of Benjamin and Adelaide Culver ; born 
in the city of New York, October 27, 1840. 

During his school and business life he became well 
known here, and by those most intimately acquainted with 
him, he was esteemed as a young man of more than ordi- 

16 



238 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

nary excellence and promise. One of his early instructors 
speaks of him as " the peacemaker," while his teacher in 
Norwich, with whom he spent nearly a year and a half, 
mentions his marked truthfulness of character. 

His personal appearance gave all the impression of youth- 
ful manliness. Generous in his feelings, self-possessed in 
his manners, young Culver was the favorite of a large circle 
of friends. . 

As a clerk in the store of Lee & Osgood, he has left the 
reputation of rare fidelity and skill. Energetic and quick 
to learn, he mastered the business, and gave promise of 
great success. Between himself and his employers a warm 
attachment existed, broken only by his early death. His 
admirable business qualities, as well as personal worth, had 
attained for him a position not often reached by those as 
young as he. 

When the Eighteenth Regiment was forming, the duty 
of entering his country's service came to him with new force. 
Seeking the advice of friends and parents, he finally regis- 
tered his conviction of what was duty, by enlisting. The 
purest of motives prompted him in this act, for it was when 
his earthly prospects were brightest that he entered the 
army, and his parents knew that at pecuniary sacrifice he 
remained in the service. He was moreover an only son, 
tenderly beloved, and relinquished more than many in leav- 
ing father and mother at his country's call. 

In August, 1862, he left Norwich with the Eighteenth 
Regiment, commanded by Col. William G. Ely. While 
stationed at Baltimore, Culver was detailed to act as clerk 
at the headquarters of General Schenck, Commandant of 
the Middle Department. His executive ability secured him 
the appointment, and so valuable were his services con- 
sidered by the General, that he was retained some time after 
his promotion to the Adjutancy of the regiment. While in 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



239 



this position, in one of his letters he speaks of his dissatis- 
faction with such labor. Though it was safer and more 
lucrative than a soldier's service, still he said it was not for 
this Kind of work he enlisted. He was eager to engage in 
active campaigning — to meet the hardships and brave the 
perils of the field. 

He rejoined his regiment just after the unfortunate battle 
of Winchester, June 14-15, 1863, when the Colonel and 
a large proportion of the officers and men were taken prison- 
ers. His first letter, dated at Maryland Heights, spoke of 
" a disconsolate band " he had succeeded in g-athering: to- 
gether, — the remnants of the splendid regiment which had 
left Norwich less than a year previous. He furnished to 
anxious friends the first reliable account of the casualties of 
that action. Entering upon the duties of Adjutant, he 
proved himself at once a most efficient officer. 

In April, 1864, he returned home on a furlough, and many 
remember with deep interest that last visit. The campaign 
of the spring was about to open, and the indications were 
that there would be hard fighting. The earnestness with 
which Culver spoke of the increased perils showed his full 
appreciation of his own exposure, when he returned. Com- 
ing events appeared to have wrought an unusual thought- 
fulness. And though he spoke calmly and with hope, it 
was with a half betrayed impression that this would prove 
his final visit with Norwich friends. 

At the last interview with his parents, his mother re- 
marked : " You look care-worn, but I do not ask you to 
resign." He replied : " I could not be induced so to do ; 
for, dear mother, calmly and deliberately I give my service 
and my life if necessary, for my country." 

When he returned to his regiment, the army of the Shen- 
andoah, of which it formed a part, had started upon its long 
and tedious campaign. At New Market, Va., occurred the 



240 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

first engagement with the rebels. In this the Eighteenth 
Regiment participated, losing fifty-six in killed, wounded, 
and missing. The report of this battle was the last Adju- 
tant Culver lived to make. Retreating to Cedar Creek, Va., 
the army rested several days, and was reorganized under 
General Hunter, who relieved General Sigel. 

On May 27, equipped for rapid marching, the regiment, 
with the army, advanced with little opposition until arriving 
in the vicinity of Piedmont, June 5, 1864. A battle here 
ensued, resulting after severe and protracted fighting, in 
the total rout of the enemy, and the capture of 1 500 pris- 
oners. Among the first mortally wounded on our side was 
Adjutant Culver. While engaged with the regiment in one 
of the earliest charges made that day, he was struck by a 
piece of shell, and fell from his horse. 

Removed at once to the hospital, he died the following 
day, June 6, 1864. He had fought his last fight, and re- 
ceived his death-wound while joining in the charge which 
brought victory to our arms. What he had said he was 
willing to do, he was by the providence of God permitted 
to do, in thus cheerfully laying down his life for his country. 

So the youth whom fond parents had watched as he de- 
veloped into all that was noble and pure, fell bravely fighting 
for our liberties and our land. One more name his death 
adds to the roll of heroes, whose generous self-sacrifice 
sanctifies the cause. An earnest Christian, a faithful 
clerk, a devoted patriot, he has left behind the record of 
a noble life. 

His firmly outlined integrity, united with his quiet en- 
thusiasm, had won him a high position in the esteem of 
many here, and long will his memory be cherished by friends 
and citizens in Norwich. In an epoch of great events he 
acted a noble part, and sincerely and bravely performed his 
every duty. 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



241 



Recalling his faithfulness in all things committed to him 
here, I think of the promise which is the inheritance of 
such servants, made by — 

" That monarch whose ' well done ' confers a more than mortal fame." 

William A. Berry, Captain Company , Second Ar- 
tillery, New York. He was an Englishman, who had re- 
cently settled in Greeneville, and who, sharing with our 
citizens in the patriotic enthusiasm awakened by the war, 
was among the first to enlist in Captain Chester's company, 
in which he was commissioned Second Lieutenant. He 
served with credit through the three months' campaign. He 
again offered his service to the government, by enlisting in 
a company that was raised by Thomas Maguire, for the 
regiment of Colonel Colt (the Fifth). When the latter 
threw up his interest in it, owing to some misunderstand- 
ing, Maguire carried most of his command, including Berry, 
with him, and was accepted in the Second Regiment Artil- 
lery, Maguire receiving the commission of Captain, and 
Berry that of Lieutenant. The regiment was a long time 
confined to garrison duty at Washington, where Berry was 
promoted to Captain, his friend Maguire having been made 
Major. He was a brave soldier, rather noted for his cool- 
ness, and was regarded with no ordinary esteem by those 
who knew him best. 

In the early part of the summer of 1864, the regiment was 
called to the front, and participated in one of the battles near 
Petersburg, June 18, 1864, where Captain Berry was killed. 
He was interred on the battle-field, but subsequently, in No- 
vember, 1864, his remains wqyq brought to Norwich by his 
friend and comrade-in-arms. Lieutenant Thomas Scott, and 
buried in Yantic Cemetery. Berry made an excellent sol- 
dier, having previously served several years in the British 
army ; and though a comparative stranger here, left be- 
behind him the record of a true devotion to his adopted 



242 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

country. There were not a few who, coming to us from 
other lands, were among the foremost to offer their services 
in behalf of a country they had learned to love with all 
that aftection which we sometimes think can be cherished 
by only those to the manor born. 

Young Berry's history is one which has for us a jDeculiar 
interest, for it is the record of one who stood for our de- 
fense ; and with a patriotism, which made him seem as if 
always of us, he went forth to battle for our own and his 
chosen country, and in thus doing, fell in the cause that 
was materially aided by just such generous devotion as 
he evinced. 

James R. Nickels, Captain Company I, Fourteenth 
Regiment, was born in the town of Cherryfield, Maine, July 
14th, 1843. Left an orphan at an early age, he removed to 
Norwich, to reside with an aunt, and that most picturesque 
and beautiful of New England cities was thenceforward his 
home. Here he made hosts of friends among the young 
lads of his age, and here was laid the foundation of a friend- 
ship toward young Nickels by the writer, that grew with 
his growth, and which makes him feel this brief memorial 
to be a most paltry tribute to one of the most generous and 
noble hearts that ever beat. Completing his school studies, 
Nickels entered the crockery store of R. M. Haven, and 
became a member of his family. At the outbreak of the 
war he enlisted in Captain Harland's Company of the Third 
Connecticut Regiment, with which he passed creditably 
through the three months' campaign, being particularly re- 
marked for his coolness at the first Bull Run, where his 
company was one of the few from Connecticut which suf- 
fered any casualties. 

Returning home at the close of the campaign, he resumed 
his former avocation, devoting his spare time to the study 
of military tactics. His patriotism and adaptation to a 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 243 

military career were such, however, that he could not re- 
main quietly at home, but on the President's call for 50,000 
men, in May, 1862, he again enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany E of the Fourteenth. He was speedily made First 
Sergeant, and left the State as such, August 23d, 1862. In 
less than four weeks he passed with his regiment through 
the bloody fight of Antietam. 

At Fredericksburg, where fourteen out of eighteen offi- 
cers were killed or wounded. Nickels escaped with his clothes 
riddled with bullets. December 20th, 1862, he was com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant of Company I, and in less 
than a month, January 19th, 1863, promoted to be First 
Lieutenant of Company K. That year he passed unscathed 
through the engagements of Chancellorsville, Antietam, and 
Bristoe Station. On the 5th of November he was commis- 
sioned Captain of Company L In the campaign of 1864 
he was with the regiment in the terrible carnage of the 
Wilderness, and Spottsylvania, the numerous minor engage- 
ments on the North and South Anna River, and at Cold 
Harbor. In the latter battle he commanded the regiment 
and led it in a brilliant charge, for which he was highly 
complimented by his brigade commander — the fearless 
Colonel Smyth. 

Through the constant fighting and perilous picket duty of 
that summer, in front of Petersburg, Nickels was ever at 
the post of duty, but never was scratched. But his hitherto 
uninterrupted career of success was terminated August 
27th, 1864, in the struggle for the possession of the Weldon 
Railroad, known as the battle of Ream's Station. Here he 
was severely wounded in the leg, and left on the field, where 
he was stripped by the rebels, who left him, not dreaming 
that he would survive the night. During the night his 
casualty was reported to the regiment, when Adjutant 
Hincks, and Privates Goff and Rigney, sought him out on 



244 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

the abandoned field, and bore him through the darkness 
eight miles into our Hnes. Such was the love he inspired, 
and such the devotion of the brave boys who risked their 
lives for him. Taken to City Point, he was removed to Ar- 
mory Square Hospital, at Washington, where, after linger- 
ing six months, he died, February 20th, 1865. Many times 
his prospects of recovery were deemed very fair, but the 
long confinement at last broke down his constitution — and 
with his faithful aunt and brother by his bedside, he quietly 
pined away, saying to his aunt, who told him of his situa- 
tion, and pointed him to Christ, " It is all right with me," 

Connecticut lost no nobler son in the war, — a genial com- 
panion, a thorough officer, always remarkable for his knowl- 
edge of and attention to his duties ; loved and respected 
by his brother officers and men. He had won high enco- 
miums from his superiors of all grades, and bid fair in time 
to have acquired more than a local reputation. His perfect 
coolness under fire, and his cheerfulness and freedom from 
despondency or irritability during his long and weary con- 
finement to a hospital bed, show the prominent traits in his 
character, — intrepidity, trustfulness, and amiability. 

Into twenty-one short years Captain Nickels crowded a 
life-time of noble deeds, and dying he left no enemy but 
mourning friends among his soldier comrades, his school- 
mates, and his townsmen. It was granted to him to live 
long enough to see the impending triumph of his country's 
cause, and to leave an untarnished name — 

" And so he laid his laurels down at his great Captain's feet." 
THE LOST IN OTHER THAN CONNECTICUT REGIMENTS. 

Douglas R. Bushnell, Major Thirteenth Regiment, 111. 
Vols. Killed in action at Chattanooga. 

Peter L. Hyde, Lieutenant Twenty-sixth Regiment, 
Ohio Vols. Killed at Arkansas Post. 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 245 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES, 
"the least in rank, but not in honor." 

David C. Case, Third Regiment C. V. Killed by a can- 
non ball at Bull-Run, July 21, 1861. Age 26. He was the 
son of Dea. Samuel Case of Norwich Town, and the first 
soldier from Norwich killed in the War of the Rebellion. 

Joseph Stokes, Second Regiment C. V. Died in hos- 
pital, July 25, 1 86 1. 

Thomas D. Huntington, Eighth Regiment C. V. Son 
of Benjamin Huntington, Norwich Town. He enlisted 
September 21, 1861, and went into camp at Hartford, where 
he was taken sick. He returned home, and died eight days 
after being mustered into service, September 29, 1861. 

Erastus D. Vergason, Tenth Regiment C. V. Killed 
in the battle of Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862. He 
was a farmer. Age 27. 

Patrick Maro, Tenth Regiment C. V. Killed in the 
capture of Newbern, N. C, March 14, 1862. He was a 
mechanic. Age 18. 

Daniel H. Brown, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died of 
disease at New Orleans, May 14, 1862. Age 43. By trade 
a mechanic. 

William Hutchins, Eleventh Regiment C. V. Died 
of disease, June 14, 1862. Age 20. 

James Moningham, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died of 
disease at Vicksburg, Miss., July 21, 1862. He was a la- 
borer. Age 33. 

John Kerley, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died on the 
transport, July 24, 1862. Age 18. 

John P. Kehr, U. S. N. Died of disease at Vicksburg, 
July 30, 1862. 

Alexander S. Avery, Sergeant, Fifth Regiment C. V. 



246 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Killed in the battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August 9, 
1862. 

Charles H. Potter, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died of 
disease at Baton Rouge, La., August 10, 1862. He was a 
machinist by trade. Age 24. 

Patrick Weldon, Sergeant, Ninth Regiment C. V. 
Died at New Orleans, August 14, 1862. Age 34. 

James Murphy, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died August 
16, 1862, at New Orleans. Age 19. 

James McVay, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. Fell out of 
the ranks on the march to Antietam and died of exhaus- 
tion at Rockville, Md., September 9, 1862. Age 42. 

David M. Ford, Eleventh Regiment C. V. Killed in 
the battle at Antietam, September 1 7, 1 862. Age 20. 

John C. Holwell, Eleventh Regiment C. V. Killed 
at Antietam, September 17, 1862. Age 40. 

Ezra M. Loomis, Eleventh Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received at Antietam, September 19, 1862. 

Henry P. Yerrington, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. 
Died of wounds received at Antietam, September 21, 1872. 
Age 25. 

Henry M. Schofield, Eleventh Regiment C. V. He 
was a young man of much promise, enlisted in the First 
Regiment, April 22, 1861. Died of wounds received at 
Antietam, September 28, 1862. 

John W. Wood, Eleventh Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received at Antietam, September 1862. Age 23. 

Edward Dorcey, Corporal, Fourteenth Regiment C. 
V. Died of wounds received at Antietam, October 8, 
1862. 

John Simpson, Sergeant, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died 
of disease at New Orleans, October 8, 1862. Age 27. 

Horatio Burdick, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
at Fort McHenry, October 19, 1862. Age 30. 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



247 



Theodore A. Fanning, Eighth Regiment C. V. Died 
of wounds received at Antietam, October 19, 1862. Age 24. 

Ferdinand Volkman, Sixth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Beaufort, S. C, October 21, 1862. Age 36. 

David Black, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. Killed in the 
battle of Georgia Landing, La., October 27, 1862. Age 38. 

Henry C. Fanning, Eighth Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received at Antietam, October 28, 1862. Age 18. 

John Meany, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died at New 
Orleans, November 12, 1862. 

Charles H. Beckwith, Eighteenth Regiment, C. V. 
Served in the three months' campaign. Died of disease at 
Norwich, December i, 1862. Age 22. 

Michael Carver, Corporal, First Regiment Cavalry 
C. V. Killed in action at Stafford Court House, Va., Jan- 
uary 3, 1863. Age 18. 

Daniel Wilbur, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Accident- 
ally shot while on guard duty at Fort Howard, Baltimore, 
Md., January 5, 1863. Age 19. 

Charles Burdick, Tenth Regiment C. V. Son of Evan 
Burdick of Norwich. Died in the hospital at Newbern, 
N. C, January 16, 1863. Age 19. 

Josiah L. D. Otis, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, and died after extreme suffer- 
ing in a hospital at Washington, D. C, February 10, 1863. 
He was a physician by profession, and enlisted in the com- 
pany of Captain James B. Coit. At his death was 41 years 
of age. 

William R. Allyn, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
at Falmouth, March 9, 1863. He was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. Age 18. 

John McSorley, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died at New 
Orleans, April 18, 1863. Age 35. 

James Torrance, Sergeant, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. 



248 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Killed at Port Hudson, Louisiana, May 24, 1863. He was 
the youngest son of a widowed mother, born November 29, 
1 84 1, near Edinburgh, Scotland. He possessed in a high 
degree the qualities of self-reliance and integrity which 
characterize so generally the Scotch. With a bright earn- 
est face, a manly form, those who observed him in the Sab- 
bath-school class, or in the workshop, were attracted by his 
appearance. At the first call of the Government for troops, 
he promptly responded, and went out in Captain Harland's 
company of the Third Regiment, and was in the battle of 
Bull Run. Returning with the regiment, he was not con- 
tented to remain at home. His heart was in the cause, and 
he longed once more to enroll himself among the country's 
defenders. Though his mother sought to retain him by her 
side, reminding him that she was now dependent upon her 
boys, he still seemed to think it was her duty to give him 
up, and his to go. 

Meanwhile, his mother noticed the boy's strong desire to 
enlist once more, and was not wholly unprepared for the 
decision which brought him again to that step. " Mother," 
he said, as nearly as his words can now be recalled, "you 
know we have adopted this as our land, and we ought in 
this hour of peril to do something for the Government, and 
I think I ought to enter its service." The time had come, 
and sorrowfully, yet hopefully, the fond parent replied, 
" Jamie, if you must go, one condition I have to propose, — 
that you will read a chapter in this Testament (handing him 
the copy), when not on duty, every night at nine o'clock, 
and your mother will do the same ; and so we will remem- 
ber each other." He assented to this, and in the Thir- 
teenth Regiment, under Colonel Birge, soon took his de- 
parture. Young Torrance was regarded in his company as 
a brave and upright soldier, and his Captain reports him as 
one of the most reliable in his command. 



" THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



249 



In the battles of Georgia Landing, October 27, 1862, and 
of Irish Bend, April 14, 1863, Sergeant Torrance acquitted 
himself with honor. On Sabbath, May 24, 1863, was the 
assault on Port Hudson, with the Thirteenth Regiment in 
the advance, leading the charge. Just previous to the bat- 
tle, Torrance remarked to a comrade, " The only thing I 
dislike in the service is the being obliged to fight on the 
Lord's Day, at least commencing any engagement which 
could as well be postponed till after the passage of holy 
time." 

It was in this action that young Torrance received his 
death shot. After little more than a year's service he fell, 
as the hero should fall, facing the foe and leading in the 
charge. He had staked all in his country's behalf, and died 
in her defense. His was a humble career, for it was a mod- 
est yet manly youth who lived it, who sought ambitiously 
for no personal renown, but who was earnestly intent on 
the Government's deliverance. 

His brother, Colonel David Torrance of the Twenty- 
ninth Regiment, who served with great faithfulness and 
honor, wrote to his mourning mother, when the sad intel- 
ligence reached him, " Our starry flag where'er it floats, 
will be dearer now to me, hallowed and consecrated by a 
brother's blood. Let us give thanks that God has accepted 
our sacrifice, and that we are permitted to do and to suffer 
in the cause of liberty, right, and truth." 

Michael Corbett, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
of wounds at Baton Rouge, La., May 25, 1863. Age 25. 

Myron W. Starrett, Twenty-sixth Regiment. Miss- 
ing in action, and was supposed to have died at Port Hud- 
son, May 27, 1863. 

James Parkerson, Twenty-sixth Regiment C. V. Mor- 
tally wounded at Port Hudson, May 27th, and died June 
I, 1863. Age 27. 



250 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Alijert Burnett, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Killed 
in the battle of Winchester, Va., June 15, 1863. Age 24. 

James McCracken, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Killed 
at Winchester, Va., June 15, 1863. Age 28. 

Charles C. Noyes, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Mor- 
tally wounded in the battle of Winchester, and died June 
15, 1863. He was a young man of promising talents, ex- 
emplary in his life, and the only child of his parents. 

CouRTLAND C. AvERY, Twenty-sixth Regiment C. V. 
Died of fever near Port Hudson, La., June 23, 1863. He 
was a son of Courtland Avery of Scotland, Conn., but for 
many years a resident in Norwich. 

William M. Sherman, Sergeant, Twenty-sixth Regiment 
C. V. Died June 28, 1863, in the hospital at New Orleans, 
from wounds received at Port Hudson. Age 25. 

Nelson C. Thompson, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. 
Died of wounds received in the battle of Winchester, Va., 
June 30, 1863. Age 21. 

John Crawford, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received in the battle of Winchester, July 2, 1863. 
He was a young man of estimable character, and resided in 
Greeneville. Age 25. 

IsLAY B. Martin, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received at Winchester, Va., July 2, 1863. He 
was a well educated and promising youth. Age 18. 

Henry Brooks, twenty-sixth Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received in the first charge on Port Hudson, La., 
July 3, 1863. He was a native of Canada, but for a num- 
ber of years a resident in Norwich. Age 44. 

Frank White, Sixth Regiment C. V. Killed in the 
assault of Fort Wagner, S. C, July 18, 1863. A carpenter 
by occupation. Age 28. 

Charles Meisser, Sixth Regiment C. V. Killed at 
Morris Island, July 18, 1863. Age 24. 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 25 I 

John Shea, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. Died of disease 
at Baton Rouge, La., July 18, 1863. 

George F. Edgertox, Twenty-sixth Regiment C. V. 
Died at Port Hudson, La., July 23, 1863. Age 35. 

James Dugan, Twenty-sixth Regiment C. V. Wounded 
in the hand at Port Hudson, and died of disease on board 
the steamer while returning home, July 28, 1863. 

Stephen T. Johnson, Twenty-sixth Regiment C. V. 
Died in the hospital at Mound City, 111., August 3, 1863. 
Age 39. 

Joseph Forestner, Corporal, Eighteenth Regiment C. 
V. Died at Camp Parole, Md., August 9, 1863. Age t^j. 

William McKnight, Twelfth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Brashear City, La., August 18, 1863. 

Lemuel Bolman, Twelfth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Brashear City, La., August 22, 1863. Age 44. 

William T. B. Osborne, unassigned recruit. Died at 
New Haven, September 2, 1863. 

Alfred S. Chappell, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. 
Died in Philadelphia, September 17, 1863. Age 37. 

Henry M. Beckwith, First Artillery C. V. Died at 
Fort Ward, Va., October 10, 1863. 

Abner T. Potter, unassigned recruit. Died at Nor- 
wich, December 24, 1863. 

Frederick W. Baker, First Regiment Cavalry C. V. 
Died at Baltimore, Md., January 27, 1864. 

Stephen H. Smith, Thirty-first Regiment U. S. C. T. 
Died at Philadelphia, Pa., February 23, 1864. 

E. C. Buckingham, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
at Brandy Station, Va., March 3, 1864. 

Dennis Murphy, Twenty-first Regiment C. V. Died 
at Newbern, N. C, March 12, 1864. 

Henry A. Bottomly, Corporal, Seventh Regiment C. 
V. He had reenlisted as a veteran, and died during his 



252 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

veteran furlough, while on a visit to his family near Boston, 
March 13, 1864. Age 34. His death was occasioned by 
disease contracted while in the service. 

John Cullin, Twenty-first Regiment C. V. Died in 
the hospital at Newbern, March 22, 1864. 

William H. Town, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
in hospital at Sandy Hook, Md., March 28, 1864. Age 29. 

Joseph H. Winship, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. He 
was left at Winchester, after the battle of June 15, 1863, to 
look after the sick and wounded ; was taken prisoner, sent 
to Richmond, thence transferred to Andersonville, Ga., and 
there died April 5, 1864. Age 23. He was an only child, 
leaving behind him sad parents and a desolate home. 

John Meldrum, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died at New 
Orleans, April 8, 1864. 

James W. Hicks, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Martinsburg, Va.,. April 13, 1864. 

Moses Tvler, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. Captured 
at Morton's Ford, Va., and died in prison at Andersonville, 
Ga., April 14, 1864. Age 19. 

Alonzo S. Cushman, Corporal, Eleventh Regiment C. 
V. Mortally wounded at Swift's Creek, Va., and died May 
9, 1864. He had reenlisted as a veteran. 

Patrick Lloyd, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. Killed at 
Spottsyivania, Va., May 1 1, 1864. Age 25. 

David H. Brown, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
May 15, 1864. A reenlisted veteran. Age 23. 

David Lacey, Second Artillery C. V. Killed at Cold 
Harbor, Va., June i, 1864. 

Ronald McAllister, Jr., Eleventh Regiment C. V. 
Killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. (His father, of the 
same name, served 14 months in the same regiment.) 

James Souter, Sergeant, Eleventh Regiment C. V. 
Killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. He was born in 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE. 



253 



Dundee, Scotland, December 8, 1841, and came to this 
country with his parents in 185 1, who have resided in 
Greeneville since 1855. When the rebels began hostili- 
ties by firing upon Fort Sumter, James, who was a clerk 
in the house of C. D. Browning & Co., comprehended the 
nature and magnitude of the impending struggle, as few 
then did, and after mature deliberation, enlisted in Company 
F, Eleventh Regiment C. V. He was soon chosen Ser- 
geant ; afterwards upon the illness of the First Lieutenant 
of the Ambulance Corps, he was detailed to fill his place. 
He returned to his regiment in season to participate in the 
battle of Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, where he fell, and was 
buried on the field with about one hundred others in the 
darkness of the night, without lights. 

He is remembered as a dutiful son, a diligent scholar, a 
faithful clerk, and conscientious Christian. His Captain, in 
a letter of condolence to his parents, says : " The Sergeant 
is very riiuch missed in the Regiment. Cool, courageous, 
never faltering, and always ready for every duty, and every 
inch a model soldier, and by none can the loss be felt more 
deeply than by myself, for 1 had almost learned to look upon 
him as a brother." Communicated. 

Thomas Dugan, Twenty-first Regiment C. V. Died in 
prison at Andersonville, Ga., June 4, 1864. 

John T. Bradley, Corporal, Eighteenth Regiment C. 
V. Killed in the battle of Piedmont, Va., June 5, 1864. 
Age 19. 

Charles T. Fannlng, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Mor- 
tally wounded at Piedmont, Va., June 5, 1864. 

William H. Hamilton, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. 
Killed in the battle of Piedmont, Va., June 5, 1864. Age 18. 

Thomas McMahon, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Killed 
at Piedmont, Va., June 5, 1864. 
17 



254 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Daniel Emmons, Twenty-ninth Regiment, Colored C. V. 
Died at Beaufort, S. C, June 13, 1864. 

Walter M. Fox, Second Artillery C. V. Killed at Pe- 
tersburg, June 22, 1864. 

August Ehlers, Twenty-first Regiment C. V. Died 
from wounds at Point of Rocks, Va., July 2, 1864. 

Thomas M. Baldwin, First Regiment Cavalry C. V. 
Died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., July 3, 1864. 

Henry Stewart, Thirty-first U. S. C. T. Killed at 
Petersburg, July 7, 1864. 

Byron Crocker, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds received at Georgia Landing at New Orleans, July 
16, 1864. He was the son of the late Thomas Crocker, and 
one of the party that volunteered to storm the works at Port 
Hudson under the lead of General Birge. 

John Delaney, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Killed in 
the engagement at Snicker's Ford, Va., July 18, 1864. 
Age 18. 

Karl Reder, First Conn. Cavalry. Died of wounds 
at David's Island, N. Y., July 29, 1864. 

Patrick Conklin, Twenty-first Regiment C. V. Died 
of disease at Fortress Monroe, Va., August 2, 1864. 

John F Treadway, Corporal, First Conn. Cavalry. 
Died in prison at Andersonville, August 3, 1864. He 
was the son of F. W, Treadway, of Norwich, and enlisted 
at New Haven. 

Joseph A. Tracy, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Wounded 
at Snicker's Ford, July 18, 1864, and died in hospital at 
Sandy Hook, Md., August 7, 1864. Age 18. 

Henry F. Champlin, Tenth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Andersonville, Ga., August 11, 1864. 

Joseph A. Bailey, First Conn. Cavalry. Died in prison 
at Andersonville, August 13, 1864. 



"THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



!55 



John Barney, Twenty-first Regiment C. V. Died of 
wounds at Fortress Monroe, Va., August 14, 1864. 

James S. McDavid, First Conn. Cavalry. Captured at 
Ashland Station, June i, 1864, died at Andersonville, Aug. 
21, 1864. Age 17. 

Henry N. Loomis, Twenty-first Regiment. Mortally 
wounded at Petersburg, and died August 21, 1864. Age 18. 

William Davis, First Conn. Cavalry. Captured at 
Craig's Church, Va., May 3, 1864, died at Andersonville, 
August 30, 1864. Age 42. 

William G. Hayward, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. 
Captured at Winchester, was exchanged, and rejoined his 
regiment; captured again at New Market, Va., May 15, 
1864, and died in prison at Andersonville, September 11, 
1864. Age 34. 

Augustus Berg, Second Artillery C. V. Killed in ac- 
tion at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. 

Albert Moffett, First Conn. Cavalry. Killed at Win- 
chester, Va., September 19, 1864. 

Daniel Laird, Thirteenth Regiment C. V. Killed at 
Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. Age 18. 

Martin Carl, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died of 
disease at Sandy Hook, Md., September 25, 1864. 

Edward F. Tisdale, First Conn. Cavalry. Was cap- 
tured after his horse had been shot under him, and died at 
Andersonville, September 29, 1864. Age 18. 

Adam Acksler, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died in 
prison at Madisonville, Ga., October 5, 1864. 

Edward Blumley, Eighth Regiment, C. V. Captured 
in an engagement upon the Petersburg Railroad, May 
7, 1864, and died at Andersonville, Ga., October 6, 1864. 
Age 39. 

Gideon McCall, Thirty-first Regiment U. S. C. T. 
Died of wounds at Alexandria, Va., October 8, 1864. 



256 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Edward Roe, Ninth Regiment. Killed in action at 
Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864. 

Thomas Fillburn, Seventh Regiment C. V. Died in 
prison in Millen, Ga., October 21, 1864. 

]\IosES Stephenson, Twenty-ninth Regiment C. V. 
Died of wounds, October 27, 1864. 

Henry W. Greenough, First Conn. Cavalry. Died in 
prison in Salisbury, N. C, October 29, 1864. 

Henry Lynch, Second Artillery C. V. Died of wounds 
at Baltimore, Md., October 31, 1864. 

William B. Carrol, Corporal, Seventh Regiment, C. V. 
Died of disease, November 5, 1864. 

Sylvanus Downer, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died in 
prison at Andersonville, November 5, 1864. He had been 
chief engineer of the fire department in Norwich, was cap- 
tured at Winchester, exchanged, rejoined his regiment, and 
was promoted Color-sergeant. Afterwards wounded in the 
battle of Piedmont, he was taken prisoner a second time, 
and carried to the prison-pen at Andersonville, where he 
died. Age 44. 

Patrick Glynn, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died of dis- 
ease, November 25, 1864. 

Horace B. Wood, Second Artillery C. V. Died in 
prison at Richmond, Va., December 27, 1864. 

Herbert E. Beckwith, Corporal, Second Artillery, Mass. 
Captured at Plymouth, N. C, and taken to Andersonville, 
Ga., from which he returned, but in so exhausted a condition 
that he lived but six days, dying December 30, 1864. He 
was the son of Elisha W. Beckwith, of Norwich, and was born 
June 23, 1 845. Early in the war he manifested a strong desire 
to enlist, but his youthful age and the wishes of his parents 
for a while deterred him. Many thought him too young to 
endure the hardships of a soldier's life, but the excitement 
and novelty of such a career had a fascination for him, and. 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE.' 



257 



boy as he was, he too felt the stirrings of that mighty joas- 
sion which can make of even youth, patriots and heroes. 
Not that he at this time thoroughly defined his motives, but 
it was more than idle curiosity that had made him wish to 
do what he instinctively felt was noble. To have part in the 
mighty conflict, was his strongest desire. He was a lad of 
noble impulses, and not unintelligently did he choose that 
his place should be among the brave defenders of his 
country. 

After some debate as to the wisdom of such a course, he 
enlisted, October i, 1861, in the Tenth Regiment, under 
Colonel Russell. For nearly two years he shared the for- 
tunes of that noble regiment. He passed safely through 
the battles of Roanoke Island, Newbern, and Kingston. 
Through all this period till June, 1863, he acquitted him- 
self well as a soldier. His fragile form, and boyish coun- 
tenance frequently excited the wonder as to how he should 
have come into the rough scenes and stern experiences of 
military life. 

At his father's request he was honorably discharged, June, 
1863. His soldierly conduct had gained him the esteem of 
both officers and men, and at the time of leaving he was to 
have been promoted Sergeant-major. 

In November, 1863, he enlisted for the second time in 
the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. With this regi- 
ment he left for Norfolk, Va., the following month, and was 
stationed at Camp O'Rourke, near the city. On the loth 
of January, 1864, he was made Corporal, and was detailed 
soon after as Orderly to the Adjutant. In February, the 
regiment was ordered to Plymouth, N. C, where it per- 
formed garrison duty at Fort Wessels, one of the defenses 
of that place. On the 20th of April, Plymouth was attacked 
by the enemy in force, and after a determined resistance was 
captured. Young Beckwith, with his regiment, was among 



258 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

the prisoners taken. They were immediately marched off, 
and taken under strong guard first to Tarboro, and thence 
to Wihiiington, Charleston, and finally to Andersonville. 

Here five weary months were passed. Beckwith's jour- 
nal gives his experience in that terrible prison-pen. It is 
substantially a history of suffering, cruelty, and of every in- 
humanity possible to a desperate and unprincipled foe. 
" This is a miserable place," he writes in one place, " so 
little care is taken of it, especially of the sick, who die in 
large numbers." Exposure to the summer's scorching sun, 
and then to the night-dews, made its impress soon on the 
youthful soldier. It is painful to read of the struggle he 
and others had to make to live on the scanty and unwhole- 
some rations dealt out there. On the 4th of July, he writes : 
" This most glorious day has passed almost in misery, in the 
most miserable place almost on earth." Sometimes he 
speaks of rations of rotten bacon, and again of the non- 
issue of the usual rations. The tale of suffering is affecting 
to read, and yet no word of complaint escapes him. Of his 
personal sufferings and patient hopeful spirit, friends at 
home knew comparatively little, till companions of his es- 
caped from that pen of death, and told what they witnessed. 
Their account of his hopeful courage and resolute endur- 
ance, was most full and touching. Unable to digest the 
only food furnished them, Beckwith was among the first to 
experience the pangs of unsatisfied hunger. His calm rela- 
tion in his diary of some terrible fact, such as the failure of 
water, or the appearance of disease, shows how the fearful 
schooling of these months had familiarized him with the 
most excruciating suffering. Singularly reticent as to his 
own interior life, he notes usually whatever he sees of in- 
terest. The recurrence of the holy Sabbath appeared to 
make him long most of all for his Christian home. " At 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



259 



times," he says, " I fancy I hear the church bells in Nor- 
wich." 

September 12th, 1864, came the welcome news of deliv- 
erance through exchange, and he left the prison, though 
with the signs of a not far distant death. Taken to Charles- 
ton, he with the rest was transferred to one of our trans- 
ports, and brought North. December 24th, he reached 
Camp Parole, Annapolis, Md., and on the 28th was removed 
to the hospital. Pale and weak, with his lungs almost gone, 
after the exposures incident to his prison-life, he went di- 
rectly to his bed in the hospital, and died two days after, 
December 30, 1864. 

James Massey, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died in 
prison at Florence, S. C, January 7, 1865. 

Charles H. Monroe, Twenty-ninth Regiment C. V. 
Died at Fortress Monroe, Va., January 11, 1865. 

Edward Campbell, Fourteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
of disease at Washington, D. C, January 18, 1S65. 

Patrick McNamara, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
of disease, January 18, 1865. 

Silas Brown, Twenty-ninth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Santiago, Texas, January 25, 1865. 

George BroW'N, Tenth Regiment C. V. Died at the 
Point of Rocks, Va., January 27, 1865. 

Walter Burgoyne, Twelfth Regiment C. V. Died 
February 5, 1865. 

George W. Ward, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
in prison at Andersonville, Ga., February 6, 1865. He was 
taken prisoner at Winchester, and confined successively at 
Belle Isle, Danville, and Andersonville. His manly forti- 
tude and genial temperament long sustained him, but con- 
tinued hunger, confinement, and ill-usage at length brought 
him to the grave, after he had been twenty-one months a 



26o THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

prisoner. He had fine musical talents, was a steadfast 
patriot, and had many warm personal friends. Age 26. 

Israel Varney, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Captured 
at New Market, Va., May 15, 1864. Died in prison at Flor- 
ence, S. C, February 10, 1865. 

Henry C. Gaskill, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
while en route to be exchanged, at Danville, Va., February 
20, 1865. He was the son of Benjamin Gaskill, of Greene- 
ville, was wounded at Piedmont, taken prisoner at Winches- 
ter, and kept in long and barbarous captivity. When at 
length released he was so reduced by starvation and expos- 
ure that he died on his way home. Age 33. 

Richard H. Bogue, Sixth Regiment C. V. Died of 
disease, February 23, 1865. 

Alexander Driscoll, First Conn. Cavalry. Died 
of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 7, 1865. 

Joseph Davis, Eighth Regiment C. V. Died at the 
Point of Rocks, Va., March 10, 1865. 

John Best, Second Artillery C. V. Killed near Peters- 
burg, Va., March 25, 1865. 

David Cramer, Second Artillery C. V. Killed in action 
at Petersburg, March 25, 1865. 

Thomas Keeler, Second Artillery C. V. Killed at 
Fort Fisher, N. C, March 26, 1865. 

Francis W. Taylor, P^ighteenth Regiment C. V. Died 
at Annapolis, Md., March 28, 1865. 

James Keneley, Tenth Regiment C. V, Killed at 
Petersburg, April 2, 1865. 

Anton Burgmayer, P^irst Conn. Cavalry. Died at An- 
napolis, Md., April 11, 1865. 

George W. Fox, Eighteenth Regiment C. V. Died at 
Martinsburg, Va., April 17, 1865. 

Charles E. Breed, U. S. N. Engineer. Died of dis- 
ease contracted in the service, April i, 1865. He entered 





L'''COL IB-!-" CV. 



THE UNRETURNING BRAVE." 



261 



the navy in April, 1864, and though not able at that time 
to endure a soldier's hardship, he hoped to be of some ser- 
vice to the Government on one of its vessels. With a gen- 
erous feeling that what he could he ought to do, he took his 
place on the ship, and by faithful unpretentious duty did 
his part in crushing out the rebellion. The exposures and 
labors of his position, however, proved too much for his 
strength, and reluctantly, though after persistent trial, he 
was obliged to seek discharge from duty. He came home 
in February, 1865, with the symptoms of fatal disease, and 
lingered till the following April, when he died. Age 19. 

John McDonald, Ninth Regiment C. V. Died May 2, 
1865. 

Abbott Howell, Thirty-first U. S. C. T. Died at 
Brownsville, Texas, July 16, 1865. 

Edward Francis, Twenty-ninth Regiment C. V. Died 
at Brownsville, Texas, September 17, 1865. 

THE LOST IN OTHER THAN CONNECTICUT REGIMENTS. 



James Williams, Second N. Y. Artillery. Died of dis- 
ease, at Alexandria, February, 1862. 

William D. Lathrop, Fifteenth Regiment 111. V. Died 
at Paducah of wounds received at battle of Shiloh, April 
22, 1862. 

Edward R. Moore, Fifty-seventh Regiment N. Y. V. 
Died of disease at Newport News, Va., September 16, 1862. 

Jacob W. Miller, Fifty-first Artillery. Son of J. W. 
Miller, Norwich Town. He was with his regiment, which 
he joined soon after the war broke out, in the North Caro- 
lina campaign, under General Burnside ; in the Army of 
the Potomac at South Mountain and Antietam ; in Grant's 
army at Vicksburg ; and in the battles of the Wilderness. 
In the conflict near Spottsylvania, May 18, 1864, he was 



262 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



shot through the heart. Age i6. He had never been ab- 
sent an hour from his post during his connection with the 
army, and was buried on the battle-field. His commanding 
officer, writing to his friends, bore grateful testimony to his 
soldierly faithfulness and courage. 

John W. Peters, Fourteenth Regiment R. I. V. Died 
of disease, at Fort Jackson, La., August 24, 1864. 

Charles J. Tossett, Fourteenth Regiment R. I. V. 
Died of disease, at Fort Jackson, La., November 20, 1864. 

Chester H. Hallam, Fourteenth Regiment R. I. V. 
Died of disease, at Fort Jackson, La., March i, 1865. 




XIII. 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 

" For I was an hungered, and ye gave me no meat ; I was thirsty, and ye 
gave me no drink : I was a stranger, and ye took me not in ; Naked, and ye 
clothed me not ; Sick and in prison, and ye visited me not. 

" Lord, when saw we thee an hungered, or athirst, or a stranger, or nalced, 
or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee .' 

" Verily I say unto you, inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of 
these, ye did it not to me." 

THE saddest memories of all the war are awakened by 
the names, — Andersonville, Libby, Belle Isle, Florence, 
Salisbury, Charleston. They are the names of prison pens, 
so hideous and foul, where the treatment was one of such 
systematized and unrelenting cruelty, that before them the 
cheek still blanches, and the heart of every patriot is stirred 
with emotions he cannot trust to utterance. The story of 
the inhumanity with which they were managed, of the bru- 
tality, sickness, disease, starvation, and death that were in- 
separable from life in them, makes one shudder who is 
obliged to look even now into their history. 

The public were slow in coming to any realizing sense of 
the barbarity of the rebel authorities as displayed in the ar_ 
rangement and conduct of these fearful prisons, but every 
returned prisoner brought back his tale of suffering, and 
soon Congress itself instituted an official inquiry, which 
though failing to reach the public ear, substantiated, in the 
facts developed, the worst reports that had become current. 

The thorough rousing of the nation, however, to all the 



264 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

unutterable barbarities to which our prisoners were subject- 
ed, was due to the report of the " Committee of Investiga- 
tion," appointed by the United States Sanitary Commission. 
This committee was carefully selected, and embraced those 
in whom the public could place entire confidence. The 
names of those composing it were as follows : Ellerslie 
Wallace, M. D., Hon. J. I. Clark Hare, and Rev. Tread- 
well Walden, of Philadelphia ; Valentine Mott, M. D., 
LL. D., Edward Delafield, M. D., and Governeur M. Wilkins, 
Esq., of New York. The narrative of the report was writ- 
ten by a former Norwich resident, still held in loving and 
honored remembrance, — Rev. Tread well Walden, Rector 
of Christ Church, from 1857 to 1863. It was admirably 
arranged ; the history, based on the irrefutable testimony 
taken, was calmly and dispassionately related, and as might 
have been anticipated, the impression produced was most 
profound and wide-reaching. On its publication, it had an 
immense circulation in this country, and was extensively 
read in Europe, startling the whole civilized world by the 
facts it established, and the appalling details it made public. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote to Mr. Walden concerning 
the facts embodied in the report, " Their interest is terri- 
ble ; the world will shudder and sicken as it reads them. 
.... I shall read in it at times, and when I can read with- 
out cursing and swearing. . . . To palliate these infernal 
savagisms, to call them barbarisms, is a compliment at the 
expense of barbarism, to which they are not entitled." 

Many other equally earnest and strongly worded testi- 
monies were received from prominent men throughout the 
country, which together with the unprecedented demand 
for the report, and its vast circulation in various forms, 
showed that its purpose was attained, and that the public 
heart was deeply touched, and the mind of the nation con- 
vinced. The preparation of this report cost the writer 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 265 

much time and labor, and to the admirable and wise accom- 
plishment of his work, was due the lasting and needed good 
of which it was unquestionably productive. 

Among those who contributed testimony, based on per- 
sonal experience and observation, was Lieutenant-colonel 
Charles Farnsworth, of this city. His letters were of great 
interest ; his evidence on points of fact emphatic, exposing 
clearly the sufferings and horrors incident to life in Libby 
and Belle Isle. 

Indeed, when the true state of things in these southern 
prisons became publicly known, the marvel was that so 
many of those incarcerated survived the fearful ordeal. 

When the subject was brought before Congress, by the 
report of " the Committee on the Conduct of the War," 
which confirmed the fact that the most unparalleled atroci- 
ties had been inflicted upon Union prisoners, some advocat- 
ed a system of strict retaliation. This was, however, decid- 
edly negatived. In reference to the facts, which some even 
at this time {1865, Jan.) affected to gloss over. Senator Fos- 
ter, in his place in the Senate, thus emphatically, and yet 
with characteristic carefulness, spoke : " I am astonished 
that any intelligent man should express a doubt, whether our 
prisoners in the hands of the rebels, from the Jiist day of 
t/iezvar, have been treated barbarously, inhumanly, and that 
this treatment continues to the present time. Who are our 
opponents .'' They are a band of insurgents, robbers, trai- 
tors, malefactors on land, and pirates on the deep, and be- 
cause such men descend to what would disgrace savages in 
the treatment of prisoners, not disgracing any National 
name, for they have no National name to disgrace, shall we 
who are citizens of the United States of America, each man 
feeling that he has a part of the National honor to sustain, 
do that which disgraces them .^ No, Mr. President, no, no." 
Mr. Lincoln, when the report of these rebel barbarities 



266 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

came to him, authenticated beyond a doubt, nobly said, 
when urged to retaHate, " I never can, I never can starve 
men hke that." 

The facts are such as are too painful to be dwelt upon, 
but they cannot be forgotten or overlooked. They stand 
rather to point the moral of that system of human bondage, 
which so largely debauched the consciences of those who 
had aught to do with it, and made millions of our fellow 
countrymen willing to embroil a peaceful and happy country 
in civil war, for the purpose of establishing a separate con- 
federacy, whose " corner stone should be slavery." This 
prison treatment is the last hideous monument of unre- 
lieved terror and shame, that will memorialize with eternal 
infamy the slaveholders' rebellion. No picture of torture 
or misery was ever presented by a civilized people to the 
world, comparable to this, — the treatment of our defense- 
less prisoners by the rebels. And now that enough years 
have passed to abate the immediate enmities and bitter- 
nesses occasioned by this unprecedented strife, the impartial 
historian reluctantly touching upon this dark chapter, can- 
not make of it other than an unrelieved tale of needless 
and wicked barbarism, of cruelty so inhuman and persis- 
tent, of deliberate and systematized -inhumanity, which in 
savages would not have been palliated. 

The number of Union prisoners held in the South during 
the rebellion, was one hundred and twenty-si.x thousand 
nine hundred and forty (126,940). Of this number twenty- 
two thousand five hundred and seventy-six died or were 
starved to death. For the only complete roll of the prison- 
ers who perished at Andersonville, the nation is indebted to 
Private Dorance Atwater, of Plymouth, in this State. Two 
hundred and ninety Connecticut soldiers are known to have 
lost their lives in this worst of the prisons of the South. 

In some or all of these accursed prison-pens Norwich 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 267 

soldiers were confined, some falling victims to the treatment 
which was to such vast numbers fatal ; others, surviving 
their imprisonment, returned to friends and kindred, rejoic- 
ing over their escape from death in its most dreaded and 
distressing form. The exact number of our soldiers that 
were captured, and for longer or shorter periods confined, 
cannot now be actually determined. 

Much was done by citizens at home to mitigate the suf- 
ferings of those known to be imprisoned, by sending boxes 
of provisions and clothing, and delicacies for the sick. Not 
all of these were allowed by the Confederate authorities to 
be delivered, some were misappropriated, and some reached 
their destination, bringing untold cheer and comfort to 
those whose needs were by them supplied. The investi- 
gation conducted by the committee of the Sanitary Com- 
mission, showed that at one time in Richmond, three 
thousand boxes had accumulated, sent to the prisoners 
in Libby and Belle Isle, by their anxious and devoted 
friends in the North, and these were maliciously kept back, 
though piled in warehouses in full sight of many of the 
hungry captives. The contents of not a few of them were 
thus entirely spoiled, while those containing clothing were 
in some known instances appropriated by the rebels. In 
this way not only were the sufferings of the imprisoned ag- 
gravated, but those who begged the poor boon of minister- 
ing to their actual necessities, were insulted and deceived. 

The Libby — which was the chief prison in Richmond, and 
the one best known — consisted of a row of brick buildings 
three stories high, situated on the canal and overlooking 
the James River, which were formerly tobacco warehouses. 
The partitions between the buildings were pierced with 
door- ways on each story, and the entire range of rooms on 
each floor thus connected, and utilized for prison purposes. 
The rooms were one hundred feet long by forty feet broad, 



268 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



and in six of them were twelve hundred officers at one time 
confined, including all grades from a brigadier-general to a 
second lieutenant. Here, crowded together amid vermin 
and filth, with no furniture but what the prisoners made, 
with no sanitary regulations, in the power of a brutal guard, 
and with rations insufficient to appease the cravings of hun- 
ger, were those who, under the instigation of a lofty patriot- 
ism, left homes of comfort and affluence at the North to 
enter the service of the Government, put in peril by the 
Rebellion. 

Norwich had, during the course of the war, a number of 
representatives in this prison. On the surrender in part 
of the Eighteenth Regiment, after the disastrous battle of 
Winchester, officers and privates were taken to Richmond 
and confined, the former in Libby, the latter in Belle Isle. 
From this town there were : Colonel W. G. Ely, Captains 
H. C. Davis, Joseph P. Rockwell, S. T. C. Merwin, M. V. 
B. Tiffany, John E. Woodward, and Quartermaster Dwight 
W. Hakes ; also. Lieutenants Adam H. Lindsley, James D. 
Higgins, Henry F. Cowles, John Francis, and Francis Mc- 
Keag. Nearly all of the privates were soon paroled, but 
the officers were held in durance vile, some for almost a 
year, and six for twenty-one months. The latter, during 
their captivity made the acquaintance of eight different 
prisons, being removed from one to another for no well- 
defined reason. The monotony of prison life was broken 
up by these repeated changes, and by their diversified expe- 
rience they acquired a reliable knowledge as to the condi- 
tion of these various places of confinement. 

Major (afterwards Lieutenant-colonel) Farnsworth, of the 
First Regiment Cavalry, was also an inmate of Libby, and 
while there did what he could to see that those of his own 
command, captured with him, as well as others whom he 
knew, shared in the good things sent to him from his own 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 



269 



home. His thoughtfulness and zeal in this particular was 
remembered with devout gratitude by some who returned 
to speak of it, and who felt that their own preservation iVom 
death by starvation was due to him. When he was ex- 
changed, and returned home, he not only had words of tes- 
timony concerning the inhuman prison treatment which 
prevailed in Richmond, but he forwarded, as early as pos- 
sible, to those he had left behind him in weary confinement, 
a box containing such things as, from experience, he knew 
would comfort and cheer them. 

After the battle of Gettysburg, the fare in Libby im- 
proved somewhat, owing to the wholesome fear of retal- 
iation, the balance of prisoners being in our favor. The 
monotonous prison life was varied in every possible way. 
Classes in the modern languages were formed, a literary 
society was organized and maintained with great spirit, a 
journal called the " Libby Chronicle " was edited with inter- 
est and marked ability. Music classes, theatrical entertain- 
ments, and other diversions were resorted to, by which the 
depressing imprisonment was made somewhat endurable. 
All this was possible in Libby to an extent never allowed 
in other prisons, because those confined in the former were 
officers, and were within reach of those ever-helpful and 
life-cheering boxes sent them from the North. The Sab- 
bath-school of the Second Church, which had a large repre- 
sentation among the prisoners in Libby, was specially for- 
ward and generous in this work of providing boxes for 
those of their number there confined. On Thanksgiving 
Day, 1863, it sent twenty-two packages of sundries, fruit, 
meat, and vegetables to the " boys in Libby," for the pur- 
chase of which two hundred and forty-one dollars were 
raised by the school. At the same time, in the Broadway 
Church, at the union Thanksgiving service, one hundred 
and sixty dollars were raised for the same purpose. This 
18 



2 70 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



money, subsequently increased by a few additional contri- 
butions, was turned over to Mr. Charles Johnson, who in- 
closed the whole amount to Mr. C. C. Fulton, of Baltimore, 
who made the following report : — 

B/VLTIMORE, December 2%, 1863. 

Charles Johnson, Esq., — 

Dear Sir : Your draft for $174.20 was duly received, and I will 
to-day ship to Colonel William G. Ely the following articles: — 

Two barrels of flour. 

One barrel Bologna sausages. 

One barrel smoked beef. 

One barrel hams. 

One barrel chewing and smoking tobacco, pipes, matches, scis- 
sors, thread, needles, combs, etc. 

One box of articles of luxury and necessity, to make palatable 
the substantial food that accompanies it. 

I inclose your letter to me, with the box, with a list of articles 
forwarded. I have direct information from Richmond that all the 
articles I forward are promptly delivered. 

Yours for the Union, Charles C. Fulton. 

In acknowledging this timely and most considerate gift 
of Norwich friends. Colonel Ely wrote back from Libby, 
January 28, 1864 : — 

" I have this day visited Belle Isle, by permission of the Con- 
federate authorities, and was also permitted to carry many things 
for the comfort of the soldiers of the Eighteenth and Sixth Keg;- 
iments. I can almost say that it has been the happiest day of my 
life." 

Mr. Johnson made, about this time, another attempt to 
forward supplies to those who were confined in and about 
Richmond, but it was found impossible to communicate 
with them, and not till some months later were any boxes 
or packages allowed to be sent for the relief of those in 
Libby or Belle Isle. 



IN REBEL PRISCXS. 



271 



In February, 1864, Colonel Ely and one hundred and 
eighty officers made their escape from Libby, through the 
famous tunnel, on which some fifty-five days of hard work 
were spent. 

The Richmond " Inquirer" thus describes this ingenious 
undertaking to escape from a prison life, which never was 
comfortable enough to make contented and patient, those 
who were waiting to be released in the ordinary and only 
legitimate way : — 

" It appears that the tunnel under Twentieth Street was dug en- 
tirely with an old hinge, and the loosened earth — a brittle marl 
and sand — removed with an old sugar scoop, stolen from the 
hospital quarters. As the tunnel progressed, the miner took 
with him, besides his tools, an old-fashioned knapsack made upon 
a wooden frame, to which a cord was attached. When he filled 
this with earth it was drawn out by an accomplice who remained 
in the cellar. The contents safely deposited out of the way, it 
was then shoved back to the digger with a pole. The basement 
in which this work was carried on was kept constantly locked, 
never used, and the windows being tightly nailed, it was dark as 
pitch." 

About fifty of those who escaped, including Colonel Ely, 
were recaptured, and had to pay for this inordinate love of 
liberty — this daring to work a passage out towards friends 
and freedom — by close confinement in the underground 
cells of the Libby, which were infested with rats, and foul 
with a dampness that dripped from the walls. Still our 
boys kept up a brave heart during their long and exhaust- 
ing imprisonment. Captain Davis of the Eighteenth, repre- 
sented the pluck and noble spirit that dwelt in his com- 
rades, when he wrote from Libby, October, 1863 : — 

" On the walls of the Conciergerie, in the days of the French 
Revolution, was written the sentiment, ' He who retains his patri- 
otism can never be wholly miserable.' So here in these days, 



2/2 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

having iheir parallel with those, in fraternal bloodshed, this is 
the sentiment of many a prisoner enduring incarceration to which 
the fortunes of war have consigned him. Deprived of personal 
liberty, of the comforts of even camp life, subsisting on a scanty 
diet, yet we are not of all men most miserable, when we remem- 
ber for what we are here." 

It was not an easy thing to escape from these rebel 
prisons, and those who tried to, paid pretty dear for their 
liberty if they gained it, while if they failed, it subjected 
them to all the more rigorous treatment when taken back. 
We give the following experience of one of our Norwich 
men, who got out of Libby by means of the tunnel just re- 
ferred to, as illustrative of what risks those venturing an 
escape encountered : — 

NARRATIVE OF ESCAPE FROM LIBBY, 

"Just as the rebel guard appeared to see that all was right we 
had started on our slide, feet foremost, through a hole in the 
brick chimney into the cellar below. Dropping on the cellar bot- 
tom, we crept across it in the dark, found the opening to the tun- 
nel occupied by the retiring boots of another aspirant for liberty. 
As we were rather stalwart in size, hitching along three inches at 
a hitch, was the best we could do. It was all elbow work, the 
limited area of the tunnel not admitting any use of the legs. 
Hitching and perseverance brought us to the exit of the tunnel. 
Here we waited with head out of the hole (marmot style), took a 
survey of the empty boxes under the shed that once had been 
filled by the United States Sanitary Commission supplies, 
waited for our comrade from Willimanlic, with whom we had 
sworn to make a strike for liberty. We waited about ten minutes, 
when we felt a pull at our leg, and speedily emerging frcni the 
tunnel made room for Lieutenant Clifford, of Ohio. Next came 

Quartermaster , from New York. Through the cracks of 

the shed which separated us from the street the rebel guard 
could be plainly seen patrolling in front of the prison, and watch- 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 



273 



ing it closely. It was not a good place to wait even for sworn 
friends, and the ten minutes seemed like ten hours. 

"Here we quietly took off our shoes and walked on tiptoe to 
the corner of the shed. It was evident that we must pass the 
width of the shed on the beat of the guard. The only time to 
do it was when he was walking towards the prison. It was done ; 
and safely around the corner, we three agreed to stand by each 
other till we reached the Union lines. If ragged uniforms could 
have disguised us we were well disguised, but not knowing the 
citv we ran plump on to a rebel guard around the City Hospital. 
' Halt ! who goes there ? ' rang like a death knell to our hopes of 
freedom, but the prompt reply, ' None of your business ; can't a 
fellow see his girl without being halted ? ' proved a pass-word, 
and the striking up of ' Dixie' in a half drunken songster style by 
Clifford, disarmed any suspicion that the sentinel may have had. 

" We crossed the street in front of the sentinel, and threaded 
our way to the outskirts of the city on the east side. Every 
house was dark, and the streets were deserted. When fairly out- 
side of the city we proceeded with great caution, but found our- 
selves close upon the fortifications before we were aware of 
it. These appeared to be unoccupied, and further observation 
showed us that this was even the case. A single man with a 
handful of files might have spiked forty or fifty pieces of artillery. 
Peering over the parapet, the faint glow of camp-fires revealed 
long lines of stacked muskets and rows of tents. Dusky forms 
could be seen grouped around fires fi^rther distant, that were 
supposed to be reserved picket fires. Several spots were tried 
before we succeeded in finding a gap in the picket lines. We 
soon found one that promised to be a good outlet, and pushed 
through without disturbing the sentinels, who could be plainly 
seen counteracting the chill of a frosty night by the warmth of a 
few embers. 

" We were hardly outside of the picket lines, well under way 
putting as much distance between us and the City of Richmond 
as possible before dawn, when the sudden neighing of a horse 
brought us to a stand, and not a second too soon, for careful 



2/4 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

examination showed that a large cavahy picket was dead ahead. 
The cavalry picket proved more easily evaded than the pickets 
just passed, so on we pushed, through woods, and over brooks, 
sometimes floundering in the cold water up to our arm-pits. 
The night was cold, but exercise and excitement kept us warm. 
The increasing light of early dawn warned us that it was time to 
seek a hiding-place for the day. The spot selected was a bushy 
hill-side covered with scrub oaks. Here we sat down to rest and 
wait for the next night. 

"Our Norwich representative now found to his astonishment 
that he was the only one of the parly who had any provisions. 
A boiled tongue, shriveled and mouldy, three months' old, kept 
in anticipation of this emergency, with eighteen soda crackers, 
comprised the entire stock of provisions, which was divided into 
three equal lots. A light breakfast was eaten, and by turns two 
slept, while the third kept watch. Our hiding-place proved well 
selected, overlooking a road a half-mile distant. Twice dining 
the day a company of rebel cavalry passed by, also several foot 
soldiers. Unable to light a fire from fear of attracting attention, 
we suffered greatly with the cold. At night the march wis re- 
sumed. 

"Keeping the North Star in view as a point for reference, we 
aimed in the direction of Charles City Court House. The second 
night was much like the first, with fewer indications of the enemy. 
The next morning's breakfast finished all that was left of the 
tongue and soda crackers, but failed to satisfy the cravings of our 
hunger. Our refuge the second day was a large swamp. Want 
of sleep, want of food, as well as suffering from the cold began 
to tell on systems already debilitated by long imprisonment. 
A search was made for acorns to eat ; but it was evident that the 
acorn crop had been disposed of earlier in the winter by the 
squirrels and turkies. The latter were frequently seen, but showed 
great lack of confidence in us refugees, who looked at them with 
longing eyes, and wished in vain for a shot-gun or rifle. The 
swamp seemed sufficiently unfrequented, dark, and dense to give 
a feeling of security from cavalry and infantry. At night the 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 275 

march was resumed, and as we knew that we had already left 
Bottom's Bridge in the rear we confidently anticipated being 
within the lines of General Butler's corps the next morning. 

" T'he third night's march was one of great suffering and faint- 
ness from hunger. The New York Quartermaster showed signs 
of extreme weakness, and retarded the march of the other two 
greatly. The last two hours of the night was over mostly open 
country, and the gray of dawn found us wearily struggling 
through a thinly wooded tract of timber. We much disliked the 
appearance of a lonely house about three quarters of a mile dis- 
tant, — there was no shelter where we were, and we pushed on as 
rapidly as possible, hoping to reach what seemed to be a dense 
swamp about a mile ahead, and expecting there to find a secure 
hiding-place, from which we could watch for the blue coats of 
Uncle Sam's cavalry. 

"Just now the sound of cavalry was heard in our rear, but it 
came from the wrong direction. "Only a half a mile to the swamp, 
and no place to hide even a man's head till it was reached. So 
on we pushed, the Quartermaster falling behind from exhaustion. 
The sound of horsemen came nearer and a triumphant yell 
announced that the Quartermaster was again in the hands of the 
rebels. We had succeeded in getting out of the timber, and 
were going down the hill-side for the swamp, going at a lively 
pace, too. Soon we heard shouts of, ' Halt ! ' but heeded them 
not. Crack ! crack ! crack ! crack ! went the carbines till there 
was a rattling fire, nearer and nearer sounded the horses' feet, till 
these seemed more fearful than the fusilade and whistling of bul- 
lets. Only one hundred yards, and horses would not have been 
able to follow ! Another yell, and Clifford was taken. A horse- 
man dashed by us, sprang from his saddle, and intercepted us 
with a Colt's navy pistol leveled at our head. 

"Libby Prison loomed up again ! The captured were gathered 
together, three in number, in company with our pursuers, who 
were Major Robertson's cavalry, forty in number. 

"'I say, Yank, ain't you hit? ' was a frequent inquiry. And 
' No ; wish I had been,' the sullen reply. And some laugh- 



276 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

ing was done at the expense of the crack shots of the company 
by their comrades. A proposition was made to us by the ser- 
geant of the company : ' Say ! You tell the Major that I did the 
right smart thing in overhauling you, and you shall have a good 
breakfast.' The proposition was accepted, and we breakfasted 
with Major Robertson, and received handsome treatment that 
day. We now learned, much to our chagrin, that we were cap- 
tured on ground held by General Butler's command forty-eight 
hours previously, and were several miles above Charles City 
Court House. 

" The next morning we were turned over to the home cavalry 
guard, a mean, cruel set of devils, who marched us till noon, and 
then turned us over to a relief, who marched us to the doors of 
Libby Prison, forty miles, in one day ! 

" Dick Turner, jailor, smiled grimly upon us, and ordered us to 
the cells below, and put us on a diet of corn bread and water. 
Below, we found companions, — forty men, stowed away in four 
cells, seven feet by twelve feet each, — many of whom, like our 
trio, had the entire soles of their feet blistered in the attempt to 
escape. Ten men were confined for three weeks in a cell seven 
feet by twelve, with not room for them all to lie down at once, 
and when they did lie down wharf rats and vermin were too 
plenty to permit rest." 

Belie-Isle — a small island in the James River, opposite 
the Tredegar Iron Works of Richmond — was in part used 
for prison purposes. The upper portion, being broken and 
rocky, was ill-adapted to use of this sort ; so the lower end, 
which was flat and sandy, comprising from three to six 
acres, was made into a pen. It was inclosed by an em- 
bankment of earth, with a ditch inside, in which from ten 
to twelve thousand prisoners were herded like cattle, with 
no shelter but worn-out tents, and these sufficient to ac- 
commodate only a meagre number of the suffering and 
exposed. On this low, unhealthy island, enduring all that 
results from overcrowding, from inadecjuate rations, from 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 277 

uncleanliness, from exposure to rain and night dews, were 
the captured privates of the Eighteenth, and representa- 
tiv'^es of Norwich in other regiments, confined. 

Lieutenant-colonel Nichols, of the Eighteenth Regiment, 
who was nine months a prisoner in Libby, in a letter to 
General Schenck, Chairman of the Congressional Military 
Committee, dated March, 1864, thus describes the state of 
things on Belle Isle : — 

" On the island, where at times there were as many as nine or 
ten thousand, the tents for the men were poor. No straw was 
furnished as bedding, and at no time was there enough to accom- 
modate all. Vitality was so reduced by starvation, that many 
were absolutely frozen to death, and numerous amputations of 
frozen toes and feet were made necessary. But it seems to be 
a standing regulation to prevent the men from dying on the 
island, hence they are borne off when in a dying condition, that 
the officials may be able always to show but comparatively few 
graves in the island burial place, and yet have it to say that all 
who have died upon the island have been buried there. It would 

be well, if all who even died there were decently buried 

The first demand of the poor creatures on the island was always 
for food, and we have seen them die clutching the half-eaten 
crust." 

The patient courage and inflexible loyalty of these suffer- 
ing Union prisoners were hardly appreciated by the coun- 
try, and it was only as facts and incidents from their prison 
experience became known, that the public began to realize 
their heroism. Colonel Farnsworth stated, that while he 
was in Richmond, some three hundred shoemakers were 
confined at one time on Belle Island, and although men 
were there dying from starvation, and all were on rations 
so meagre, that their hunger was never appeased, yet they 
indignantly refused the offer of extra rations and other 
privileges, if they would work for the Confederacy. Such 



2/8 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

was the honor that even the most barbarous treatment could 
not tempt or break down. 

Andersonville, — the name which starts echoes fraught 
only with horror, — was an open space of twenty-five acres, 
resembHng in shape a parallelogram, bisected by a little 
brook which flowed through it, with barely a perceptible 
ripple. The fence or stockade was made of upright trunks 
of trees about twenty feet high, near the top of which, at 
regular intervals, were small platforms, where the butcher- 
like guards were stationed. Twenty feet inside of this fence 
ran a light railing parallel to it, which formed " the dead 
line." Visiting it in 1868, there were still to be seen the 
remains of the caves in which the prisoners sought shelter 
from the torrid heat of summer, or the cold dews and frosts 
of winter, or the drenching rains which pitilessly descended 
upon them, as they were crowded in this otherwise uncov- 
ered camp. The soil was of red clay, and could be cut or 
moulded into any shape, so that caves, and sleeping holes, 
and fire-places could be fashioned by the industrious pris- 
oner. Relics of the sheds which they were allowed to 
build could still be seen, and remains of the rude self- 
made implements constructed for their use, were found 
scattered through this fearful place. Here were confined 
at one time as many as twenty- seven thousand prisoners, 
with the death-rate in the summer of 1864, because of its 
unutterably horrible condition, over one hundred and thirty 
a day. The history of this prison-pen is too frightful to 
be read ; it has no parallel for fiendish cruelties and bar- 
barities. Like Dante's " Inferno, " it soon came to be un- 
derstood — 

" Who enters here, leaves hope behind." 

In this accursed place were some of our soldiers con- 
fined, and here met their sad torturing death. 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 279 

Herbert Beckwith, Private in the Tenth Regiment In- 
fantry, afterwards Corporal in the Second Heavy Artillery 
of Massachusetts, was captured at Plymouth, April, 1864, 
and taken to Andersonville. Here he spent five weary 
months, leaving in his journal the record of sufferings and 
patient waiting for release, affecting to read. Boy that he 
was, he was spared none of the rigors and inhumanities, 
under which he gradually gave way. He lived to reach 
Camp Parole, Annapolis, Md., to behold once more the flag 
for which he had periled his young life, and there, in the 
hospital, kindly cared for by a Christian woman, he died in 
peace. 

George W. Ward, of the Eighteenth Regiment, taken 
prisoner at the battle of Winchester, June 15, 1863, after 
being confined successively at Belle Isle and Danville, was 
brought to Andersonville. Here he, too, fell a victim to 
treatment it was given to but few so long imprisoned, to 
survive. Twenty-one months of dreary, wasting, heart- 
breaking captivity he endured, hoping for that which to so 
many never came — release from the sufferings that made 
each prison one of deeper despair. He found his libera- 
tion through death, February 6, 1865. An earnest patriot, 
loved for qualities and gifts which made life full of promise 
and happiness, he is numbered with our martyred dead. 

Joseph H. Winship, of the Eighteenth Regiment, had 
a prison experience, in nearly all of its features, like that of 
his comrade and townsman, Ward. Unable to bear up un- 
der his long confinement, attended as it was with increased 
suffering and lessening strength, he died at Andersonville, 
April 5, 1864. 

Joseph A. Bailey, First Regiment Cavalry. Captured 
June I, 1864. Died at Andersonville, August 13, 1864. 

Thomas M. Baldwin, First Regiment Cavalry, Captured 
May 5, 1864. Died at Andersonville, July 3, 1864. 



280 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Edward Blumley, Eighth Regiment. Was taken pris- 
oner in an engagement on the Petersburgh R. R., May 7, 
1864, and died at Andersonville, October 6, 1864. 

Henry F. Champlin, Tenth Regiment. Captured near 
St. Augustine, Fla., while on picket duty, December 30, 
1863, and died at Andersonville, August 11, 1864. 

William Davis, First Regiment Cavalry. Captured at 
Craig's Church, Va., May 5, 1864. Died at Andersonville, 
August 30, 1864. 

Thomas Dugan, Twenty-first Regiment. Died at 
Andersonville, June 4, 1864. 

Sylvanus Downer, Eighteenth Regiment Captured at 
Winchester, Va. Was paroled June 15, 1863 ; returned to 
the ranks, and was a second time taken prisoner, at New 
Market, Va., June 5, 1864. Died at Andersonville, Novem- 
ber 5, 1864. 

William G. Hayward, Eighteenth Regiment. Cap- 
tured at Winchester, June 15, 1863. Was paroled and 
rejoined his comrades, and again taken prisoner at New 
Market, Va., May 15, 1864. Died at Andersonville, Sep- 
tember II, 1864. 

James S. McDavid, First Regiment Cavalry. Captured 
at Ashland Station, June i, 1864. Died at Andersonville, 
August 21, 1864. 

Edward F. Tisdale, First Regiment Cavalry. Captured 
May 14, 1864. Died at Andersonville, September 29, 1864. 

John F. Treadway, First Regiment Cavalry. Died at 
Andersonville, August 3, 1864. 

Moses Tyler, Fourteenth Regiment. Died at Ander- 
sonville, April 14, 1864. 

On the third of January, 1866, Mr. G. W. Smith of this 
city was dispatched to Andersonville, to recover the bodies 
of those Norwich soldiers, known to be interred there, and 
whose graves could be identified. The expense of his 



IN REBEL PRISONS. - 281 

journey, and the' removal of the bodies was provided for out 
of the patriotic fund. Mr. Smith succeeded in bringing 
away the remains of nine of our Norwich boys. The city 
authorities awarded tliem a pubhc funeral and a burial lot 
in Yantic Cemetery. Commemorative services were held 
in Breed Hall, and the coffins placed on a funeral car, 
covered by the American flag, were borne in solemn pro- 
cession by friends and citizens, societies and soldiery, to 
the place prepared for their reception. Their graves are 
now with us, and this last tribute, of providing them a 
burial amid kindred dust, and in the precincts of the town 
their patriotism and sufferings honored, has been paid their 
memory. 

In addition to these martyrs to the terrible prison treat- 
ment of Andersonville, two of our soldiers are known to 
have perished at Florence, S. C. 

James Massey, Eighteenth Regiment. Captured May 

15, 1864, and died January 7, 1865. 

Israel Varnev, Eighteenth Regiment. Died February 
10, 1865. 

Besides these, and completing the list of our prison-dead, 
are 

Adam Acksler, Eighteenth Regiment. Captured June 
5, 1864, and died at Madisonville, October 5, 1864. 

Thomas Fillburn, Seventh Regiment. Captured May 

16, 1864, and died at Millen, Ga., October 21, 1864. 
Henry W. Greenough, First Regiment Cavalry. Died 

at Salisbury, N. C, October 9, 1864. 

Horace B. Wood, Second Regiment Artillery. Died 
at Richmond, December 27, 1864. 

Henry C. Gaskill, Eighteenth Regiment. Wounded 
and captured at battle of Piedmont, June 5, 1864. Died at 
Danville, Va., on his way to be exchanged, February 20, 
1865, after a long and barbarous captivity. 



282 . THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

This by no means exhausts the number of those who 
for a longer or shorter period were confined in some of the 
numerous prison-pens, with which the South abounded, but 
the rest survived, Hving to reach home and die among their 
friends, or to recover the health their imprisonment had in 
many instances seriously impaired. 

What a fearful commentary, however, on the prisons of 
the Confederacy, is this list of our dead. Among the latter 
were men fully up to the average of human strength and en- 
durance, and brave soldiers animated by patriotic impulses ; 
yet such was the deliberately planned treatment and fare, 
that they perished, victims of rebel inhumanity. Some 
discrimination was made in dealing with commissioned 
officers, but on the private soldier fell the unrelieved bru- 
tality that made confinement in prison so largely fatal. 

Capt. John B. Dennis, of the Seventh Regiment, was 
captured with part of his command, while guarding the 
picket line in front of Bermuda Hundreds. He was taken 
from one prison to another, being a temporary tenant in six 
different pens, but made a bold and successful escape from 
Richland jail, Columbus, S. C, the last one in which con- 
fined. He, with six of the longest imprisoned officers of the 
Eighteenth Regiment, was among the six hundred Union 
prisoners exposed to the fire of our batteries by General 
Gillmore, in retaliation for the bombardment of the nursery- 
city of the rebellion, — Charleston, S. C. The jail of the 
latter, in which at one time eighteen hundred prisoners 
were confined, suffering from lack of clothes and food, was 
in keeping with the other prisons already described. It 
was so crowded as to render the condition of the inmates 
one of extreme wretchedness. Lieutenant James D. Hig- 
gins of the Eighteenth Regiment escaped from this prison, 
by a bold stratagem, making out to reach Hilton Head, S. 
C, in safety. 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 



283 



From Camp Sorghun, Columbia, S. C, Captain H. C. 
Davis of the same Regiment, made his escape, but after a 
tramp of one hundred and fifty miles, through wood and 
swamp, was tracked and run down by a pack of hounds, and 
taken back to the fearful prison, after an absence of twenty- 
three days. 

The following is the narrative of Lieutenant H. F. Cowles' 
escape from captivity : — 

*• We left the prison in Columbia, S. C, February 14, 1865, 
and were marched to the Railroad, where a special train, going 
north, awaited us. We were packed into box cars, the same as 
are used here for carrying freight, with a slicing door on each 
side. One of these doors was locked, and the other generously 
left open that we might breathe. The guards were placed on top 
of the car, the Rebels having once before detected an attempt to 
overpower them when stationed inside. 

" As the night came on and we got under way, rain began to 
fall, which turned into hail, and the storm became so furious that 
we had to push the door nearly together, leaving only a small aper- 
ture for breathing purposes. I had determined to effect my es- 
cape, for I did not feel, knowing how poor the Confederacy was, 
that 1 could any longer trespass upon its hospitality. I had talked 
over the matter with Captain Hawkins, of the Seventy-eighth Illi- 
nois and Lieutenant Sears, of the Ninety-sixth New York, when we 
watched in turn at the door for a favorable chance to escape. As 
the train stopped for wood and water about thirty miles out of 
Columbia, it was found that seven out of the nine cars of our train 
had been lost on the road. After a council was held, it was deter- 
mined to back down and find the missing cars. I told my com- 
rades that now was our time ; so after making them both promise to 
follow me, I jumped out. The ground was covered with sleet, and 
as soon as I struck, my feet went from under me, and I rolled down 
the side of the track against the fence. For an instant I expected 
to have a volley of musket balls poured into me, but as they did 
not come, I gathered myself up and tried, to vault over the fence. 



284 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



I got half way over and there stuck, doubting not at this time I 
should be riddled ; but giving another desperate lurch, I tumbled 
head first into the field on the opposite side. I drew myself 
along for a few lengths, and then ran on all fours, until I had 
placed a few rods between me and the train. I then lay perfect- 
ly still, not daring to rise for fear of being seen, and awaited the 
coming of my companions. I was scarcely over the fence myself 
before I heard Hawkins come crashing out, and it seemed to me as 
though he was making noise enough to wake the dead ; then Lieu- 
tenant Sears came, and as I thought two others, and then all was 
quiet. Not a shot had been fired, which astonished me more 
tlian anything else. I immediately gave the signal which we had 
agreed upon, a quail call, and out they came, one, two, three, four. 
They seemed to rise out of the very ground, and upon getting 
together, we found not only our original party of three, but two 
more, who seeing how safely we escaped, followed us on the spur 
of the moment. 

" Our first care was to place as great a distance between us 
and the guard as possible, so we took up a line of march across 
the country at a right angle wilh the Railroad. 

" Our cramped prison life for twenty months previous, and the 
food we had received, had not particularly fitted us for such work 
as this, but we were on the road to freedom. Pluck and nerve 
kept us going, and we got over the ground in a style that did us 
all credit under the circumstances. After repeated attempts, we 
got a fire started, and bringing forth our corn bread and hard 
tack, we all sat around the fire and warmed ourselves and ate our 
breakfast as free men once more. 

" We then went as far into the forest as we could, and still 
keep the fire in view, where we waited for something to turn up. 
We remained here, I suppose, about two hours, all too thoroughly 
drenched and too excited by our novel position to sleep, when to 
our great joy we saw our picket approaching the fire, accompa- 
nied by a negro. He listened very quietly to all we said, and 
then assured us in the first place that we ran no risk in staying 
near our fire, as there would probably be no white persons along 





^ Inf ^ 3c Brev: Brig. Gen - 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 



28: 



that way. We told him that, as our provisions were nearly ex- 
hausted, he could best serve us if he would go back to his cabin 
and get from the other negroes, or any one else, such eatables as 
we could most readily carry. 

" At nightfall our faithful guide came back, bringing with him 
corn-meal, corn-bread, and cooked and raw bacon, upon which we 
all fell like wolves, and ate a good substantial supper. Gathering 
from him all possible information as to our route, and being led 
by him for some little way, we pushed on our exciting course, 
meeting with a variety of adventures, and finding our way to 
freedom about as 'hard a road as Jordan' to travel. Two days 
and nights passed in this sort of weary wandering, when I was 
startled while on watch by the distant booming of artillery. At 
once it occurred to us, ' this is old Tecumseh giving them a little 
serenade at Columbia!' Inspirited by this music, we started 
on again, heading for Wilmington, N. C. Through swamps and 
roads, weary, hungry, and ragged, we still held on our route, until 
we came across another negro. He also proved a friend in need, 
and from him we learned that we were near one of the principal 
roads, and that his master said that probably some of General 
Sherman's army would pass that way, and advised us, instead of 
trying to pass the rebel lines to reach our own, to let him secrete 
us in one of those almost impenetrable swamps, and there wait 
for the rebels to pass and our army to come up. At midnight 
his son came to guide us to his father's cabin. We were intro- 
duced to his wife, who had prepared a substantial supper for us. 
I can't remember all the courses, but the principal feature was 
an immense roasted goose, with appropriate fixtures, thinking of 
which even now makes my mouth water. The way that we went 
for that fowl, and the other things on the table, would have as- 
tonished any member of a civilized community, I think. After 
concluding our supper, we all sat around the fire-place and had 
a good smoke, and then, having expressed our thanks to our 
hostess, we started for the swamp. Here we were secreted for 
nearly a week, visited nightly by our colored friend, who brought 
us provisions, and cheered our hearts by his own hopeful assur- 
19 



286 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

ances. Near the close of this week of confinement he brought 
the glad news that Sherman's troops had come up, and led us to 
one oi^ the cabins near his own, where we found the orderly of 
General Howard. By him we were taken to headquarters, and 
there met such a reception as only the blue-coats could give us. 
We were fitted out with clothing contributed by our fellow-officers, 
and in due season were forwarded to Wilmington, and thence to 
New York. Thus ended our life of captivity, and our long and 
exciting escape from the prison-pen of Columbia and the land 
of Dixie. H. F. Cowles." 

The fittest conclusion we can make to this chapter on 
the sttfferings of our heroes in these wretched spots, is in 
the words taken from a letter in the " American Mis- 
sionary," dated Atlanta, Ga., May 13, 1867. 

" Did they ever imagine, those rebel officers, who used our 
poor boys to erect those buildings, — buildings put up to enable 
them to hold thirty thousand prisoners in unheard of tortures, — 
did they imagine to what use these buildings were to be put so 
soon ? Did they dream that the wail of the captive would scarcely 
be hushed, and the last victim laid to sleep his last sleep in those 
awful witness-bearing trenches, before two angels of mercy should 
take up their abode there, transforming that hell upon earth into a 
little earthly heaven .'' Yes, ' Andersonville ' has been cleansed 
and sanctified, and, thank God, by the purity, the presence, the 
labor and the love of woman. Where the rebel soldiers' jeer and 
oath used to be heard, now daily ascends the sweet sound of 
prayer and praise. For the howl of the hungry hound, eager to 
chase the perishing Union fugitive, you may now hear the sweet 
voices of the children blending in song. The jailor has fled, 
haunted by the memory of his crimes (for Wirtz was not alone 
in the charge), and two gentle women have taken possession of his 
dwelling. The persecuted slave has found a shelter in the huts 
erected by his persecutors, and the freedman's corn is now grow- 
ing in the empty stockade." 

In 1868 we were permitted to attend a school meeting in 



IN REBEL PRISONS. 



287 



what was part of the barracks of the rebel garrison. Here 
in this place of saddest memories, a school had been opened, 
through Northern benevolence, in which was gathered 
from near and far, those who were hungry for knowledge. 
We listened to their weird songs, learned in the dark days 
of their bondage, and then speaking words of cheer to them, 
reminded them of their new responsibilities, resulting from 
their lately gained liberty, which had at last lifted them to 
the dignity of freemen and citizens. From the schoolhouse, 
where we watched with a pathetic sort of interest the bright 
eyed boys and girls recite, we crossed the yard, passing what 
was formerly the rebel officers' quarters, and took our course 
•to the stockade. Within the inclosure we stood awhile, its 
suffering memories coming back to us, and thought of the 
change that had come over this once populous and dreary 
spot. Thence we went to the cemetery, hard by, where rest 
the tweh^e thousand that were borne from out the awful 
prison to grateful sepulture. The trees were just coming 
out in their new spring foliage, the air was resonant with 
singing birds, the mellow light of the setting sun irradiated 
the simple white head-boards, which had been erected by our 
Government to mark the close and neatly arranged graves 
of our martyred dead, while over their sleeping dust the 
southern pines cast their benignant shade, and swept by the 
evening breeze, made a low dirge-like music- 
There, standing in the silence of that beautiful cemetery, 
where the unnamed thousands of our patriotic dead lie 
buried, over whose graves the National Government watches, 
I thought of the change that even here had taken place. 
What was but a little while before a rude burial spot, in 
which the lifeless forms of once brave and fondly loved men 
were hurriedly laid in the long and fast filling trenches, was 
now a tastefully arranged cemetery. Each grave was des- 
ignated and carefully turfed, while ramifying paths led 



288 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



every whither through this sacred inclosure ; and over the 
principal gate of the cemetery were the following appropri- 
ate lines : — 

" The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 

The soldiers' last tattoo, 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

The brave and daring few. 
On Fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread, 
And glory guards with solemn round. 

The bivouac of the dead." 

This was the altered and redeemed Andersonvill^. Prison 
days were ended, the rude cheap sepulture of lamented 
dead, had ceased, and on every side appeared the signs of, 
" the good time coming," in which these sleeping heroes be- 
lieved, and for the hastening on of which they devoted life 
itself. We thanked God for the change, and breathed a 
prayer of thanksgiving for what the sacrificial sufferings of 
those all about us in their quiet graves, had accomplished, 
and took hope for that better future, whose dawn we even 
here beheld. 

" New England ! on thy spotless shield, inscribe thine honored dead, 
Oh ! keep their memory fresh and green, when turf blooms o'er their head ; 
And coming nations yet unborn, will read, with glowing pride, 
Of those who bore thy conquering arms, and suffering, fought and died ; 
Who, foremost in the gallant van, laid life and honor down — 
Oh ! deck with fadeless bays their names who've won the martyr's crozun.^^ 



XIV. 

1 86s. 

CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 

" Thank God ! the bloody days are past, 
Our patient hopes are crowned at last ; 
And sounds of bugle, drum, and fife. 
But lead our heroes home from strife ! 

" Thank God ! there beams o'er land and sea 
Our blazing Star of Victory ; 
And everywhere, from main to main. 
The old flag flies and rules again ! " 

George H. Boker. 

The quiet of the grand army under Grant, during the 
eventful winter of 1864-5, ^^^s part of that General's strat- 
egy. Instead of wishing to drive the Rebel Government 
and army from the banks of the James, he was only appre- 
hensive that they would voluntarily abandon Virginia for a 
time, and that Lee would attempt to attack Sherman, as 
he was making his splendid though hazardous march to 
the sea. This expedient, however, seems not to have oc- 
curred to the Confederate leaders. Prior to the opening 
of the Spring Campaign, General Lee had been appointed 
to the command of all the armies of the Confederacy, and 
as indicative of the desperate condition in which the rebels 
found themselves, the Legislature of Virginia on the Six- 
teenth of February, 1865, passed resolutions, "authoriz- 
ing, and consenting that such number of able bodied slaves 



290 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



might be enlisted into the mihtary service as might be 
deemed necessary." The Confederate Congress subse- 
quently passed a bill to the same effect, but too late to 
be of any practical avail. 

Mr. Hunter, of Virginia, in connection with this strange 
measure, said he voted for the bill to arm and emancipate 
negroes, under instructions from the Virginia Legislature, 
but entered a protest against it, as an abandonment of the 
contest, and a surrender of the ground upon which the 
South seceded. 

"When we left the old Government, we thought we had got 
rid forever of the slavery agitation ; but, to my surprise, I find 
that this (Confederate) government assumes the power to arm 
the slaves, which involves also the power of emancipation. This 
proposition would be regarded as a confession of despair. If 
we are right in passing this measure, we were wrong in denying 
to the old Government the right to interfere with slavery and to 
emancipate slaves. If we offer the slaves their freedom as a 
boon, we confess that we are insincere and hypocritical in saying 
slavery was the best state for the negroes themselves. 1 believe 
that the arming and emancipating the slaves will be an abandon- 
ment of the contest." 

Time, and stern necessity had at last made unwilling con- 
verts of the Confederate authorities, and the " black corner- 
stone " of their government was reluctantly removed, and 
those who had heaped unmeasured abuse on Mr. Lincoln 
for his edict of emancipation, and had ridiculed the sugges- 
tion that negro slaves could ever be transformed into effec- 
tive soldiers, now turned in the hour of their direst need to 
these same despised menials, and sought to replenish the 
thinned ranks of their armies with blacks. 

It was time now that the Confederacy came to its de- 
served downfall. It had haulfcd in the flag it gave to the 
breeze with such defiance of all the best thought and civi- 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 29I 

lization of the world, in the Spring of 1861. The Provi- 
dence of the Almighty had made the fated chiefs of this 
wicked rebellion take back their infamous proclamation, 
and brought them to where they were glad to seek aid of 
the ' inferior race,' and proffer freedom to them if they 
would help save their crumbling government. 

The Richmond " Examiner," proclaiming with its char- 
acteristic boldness, what were " Southern Principles," thus 
spoke forth in no equivocal language in May, 1863 : — 

" The establishment of the Confederacy is verily a distinct 
reaction against the whole course of the mistaken civilization of 
the age. For Liberty^ Equality, Fraternity, we have deliberately 
substituted Slavery, Subordination, and Government. These social 
and political problems which rack and torture modern society, 
we have undertaken to solve for ourselves, in our own way, upon 
our own principles. There are slave races born to serve ; mas- 
ter races born to govern. Such are the fundamental princiijles 
which we inherit from the ancient world, which we lifted up in 
the face of a perverse generation that has forgotten the wisdom 
of its Fathers. By these principles we live, and in their defense 
we have shown ourselves ready to die." 

Behold the sequel ! Two years of terrible war, and their 
boasted principles neither save them, nor for them are they 
ready to die. Now they will concede liberty and military 
service, if their former bondsmen will only die for them. 
Here indeed is the pitiable spectacle of the Confederacy, 
whose corner-stone gave way, whose new doctrine of human 
rights was to correct and enlighten the " mistaken civiliza- 
tion of the age." The " lost cause," may it disappear among 
the vanished barbarisms, which in earlier centuries, and 
before the mild teachings of the Gospel appeared, had some 
apology for seeking to exist. Yea! may it be so lost, that 
none will be found to acknowledge they struck a blow, 
or shed a drop of blood in behalf of what brought back on 



2^2 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



man the gloom and shame and servitude, from which it had 
taken long ages of suftering and struggle to escape. 
Heaven pity the deluded men, who periled life for their 
anomalous, their ever infamous cause. 

We cannot feel otherwise than indignant, that at this late 
period, a prominent English Review (The Edinburgh), 
should attempt to hold up for the admiration of the world 
one of the leaders of the Rebellion. For the men who 
fought in the ranks, much can be said in their behalf They 
had no choice in the main, as to whether they would es- 
pouse the cause or not. They were conscripted, overborne 
by the governments that soon left them but one alternative, 
— either to fight or else suffer such persecutions as the 
desperateness of the usurping rulers could invent. 

Englishmen, it is but reasonable to suppose, might by this 
time show some intelligent appreciation of the peculiar 
criminality of those who inaugurated the rebellion, who 
committed the meanest and extremest crime of which army 
honor is cognizant, — that is, treason. Yet that was the 
unblushing deed of the chieftain of the Confederate armies. 
He broke his oath of fealty to the Government that edu- 
cated and honored him, and with politic equivocalness, 
delayed the doing of it, till he might add to the role of traitor 
the part of spy. 

And yet Lee is held up to us even at this day by this 
reviewer as a man who was a victim of fate, an " innocent 
expiator of the truth he told, of wrongs done in ages past to 
helpless Africans." He died, we are informed, " without 
the sign of ailment outwardly, without a word of pain ; that 
great heart that repined not for his own loss of dignity or 
of ancestral fortune, giving way at last, under the continued 
pressure of the ruin and degradation of the beloved State 
to the freedom of which the prospects of his whole life had 
been sacrificed." Lee was fighting for Virginia, which the 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 293 



Federal Government was trying to enslave. To that point 
has the once liberal " Edinburgh Review " arrived, eight 
years after the final defeat of the great struggle of the South 
in behalf of the peculiar institution. 

During the winter there were unauthorized attempts to 
make terms with the Confederates, by some of the irre- 
pressible peace-men, under the lead of Mr. Blair. The 
latter made out a rather melancholy view of our situation 
and prospects, and approached Mr. Lincoln with the query, 
" Assuming that Grant is baffled and delayed in his efforts 
to take Richmond, will it not be better to accept peace 
on favorable terms than to prolong the war .'' " etc. To 
which the President replied with that imperturbed calm- 
ness that made him long-suffering towards these annoy- 
ing " go-betweens," who were eager for a peace they knew 
would practically destroy the integrity of the Union, " There 
are, first, two indispensable conditions to peace, — national 
unity and national liberty. The national authority must 
be restored through all the States, and I will never recede 
from the position I have taken on the slavery question." 
The steadfast purpose of Mr. Lincoln to secure the re- 
establishment of the federal authority, made him a safe 
leader ; no wiles of politicians could turn him aside from 
this supreme object. And when a dispatch came to him 
from General Grant, on the third of March, saying Gen- 
eral Lee desired an interview with him to arrange terms 
of peace, the Secretary of War promptly telegraphed back 
Mr, Lincoln's reply : " The President directs me to say to 
you, that he wishes you to have no conference with General 
Lee, unless it be for the capitulation of General Lee's army. 
He instructs me to say that you are not to decide, discuss, 

or confer upon any political question Meantime you 

are to press to the utmost your military advantages." 

The sublime devotion of the man to his one grand pur- 



294 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

pose, the courage and hopefulness with which he adhered to 
it, shows of what stuff he was made. Less firmness, less 
faith, less consecrated effort to effect one great end, might 
have lost for us the cause, for which four years of battling 
was not too much to pay. 

And now, as the fourth of March dawned, this man, tried 
as few men in his position before him had been, and trusted 
by the people with a new lease of office, was to pronounce 
his second inaugural. It was delivered not as the first 
had been, to a nation on the eve of civil war, but to one 
about to come forth victoriously from it. It was spoken, 
not in a city filled with traitors, seeking to betray it, but in 
the Capital, which had been preserved from its foes, and was 
now more than ever the seat of a great and free government. 
It was short, but full of the grandest sentiment, the pro- 
foundest wisdom, and characterized by a deeply Christian 
spirit. No state paper, in American annals, ever made such 
an impression upon those who heard or read it. A distin- 
guished jurist of New York said, " A century from to-day 
that inaugural will be read as one of the most sublime ut- 
terances ever spoken by man." How often has the follow- 
ing magnificent passage in it been quoted : " Fondly do we 
hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war 
may pass away. Yet if God wills that it continue until all 
the wealth piled by the bondman'i^ two hundred and fifty 
years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop 
of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn 
with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still 
it must be said, that the judgments of the Lord are true and 
righteous altogether ; " while with equal frequency has that 
other golden sentence, the best epitome of his own moral 
nature, been repeated, passing into a proverb among our 
people : " With malice toward none, with charity for all." 

The English people were slow in coming to appreciate 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 295 

Mr. Lincoln ; but by this time his rare merit as a man, and 
the head of a Great RepubHc, was by the best part of the 
British press recognized. The London " Spectator " paid 
this discriminating tribute to him : — 

"There is something in that steady borne persistence, that re- 
soh'e so iron, that it cannot even bend to make phrases, which is 
indefinitely impressive to the spectator, which, in the South must, 
more even than defeat on the field, produce a sense of the hope- 
lessness of the contest. The President does not boast, shows no 
hate, indulges in no cries of triumph over the steady advance of 
his armies, threatens no foreign powers, makes no promises of 
speedy success, comforts the people with no assurance of a Uto- 
pian future, but, as if compelled by a force other than his own 
will, slides quietly but irresistibly along the rails." 

Meanwhile the armies of the Republic had not been idle 
General Sherman, after a victorious though hazardous march 
through the very heart of the Confederacy, exposing its ex- 
hausted condition, had presented himself, and his bronzed 
veterans, as a Christmas gift to the city of Savannah, and 
left it no option as to whether it would accept. The most 
brilliant exploit of the war, the capture of Fort Fisher by 
the combined forces of the army and navy, marked the 
opening of the campaign for 1865. General Sherman, in 
February, resumed his march from Savannah northward, 
capturing Columbus, S. C, Goldsboro, N. C, and forcing 
the enemy to evacuate Charleston, S. C, and effected a 
junction with Generals Terry and Schofield. The romance 
of war has nothing comparable to this triumphant march 
of Sherman through the rebel territory, gleaning the belt of 
country he covered with his columns of all that could be 
used or destroyed. The Union flag now floated over Sum- 
ter, and the once rebellious city, where treason always had its 
most fiery advocates, while the rebel territory was decidedly 
narrowed. The admirable strategy of the Commander-in- 



296 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

chief now began to be recognized by all ; for, differ as we may 
as to the fighting and manoeuvering of the last campaign, 
it was the splendid conclusion of the war, the successful 
combinations, which bore witness to the far-sighted plans 
and skillful and resistless execution of the same on the part 
of him who controlled the armies of the government. The 
verdict of history will attest the military sagacity and supe- 
rior generalship of the conqueror of the rebellion. The whole 
country waited, amid the suppressed excitement, the denoue- 
ment of the movements known to be in progress. Sheridan 
had started on his daring raid from Winchester, aiming at 
Lynchburg and the westward communications of the Con- 
federacy, and now came the anxiously planned for moment 
for the grand advance of the columns under Grant. It be- 
gan on the twenty-ninth of March, and ten days' marching 
and fighting finished the campaign. The fate of the rebel 
Capital and its defending army was sealed, as the iron grip 
of the investing forces tightened. Petersburg fell first, yield- 
ing to the assault along our whole line, April second. On 
the day following, the rebel army was in full retreat, and be- 
fore noon the same day, Monday, April third. General 
Weitzel, commanding a detachment of the army of the 
James, entered Richmond, General Draper's Black Brigade 
in the advance, all the regiments displaying the National 
colors, and the band playing " Rally round the Flag." 
Among the first to enter the rebel capital were the First 
Connecticut Battery, and the Twenty-first, Twenty-Ninth 
(colored), and the Eighth Regiment, the Twelfth Regiment 
of Maine supplying the flag that wa§ speedily elevated over 
the dome of the Capitol of Virginia. 

So promptly had our forces entered the city, that the rear 
guard of the enemy passed up Main Street just ahead of 
our advance. One of the Connecticut Chaplains (De For- 
rest of the Eleventh Regiment), wrote : — 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 297 

" Our reception was grander and more exultant than even Ro- 
man Emperor leading back his victorious legions with the spoils 
of conquest could ever know. The slaves seemed to think that 
the day of Jubilee had fully come. How they danced, shouted, 
waved their rag-banners, shook our hands, bowed, scraped, 
laughed all over, and thanked God for our coming." 

In nondescript ways they sought to tell to the entering 
troops their joy. " I was jus' so happy wen I knowed it," 
said one, " dat I couldn't do nuffin', but jus' lay right down 
and larf. I could jus' roll up an' larf. I declare I felt jus' 
as happy as a man's got religion in his soul." " Some folks 
says a man carn't 'tote a bar'l flour," added with quaint 
humor another ; " but I could 'tote a bar'l flour dat day, — 
or a bar'l sugar." " I seed a rebel gwine down de street dat 
mawnin' " said another with a chuckling laugh, and swelling 
with a sort of prideful appreciation of his freedom, " wid a 
big haam ; an' I just took dat haam from him, an' run right 
down de street, an' he holler to me to stop ; but I jus' keep 
dat haam." 

Already the news of the fall of Richmond had been 
flashed across the loyal States, and confirmatory telegrams 
from President Lincoln, then at City Point, and from Mr. 
Stanton, Secretary of War, at Washington, D. C, gave to 
the rejoicing people the assurance that the Rebellion was 
finally crushed. 

The stronghold of the Confederates was at last taken by 
the army that, often defeated, had with rare patience and 
heroism held on to its purpose, until triumphant. The de- 
fense of Richmond required four years of fighting, and in 
all seven hundred thousand men before it was captured. 

" Up-hoist the Union pennon — uplift the Union Jack, — 
Up-raise the Union standard, — keep not a banner back ! 
Fling out in silk or bunting, the Ensign of the Stars ! 
God grant it never more may know accursed intestine jars ! 



298 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

" Hurrali for skill ! Hurrah for will ! Hurrah for dauntless hearts ! 
Mourn those who bled, praise those who led against insidious arts ! 
A cheer for those who lived it out ; a tear for those who died ; 
Richmond is ours ! we thank the Lord with heartfelt chastening pride !" 

At once all public offices were closed and business 
suspended by the excited populace, who hailed with the 
most enthusiastic demonstrations of joy and thankfulness 
the glad tidings of the hour. The national triumph, 
so patiently waited for, so unselfishly fought for by brave 
men, thousands of whom had died without the sight, so 
intensely longed for by the millions who had endured the 
wearying heart-sickness of hope deferred, had at last come. 
In all the large towns impromptu gatherings of the citizens 
filled the streets and largest halls, and listened with strain- 
ing eyes, and with praising hearts to dispatches and ad- 
dresses. Chiming bells, and saluting cannon, were made to 
join in the popular expression of gratitude and exultation, 
accompanying with their wild music the " Te Deum " of 
the nation. 

In New York the citizens hardly knew how to express 
their joy at the great news. Staid merchants were seen 
embracing each other, the national flag was universally dis- 
played, and salutes were heard reverberating through the 
city and its outskirts. In front of the Custom House some 
ten thousand people assembled, where congratulations were 
exchanged, speeches by prominent men were made, and the 
proceedings closed, amidst the intensest enthusiasm, by 
singing " Old Hundred." Everywhere throughout the land 
did the fever of excitement run, and the mass-meetings and 
celebrations were of the most impressive character. 

In Norwich the news created as profound a sensation as 
in other places. It was the day of the State election, and 
the returns, as they came in, seemed to indicate that the 
people were rolling up Union majorities, as one way of eel- 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 299 

ebrating the grandest event of these years of war. The 
Stars and Stripes were once more given to the breeze from 
every staff, and store, and dwelling, and a salute of one hun- 
dred guns was fired from a six-pounder drawn up from 
Trolan's boiler works by a four-horse team, which was 
driven by a freedman, bearing the American flag. 

Breed Hall was crowded in the evening by the citizens, 
Mr. Amos W. Prentice presiding, where patriotic addresses 
were made by Hon. J. T. Wait, Senator Foster, and Con- 
necticut's honored " War Governor," on that day for the 
eighth time elected to the position he had filled with such 
noble fidelity ; by Hon. H. H. Starkweather, and others. 
The meeting, with much fervor, joined in singing *' Praise 
God from whom all blessings flow," and for a parting song, 
" America," and then with reverent hearts the great assem- 
bly hushed into quietude while a prayer of thanksgiving 
was offered to the Almighty Father, who, after long years 
of discipline, had disappointed not the expectation of the 
people. 

In the evening the city was encinctured with blazing 
bonfires, around which gathered exultant boys and youth, 
by whom the joy of this signal day was shared. 

The Common Council, at its special meeting Tuesday 
night, unanimously adopted a series of resolutions " on the 
late great victories to our arms," introduced by Mr. Devotion, 
city clerk, and member with his Honor, Mayor Greene, and 
Mr. Whittemore, of the committee appointed to prepare 
them : — 

Resolved. That we regard the great events of the past few days, 
resulting in the capture of Richmond and Petersburg, as the 
crowning success and virtual closing of the war. 

Resolved, That in this hour of triumph our first chief duty is 
reverently, humbly, and with overflowing hearts to thank the 



300 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



great God, who has guided us through this struggle, who has 
given us the victory, and saved our country. 

Resolved, That we sincerely pray God, in this hour of success, 
that our hearts may be free from malice and revenge ; that we 
may be imbued with the principles of justice and charity, and act 
for the advancement and glory of His name, and the happiness, 
peace and good will of ourselves and mankind. 

Resolved, That our heartfelt thanks are due to the great 
leaders and brave men, who by sea and land have taken their 
lives in their hands, an 1 through four weary years defended our 
country against the assaults of her foes, and trodden them down. 
May the lives they have given prove the bond of undying peace 
and union. 

Resolved, That we recognize with pride the great debt we owe 
those who have been maimed and crippled in defense of our 
country, and will joyfully do what we may to assauge their suffer- 
ing and show our gratitude. 

Resolved, That we truly sympathize with those who are mourn- 
ing for their dead, and tenderly remind them that their loved ones, 
though dead, shall always live in the cherished remembrance of a 
grateful country. 

Resolved, That we fervently pray that the eyes of the South 
may be opened to the utter hopelessness for her in further con- 
test ; that her entire submission to the laws and government of 
the United States may soon close the war ; and that those who 
are wearily waiting for the war to cease, hoping with trembling 
hearts for the return of their friends, may soon be permitted to 
welcome their dear ones home, and lay aside their care. 

Resolved, That we do recognize this war as a blessing to us, to 
our children and to mankind, inasmuch as it has forever removed 
the curse of slavery, which, like the upas tree was spreading its 
poison in every direction, demoralizing all classes of society, 
hardening our hearts, blunting our sense of justice, degrading 
our manhood, and which bid fair to extinguish the light of our 
free institutions, and make us a nation of oppressors and op- 
pressed, and though we have paid much blood, and wounds, and 




^o^ 





Cnz^y^ 




CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 



301 



tears, and suffering, yet we have gained a boon far exceeding its 
cost, whose value cannot be estimated, and we do fervently 
thank God that the curse is removed and that we can be a free 
people. 

Resolved, That the splendid tenacity of the people, their cour- 
age under defeat and disaster, their valor in the field and on 
the sea, their unflinching endurance under suffering, their free- 
hearted and generous care of their army and navy, their illimit- 
able resources and their intelligent use of them, their humanity 
to their prisoners, their unwavering confidence of success, and 
their sublime trust in God and their cause, have shed a lustre 
upon our land which shall glow through the ages, and make us 
proudly rejoice in our country and our birthright. 



This great and universal joy reached its culmination six 
days later, April ninth, when the news of General Lee's sur- 
render to General Grant, at " Appomattox Court House," 
was received. The tidings of the final ending of the rebel- 
lion in the defeat and capture of its last army, reached Nor- 
wich late Sunday night, April ninth. 

As Monday morning dawned, the bells of all the city 
churches pealed for an hour, and gave, doubtless, the first 
intimation to most of the citizens of the glorious news. 
The long yearned for time had come when " They shall 
beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into 
pruning hooks." Again the city broke forth into every 
expression of joy, and in all directions the national colors 
were seen, while the stores tastefully decorated their show 
windows, and the holiday attire of the town but mirrored 
forth the gladness of all hearts. 

At Breed Hall, an immense gathering was convened at 
noon. The hall had been appropriately draped with flags ; 
one at the rear of the stage bore the inscription which was 
the watchword of the day, and the occasion of the celebra- 
tion, — "Victory!" 



?02 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



The meeting was called to order by Mr. Ebenezer Lear- 
ned, who named for chairman " the man whom all knew," 
Governor Buckingham. The latter, on coming forward, 
spoke briefly, " adverting to the fact, that almost exactly 
four years ago to-day, a company of men assembled at 
Apollo Hall, on the reception of the thrilling news that the 
power of the United States had been overborne at Fort 
Sumter." He spoke " of the clinched fist, the compressed 
lip, that then indicated the purpose of a free people to right 
the wrong thus suffered. From that day onward a like 
feeling has been manifested throughout the country ; and 
now, after many a brother, and many a son, had been laid 
in his blood on Southern soil, that army which was the chief 
power of the rebellion has been taken captive. Surely, 
then, to-day we are assembled on a far different occasion. 
The army of Northern Virginia has given its parole of 
honor to be obedient to the laws of the United States. But 
this is an hour not so much for speech, as for the manifes- 
tation of feeling in songs of joy. This is an hour to sing 
praises to Him who hath given and is giving to us the vic- 
tory." 

Rev. John V. Lewis then read the Psalm, " O sing unto 
the Lord a new song," after which Rev. Samuel Graves led 
in prayjsr, when the vast audience united in singing "All 
hail the power of Jesus' name," to the tune of " Coronation.'' 

The Chairman then introduced Rev. J. P. Gulliver, who 
spoke as follows : — 

" Last Sunday, a week ago, the evacuation of Richmond ; 
yesterday the surrender of Lee's army ; next Sabbath the anni- 
versary of the memorable Sumter Sunday. Then, all was indig- 
nation and consternation ; to-day, all is confidence, exultation, 
victory. There are some events whose greatness we are unable 
to compass in thought, or express in words. This is one of them. 
We hardly know what to say, because we know not how to feel. 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 303 

As at the first view of the Falls of Niagara our conception is at 
fault, so with the great event we celebrate to-day, — the future 
alone can discern its full significance. These three Sundays of 
April will be connected in history. They reach far onward into 
the future, and far back into the past. We must gradually rise to 
the conception of the mighty events that have just transpired. 
Our first thought on hearing the news was of the feelings of our 
brave boys in the Army of the Potomac, those who followed Mc- 
Clellan, Burnside, Hooker ; our second, of the joy of the fathers 
and mothers of those soldiers ; then the joy of the emancipated 
race looking forward to the liberty of doing the best they know 
how, of standing up as men : then, of the feelings of the aristo- 
crats of Europe. Rather even than look upon our soldiers in the 
Army of the Potomac in the flush of victory, we would be in the 
English House of Parliament when the news of the surrender of 
Lee's army first reaches there. There was a lesson to he learned 
from this struggle by men in politics and of business. From this 
hour let us be a God-fearing nation, in our Senate houses and in 
our Executive mansions. Then will the Republic rise and grow, 
magnificent in outline, and beautiful in proportions." 

" Victory at last," was then sung, the solo by H. V. Ed- 
mond, the choir and audience joining in the chorus. 

Hon. L. F. S. Foster was next introduced. He com- 
menced by saying : — 

" It is difficult to give utterance to feelings on such an occasion. 
The natural language of the heart at such a time was — Thank 
God ! Thank God ! What a sublime spectacle. From the At- 
lantic to the Pacific there is the ringing of bells and the glad 
shouts of the people. The Nation is delivered, and never before 
in the history of the world was there such manifestation of joy. 
The shore of the Pacific at this hour joins in celebration with 
the States along the Lakes, upon the Gulf, and in the valley of 
the Mississippi. Not a single individual lives throughout our 
whole land who does not hear to-day the roar of cannon. When 
before was there an event so mighty ? The lessons, moral, polit- 



304 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



ical, and religious to be learned from it are too vast for our com- 
prehension. We are overpowered by the magnitude of the occur- 
rence. The human mind is not great enough to compass it. 

" As one practical lesson to be learned, we should see to it 
that the soldiers who have gone forth be remembered. In noway 
can we better show our gratitude to God than by opening our 
hands liberally to them, or to their widows, or to their orphans. 
Let us not flatter ourselves that this is charity. It is not. It is 
paying a debt. We are to pay it as we would a debt too vast to 
be discharged at once." 

The speaker briefly alluded to our triumph as a triumph 
of the rights of man, and said that its effect in Europe 
would be immediate and great. 

Governor Buckingham then spoke of John Brown's in- 
vasion of Virginia, the excitement that ensued throughout 
that Commonwealth on its occurrence, and the resulting 
decree that his name should not be even uttered in that 
State, on penalty of expulsion from it. He then mentioned 
the fact that only a few days since the Twenty-ninth Regi- 
ment (colored) marched into its capital to the music of the 
drum and fife, singing "John Brown's soul goes march- 
ing on." 

The John Brown song was then sung by Mr. Edmond, 
the choir and audience joining in the chorus with an unc- 
tion that the regiment might doubtless have profitably 
emulated. 

Rev. Mr. Dana spoke next, and was followed by Hon 
John T. Wait, Rev. B. F. Clark, Ebenezer Learned, and 
Colonel H. B. Crosby, of the Twenty-first Regiment. 
Amid these addresses were interspersed the following 
songs : " Johnny comes marching home," solo by J. N. 
Crandall. " The Battle-cry of Freedom," solo by Geo. H. 
Martin. The audience then united with Rev. Mr. Lewis 
in the Lord's Prayer, who also pronounced the benediction. 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 305 

Thus ended Norwich's Jubilee meeting. Thanksgiving and 
praise, rather than loud exultation, characterized this last 
grand rally of the citizens for purposes connected with the 
now gloriously ended war. 

In the afternoon there was a procession, under the mar- 
shalship of Colonel David Young, consisting of the Infantry 
Company of State Militia, under Captain Parlin ; the Free 
Academy Cadets, Captain Gilbert ; and the Fire Depart- 
ment, under Chief Engineer Andrews. The engines were 
gaily decorated with flags, and along the route repeated 
salutes were fired. 

In the evening the general illumination of stores and 
private dwellings gave to the city a brilliant appearance. 
It was a memorable day, fittingly honored for the great 
event with which, in our country's annals, it will ever be 
associated. 

" O beautiful ! my country ! ours once more ! 
Smoothing thy gold of war-disheveled hair 
O'er such sweet brows as never other wore, 
And letting thy set lips 
Freed from wrath's pale eclipse. 
The rosy edges of their smile lay bare. 
What words divine of lover or of poet 
Could tell our love and make thee know it, 
Among the nations bright beyond compare ? 
What were our lives without thee .'' 
What all our lives to save thee .' 
We reck not what we gave thee ; 
We will not dare to doubt thee, 
But ask whatever else, and we will dare ! " 

The General Assembly, a little later, put on record this 
public acknowledgment of the glorious issue of the long 
struggle, and the Commonwealth's indebtedness to the 
heroes, living and dead, whose valor contributed to the 
grand result : — 

" Resolved, That the heartfelt thanks and lasting gratitude of 



306 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

the people of this State are due and are hereby tendered to all 
Connecticut officers and soldiers, of every rank and grade^ who 
in the war of the Rebellion have gallantly borne the flag, and 
nobly sustained the honor of our State ; and who, by long years 
of faithful service, and on many a hard fought field, have aided 
in preserving to us our institutions, and in demonstrating to the 
world that no government is so strong as that which rests in the 
will of a free and enlightened people, and that no armies are so 
invincible as citizen-soldiers battling for their own liberties and 
the rights of man. 

" That this State will ever gratefully cherish and honor the 
memories of those victims of the war and rebel barbarities, who 
went forth from us for our defense, but who come not back to 
participate in the blessings of that peace which, through their 
efforts and sacrifices a just God has vouchsafed to us." 

His Excellency the Governor gave ptiblicity to these, in 
the following proclamation : — 

" Therefore I, William A. Buckingham, Governor of the State 
of Connecticut, in order to effect the object designed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly, hereby issue this proclamation, and call upon the 
citizens of this Commonwealth to manifest by expressions of 
gratitude, and by acts of kindness, both to the living and to the 
families of the honored dead, their high appreciation of the sac- 
rifices made by each of the fifty-three thousand three hundred 
and thirty men, who from this State have entered the military 
service of the Nation during our recent struggle with rebellion, 
and to impress upon their children and their children's children 
the duty of holding such patriotic services in honor and per- 
petual remembrance, and thus prove the enduring gratitude of 
the Republic." 

This great gladness was soon tinged with an unex- 
pected and universal sorrow. Hardly had the pean of the 
people died away, and the sounds of rejoicing with which 
the land were filled quieted down, ere the mournful news 
came of the death of President Lincoln by the hand of an 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 307 

assassin. He had returned from City Point to Washing- 
ton on the evening of April ninth. From this time until 
the fourteenth were memorable days, filled up with a suc- 
cession of events, which marked the complete overthrow of 
the rebellion. The joy of the people continued to manifest 
itself, as the magnitude of the late occurrences came to be 
more fully appreciated Before Mr. Lincoln the sable 
clouds of war were rolling away, and as he entered, amid 
such glorious successes, upon his second term in office, 
were rising four years of sunny peace, with their rich har- 
vest of results, flowing from the laborious and faithful ser- 
vice he had, amidst unprecedented trials, rendered. At a 
cabinet meeting, between the hours of eleven and twelve 
o'clock, where he met General Grant and heard his final 
report, he bore himself with a hopeful, joyous spirit. In 
che afternoon, when driving out with Mrs. Lincoln, he had 
remarked, " We have had a hard time together since we 
came to Washington, but now the war is over, and with 
God's blessing upon us, we may hope for four years of hap- 
piness, and then we will go back to Illinois, and pass the 
remainder of our lives in peace." The shadow of the swift 
approaching tragedy had not fallen upon him, and all un- 
suspicious, " with malice towards none, with charity for all," 
he went in the evening, as had previously been announced, 
to Ford's Theatre. The assassin deftly entering the box in 
which the President and his party were seated, accomplished 
his fatal purpose, and by a single shot murdered the Na- 
tion's honored Magistrate. Mr. Lincoln lingered through 
the night, though without returning consciousness, and died 
on the morning of April 15, 1865. 

The terrible tidings of his death was at once borne by 
telegraph to every part of the Republic. From joy and 
exultation the Nation was in an instant turned to weeping 
and lamentation. Business was suspended, gloom and 



5o8 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL.' 



sadness sat upon every face. Strong men wept, and the 
waving flags, which were still floating in triumph from 
every spire and masthead, were lowered, and the people 
commenced to drape their dwellings, and put on the garb 
of mourning. 

" He lived to see the Republic's success, and to feel his 
veins swelling with that rich joy which swept like a current 
of quickening life throughout the land, and then died a 
martyr to the cause he had championed, sealing his service 
with his life, leaving the Nation which he had rescued in 
the wildest grief ; throwing the shadow of a strange sorrow 
over lands which he had never seen, and seeking the rest 
denied him here in the presence of Him who had raised 
him up." 

Our citizens were appalled by the dread intelligence, and 
speechless and sad, mused upon the event that had no par- 
allel in our history. All cherished feelings of honor and 
affection for the martyred President, and but one sentiment 
pervaded the hearts of the loyal masses. The city itself 
was filled with gloom, and the long, grief-ful day will not 
soon be forgotten. Hon. L. F. S. Foster, who was now 
President of the Senate, Governor Buckingham, and others 
of our leading men, started for Washington, to be of such 
service as might be possible in this unlooked-for emer- 
gency, and also to represent the State at the funeral 
solemnities in the Capital. 

On Sunday, April sixteenth, all the churches in town 
were dressed in mourning, and discourses appropriate to the 
sad occurrence were preached. It was Easter Sabbath, and 
the white festal flowers with which the pulpits and altars in 
many of the sanctuaries were adorned, stood out in their 
sweet symbolism against the draperies which memorialized 
the Nation's departed chief Large congregations and the 
marked solemnity of the usually joyous services of this 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 309 

festival Sabbath, showed how profoundly the hearts of our 
citizens shared in the universal grief 

As indicating what the voice of the Norwich pulpit on 
the grievous event was, we give here the following very 
brief abstracts of the sermons preached : — 

At Trinity Church Rev. John V. Lewis took for his text 
Psalm Iviii. 10: "The righteous shall rejoice when he 
seeth the vengeance ; he shall wash his feet in the blood 
of the wicked." The preacher began with an acknowledg- 
ment that he had an unusual text for an Easter sermon. 
It was not the text he had chosen, but God himself had 
chosen it and preached a sermon to the nation. And 
when he heard that text announced yesterday morning, he 
thanked God that the Gospel had a strong side, a sternly 
retributive side ; that it was a Gospel of vengeance upon the 
evil-doer, no less than of peace to the righteous. He 
thanked God that the risen Lord rose a conqueror as well 
as a saviour, to put all enemies under his feet. He thanked 
God for the Psalms of David, with their religious intoler- 
ance of the workers of iniquity, and for the Revelation of 
St. John, which truly shows us there is such a thing as 
" the wrath of the Lamb." The resurrection of Christ pro- 
claimed undying war upon every form of evil. The risen 
Lord is irresistible. He will make no unholy compromise 
with sin : offering pardon to the misguided and repentant, 
he offers only vengeance to the obstinate rebel. The re- 
mainder of the discourse was an exposition of the necessity 
of executing vengeance legally and by lawfully constituted 
authority. The great Easter of the Resurrection will re- 
dress all grievances. 

Rev. Mr. Graves, in the Central Baptist Church, spoke 
as follows : — 

" I cannot proceed further with these services without alluding 
to the event which crowds all other thoughts from our minds, 



3IO THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

which has draped our sanctuaries, and filled the hearts of the na- 
tion with sadness. Abraham Lincoln is dead. The people's 
President. The man whom God had raised up to guide this 
nation through its great life struggle. Dead by the hand of an 
assassin. Murdered in the Capital by the spirit of secession, 
which for four years has been deluging our land in blood. It is 
a tragedy without parallel in the world's history, since the assas- 
sination of Julius Caesar in the Roman Forum, and a crime sur- 
passed only by the crucifixion. God, ' who maketh the wrath of 
man to praise him,' has suffered this for some end, wise in his 
inscrutable providence. Perhaps it is to teach us in this most 
critical juncture of national affairs the utter folly of trusting in 
man, however tried and trusty that man may be, and to make 
God our refuge, who is a very present help in time of trouble. 
Perhaps because he saw that the executive administration, in the 
hands of this kind, this tender-hearted man, would not mete out 
to treason the justice which is its due, and which He, as the God 
of justice means it shall have at the hands of a sterner 
man. His work is done, and well done. He lived to see the 
spirit of rebellion broken, and the glad dawn of peace. Abra- 
ham Lincoln is saved to history, and to-day he takes his place 
among the great and good of all times. Let us bow with rever- 
ence and submission, even in the depth of our grief, to the will 
of God." 

In the Universalist Church, Rev. Mr. Ambler announced 
as his text Job v. 8 : " Affliction cometh not forth of the 
dust." 

" Our hearts are all clothed with the drapery of sadness. The 
circumstances attending the death of our President were such as 
to render the shock to us more than ordinarily terrible. If his 
frame had been wasted by disease, if he had been taken from us 
by some gradual and invisible process, we might have bowed 
more easily to the Providential decree. But that he, a leader of 
the people, the President, not of a party but of a nation, a friend 
no less to the South than to the North, whose sole desire 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 311 

was to promote the common good, and whose official labors have 
been honestly and wisely designed to secure the best inter- 
ests of this Republic — that he should have been coolly assas- 
sinated in the very Capital of the nation, with no provocation 
except that which may be supposed to be in the venom of rebel- 
lion — is a circumstance which has no precedent in history, and 
which may call forth not only the lamentations of the American 
people, but the universal execration of mankind. It is not now 
a proper time to say much about the punishment which ought to 
follow an act like this, though some punishment, severe and 
signal will, in the course of justice, be visited not only on the 
actual perpetrators of the deed, but on the no less guilty instiga- 
tors of it. At present we can think of little else save our loss. 
The hand which guided the Ship of State in its peril, till we 
could see the haven of peace, is powerless ; the wise counsels, 
tempered always by humane feeling, will no more shed their light 
upon us, but as records of the past ; the cheerful spirit which 
kept up the courage of the people, and which for their sake 
never allowed itself to be entirely overcome, even in the dark- 
est period, will now smile upon us only from the heavens, where 
we shall turn for consolation in our bereavement. Let us find 
it in the providential care and government of God. The proc- 
lamation of liberty has been sealed with blood. Henceforth let 
it be sacred in the eyes of the American people, and may He 
who inspired the martyr's soul on earth help us to guard aright 
those principles of justice and freedom which have been left to 
us as our legacy." 

In the Broadway Church, Rev. Mr. Gtilliver took for his 
text Psalms xlvi. 10 : "Be still and know that I am God. I 
will be exalted among the heathen ; I will be exalted in the 
earth." The preacher remarked : — 

" That he would be glad to obey the first injunction of the text 
literally. It was a task any man might well shrink from, to give 
expression to the feelings of horror, indignation, and grief, that 
fire all our hearts. But the second injunction, contained in the 



312 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

latter part of the text, is one tliat can be more easily complied 
with. We may be still, so far as any attempt to give an adequate 
utterance to our emotions is concerned, but we are bound to see 
God in what has occurred, and to know what He is designing to 
teach us. The first point of instruction is, that God is an abso- 
lute sovereign. He asks counsel of no man! He doeth all his 
own will. No man can say unto Him, 'What doest thou ? ' Men 
would not have selected Abraham Lincoln to be President of 
the United States, if it could have been known that he would be 
called to pass through such an ordeal. But the history of the 
past four years shows that he was precisely the man to do a great 
work of philanthrophy, and to lead a nation divided in sentiment 
and interest, wild with alarm and doubtful of the future, to 
unanimity of opinion and action. But the same sovereign God 
who put Abraham Lincoln into the seat of power has taken him 
out of it. He has not consulted us. We mourn and we wonder. 
But God has done it. Perhaps there was a radical defect in Mr. 
Lincoln's character, which unfitted him for the closing up of the 
war. He lacked the early religious instruction which would have 
given him very different views of law and penalty, and the rela- 
tion of mercy and justice, and the necessity for the general good 
of individual retributive suffering. 

"Just at this point a new man is brought forward, certainly not 
the man we should have selected. This too, is God's work. And 
at the end of four years we may rejoice as much in the elevation 
of Andrew Johnson, as we now do in that of Abraham Lincoln. 
He certainly has had a peculiar experience of the rebels, and of 
his own frailties. Let him have a generous support, and be re- 
ceived as the Lord's anointed, appointed by Him to this high 
position. 

" These events also teach us that God purposes all, even the 
most minute events, and even the wicked acts of wicked men. 
They show also why God hates, and so severely punishes slavery, 
whose spirit and character reached a culmination and fit expres- 
sion in this assassination. Finally, they show each one of us the 
plague of our own hearts. The selfishness of slavery is essen- 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHiMOND. 313 

tially the same as all other selfishness. Every rebel against God 
is lifting his hand against the Government of the universe, as did 
John Wilkes Booth against the President of the United States. 
The horror we feel to-day at that crime is but a reflection of the 
horror which angels feel at the assaults we are making upon 
God's Government. And let us remember we are dealing with 
one who never confounds mercy and justice, and " will by no 
means clear the guilty." 

Wednesday, April nineteenth, the day of the funeral, 
was one of general mourning throughout the land. The 
services at the White House, held in the East Room, were 
simple and impressive, and attended by a large concourse 
of the dignitaries in the Capital, P'oreign Ministers, Judges, 
Congressmen and Citizens. The remains of the President 
were then conveyed to the Capitol and placed in the ro- 
tunda, beneath the statue of Liberty, and guarded by sad 
and weeping soldiers. 

In Norwich the bells were tolled during the day, guns 
fired every half-hour, while the National colors were dis- 
played at half-mast, and trimmed with black. Business 
was suspended, while in the windows and doorways of 
almost every building were the trappings of woe to be seen. 
Tasteful devices, expressive of the popular sorrow, lent 
variety and impressiveness to the city's unaffected grief. 

In m^ny of the churches public religious services were 
held, attended by large and serious congregations. His 
Honor, Mayor Greene, issued through the morning papers 
the following deep feeling appeal to the citizens of Nor- 
wich : — 

" Fellow Citizens : To-day the Nation stands with sad heart 
and uncovered head around the grave of one it dearly loved. 
To-day noon, our beloved friend and President is buried. His 
death is the most dastardly murder that ever occurred in the 



314 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

tide of time. Let all places of business be closed from eleven a. 
M. to three o'clock p. m. Let every one attend his respective place 
of worship, and participate in the solemn duties of the hour, and 
while bowing submissive to the hand of God, let every one swear 
in his heart, eternal, undying hate of slavery, — the damned insti- 
tution that has sowed the South with treason, — has drenched 
our land with blood, — has maimed and crippled thousands of 
heroes, — has extinguished the light of joy in thousands of hearts? 
and has now consummated its wickedness by murdering one of 
the noblest, wisest, and best of men, Abraham Lincoln, our 
cherished Friend and President. 

"Jas. Lloyd Greene, Mayor.'" 

The funeral procession which on Friday, the twenty-first, 
started from the Executive Mansion, was one never before 
paralleled. Moving solemnly through city and country, the 
cortege swelling in numbers, held on its sorrow-traced 
course, till the martyred dead was borne back to a quiet 
resting-place amid the scenes and friends of earlier days. 
Halting in the great cities, the grief-smitten citizens crowded 
round the bier, and looked for the last time on the sad 
weary face of him who had held and guarded the people's 
imperial trust, 

" So he grew up, a destined work to do, 

And lived to do it ; four long suffering years 
Ill-fate, ill-feeling, ill-report, lived through, , 

And then he heard the hisses change to cheers, 

" The taunts to tributes, the abuse to praise, 

And took both with the same unwavering mood, 
Till as he came on light, from darkling days. 

And seemed to touch the goal from where he stood." 

The funeral train reached the Capital of Illinois, May 
third, and the body was placed under the rotunda of the 
Court House. The latter was decorated with flowers. Over 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. — FALL OF RICHMOND. 



315 



its north door was the motto, " TJie altar of freedom has 
borne 110 nobler sacrifice;''' over the south door, ''Illinois 
clasps to her bosoni her slain, but glorified sonT 

The last words of the funeral oration, by Bishop Simpson, 
were as follows : — 

'' Chieftain ! farewell ! The Nation mourns thee. Mothers 
shall teach thy name to their lisping children. The youth of our 
land shall emulate thy virtues. Statesmen shall study thy record 
and learn lessons of wisdom. Mute though thy lips be, yet they 
still speak. Hushed is thy voice, but its echoes of liberty are 
ringing through the world, and the sons of bondage listen to it 
with joy. Prisoned thou art in death, and yet thou art marching 
abroad, and chains and manacles are bursting at thy touch. 
Thou didst fall not for thyself The assassin had no hate for 
thee. Our hearts were aimed at, our National life was sought. 
We crown thee as our martyr, and humanity enthrones thee as 
her triumphant son. Hero, martyr, friend, farewell ! " 

Thus with joy shaded down with profoundest sorrow, the 
Nation accepted its costly, but sacred triumph, rejoicing 
over the rebellion crushed ; sorrowing over the grave of 
him who consecrated himself to so grand a work, and sealed 
it when finished, with his own life's blood. 




XV. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

TOWN ACTION. — COST OF THE WAR. 

The amount of indebtedness of the town of Norwich 
September i, 1861, was one hundred and seven thousand 
three hundred and seventy dollars (^107,370). On the 
first of September, 1865, the debt had risen to one hun- 
dred and eighty thousand three hundred and three dollars 
($180,303), showing an increase in the four years of sev- 
enty-two thousand nine hundred and thirty-three dollars 
($72,933). During the war the town disbursed for directly 
war purposes one hundred and sixty-four thousand one 
hundred and seventy-eight dollars and sixty-eight cents 
{$164,178.68), and at its close its distinctive war debt was 
in the form of loans amounting to eighty four thousand 
and ninety-six dollars ($84,096.00). 

The town action in the frequent meetings held during 
the progress of our civil conflict, to devise means for pro- 
moting enlistments and filling up the quotas, under the 
various calls of the President for volunteers, was remark- 
ably unanimous. Very little, if any, opposition was made 
to the liberal appropriations voted for war purposes. There 
was not only great unanimity of spirit, but the utmost 
energy and promptitude of action, so that the town was 
kept in advance of the calls made upon it for men. Its 
contributions to the national armies were of its most worthy 
and promising citizens, and nobly did the latter maintain the 








£nri 3- -| 



lie. I'T York 




LIEUT. COL 26T--H C0"NIT,V0L3 



MISCELLANEOUS. 317 

reputation of Norwich for patriotic devotion to the coun- 
try's weal. 

The first action of the town in reference to war matters 
was on July 16, 1862, when, after a spirited meeting, the 
following votes were passed : — 

Vo/ed, That a bounty of thirteen dollars be paid from the town's 
treasury of the town of Norwich to every man who shall, on or 
before the twentieth of August, 1862, enlist into any company 
enlisted in the town of Norwich, The same to be paid when 
he is mustered into the service of the United States. 

Fo^ed, That the same bounty of thirteen dollars be paid to 
those who have already enlisted into companies now enlisting in 
the town of Norwich. 

Fo/ed, That the sum of eight thousand dollars be, and the 
same is, hereby appropriated from the town treasury for the pur- 
pose of paying said bounty, and such necessary expenses of re- 
cruiting, as are not provided for by the General and State Gov- 
ernment, and for the purpose of aiding and encouraging, in any 
proper way, the enlistment of volunteers. 

Fofed, That the Selectmen of the town of Norwich be and are 
hereby instructed to raise, by loan or otherwise, and to place at 
the disposal of the Committee, consisting of James Lloyd 
Greene, AmosW. Prentice, William M. Converse, Lorenzo Black- 
stone, N. C. Brackenridge, and F. M. Hale, from time to time, 
such sums of money as said Committee shall desire, not exceed- 
ing the sum of eight thousand dollars, to be by said Committee 
expended according to their judgment in carrying into effect 
the preceding vote, and said Committee are authorized to pay 
said bounty of thirteen dollars for enlistments after said twen- 
tieth day of August, if, in their discretion, it is deemed desirable 
to do so. 

These measures were carried by a unanimous vote. On 

the fourth of August, 1862, in accordance with the warning 

of the Selectmen, a town meeting was held in the Town 

Hall. The attendance was very large, and the proceedings 

21 



3l8 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

of the meeting were marked with great enthusiasm. Amos 
W. Prentice was called to preside, when it was — 

Voted, That a bounty of thirty-seven dollars, in addition to the 
bounty heretofore voted by the town of Norwich, be paid from 
the town treasury to every resident of the town who has enlisted, 
or who shall, on or before the twentieth day of August, enlist 
into any company raised in the town of Norwich, under the 
recent call of the Government, and said bounty shall be payable 
when he is mustered into the service of the United States. 
And the same shall also be paid to every resident of the town 
of Norwich who has been enlisted by Captain William H. Tubbs 
and James B. Coit, for the Fourteenth Regiment. 

Voted, That the Selectmen be authorized and directed to raise, 
by loan or otherwise, a sum not exceeding twenty thousand dol- 
lars, or so much of the same as may be necessary to pay the 
bounties provided for in the previous vote, and to pay such ex- 
penses of recruiting as are not provided for by the State or Gen- 
eral Government. 

On the thirtieth of the same month (August, 1862), 
when the call for three hundred thousand nine months' 
troops was made, the town, in regular meeting convened — 

Voted, That a bounty of one hundred dollars be paid to any 
resident of the town who has volunteered, or who shall volunteer, 
in any regiment of militia of this State, and who shall be ac- 
cepted into the service of the United States, under the recent call 
of the President for three hundred thousand nine months' men. 

The Selectmen were further instructed to raise a sum not 
exceeding twenty-two thousand dollars, to be placed at the 
disposal of the " War Committee " for the purpose of pay- 
ing the first voted bounty, and defraying the general ex- 
penses incident to recruiting. This meeting was one of the 
most spirited held during the war, and after it resolved it- 
self into a Committee of the Whole to obtain volunteers, as 



MISCELLANEOUS. 3 I9 

elsewhere described, rose to the very highest pitch of en- 
thusiasm. 

In January, 1863, the debt of the town, incurred for" war 
expenses " was reported to be over forty thousand dollars, 
and it was voted to provide for this by the issue of town 
bonds, authorized by the action of the Legislature, at the 
December session, in 1862. These bonds bore interest at 
the rate of six per cent., the attached coupons being paya- 
ble semi-annually. 

On May 29, 1863, and by virtue of more recent legisla- 
tive provision, the town voted to repeat this action, funding 
in the same way its increasing debt. The issue was lim- 
ited, by vote, to sixty thousand dollars, and the bonds were 
made payable at the expiration of twenty years' time. It 
should, however, be stated that this new issue of town 
bonds was to provide for the general indebtedness of town, 
and not for exclusively war expenditures. 

On Wednesday, August 5, 1863, a town meeting was 
regularly warned, " to take action on the bounty ques- 
tion." There was a very large attendance, and the discus- 
sion showed a general interest to have those who were 
called into service under " the enrollment act " impartially 
provided for. The action taken was intended to meet any 
cases of distress that might occur in connection with the 
drafting of those who would leave their families in a depen- 
dent condition. The benevolence of the citizens, however, 
never permitted this to occur, and the town and State 
appropriations were always liberal enough to meet any 
exigency of this kind. Still, as showing the public inter- 
est in this matter. Judge Hovey presented the following 
resolution, which, after some debate, was passed with but 
one dissenting voice : — 

" Whereas, Four hundred and thirty-five persons residing in 
this town, have been recently drafted for military service in the 



;20 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



army of the United States, pursuant of the act of Congress, en- 
titled ' An act for enrolling and calling out the national forces, 
and for other purposes,' approved March 3, 1863 ; 

" A?id tvhereas, Nearly all the persons so drafted have been 
found to be exempt from military duty under said act, or have 
furnished substitutes to take their places in the draft, or paid 
the sum of money required by said act for the procuration of 
said substitutes ; 

'•'• And whereas, Fears are entertained that a further draft may 
be ordered, pursuant to the provisions of said act, and that 
thereby individuals and families may become chargeable to the 
town, and otherwise greatly distressed, unless adequate measures 
of relief are adopted by the town ; 

'■'•And whereas. Under the warning for this meeting, it is be- 
lieved that such measures cannot be legally adopted ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That in case a further draft from this town shall 
be ordered, pursuant to the said act of Congress, the Selectmen 
be and are hereby directed to convene, as soon as possible, a 
meeting of the town, for the purpose of adopting such measures 
for the relief of those who may be drafted, as the town shall 
deem adequate and proper." 

At a town meeting held January 26, 1864, Mr. George 
Pratt, stated that the quota of the town, numbering two hun- 
dred and six, had been filled by the Selectmen, at a cost to 
the town of twenty thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars 
and seventy-six cents ($20,950.76). After the quota was 
full, the Selectmen enlisted forty-three additional recruits, 
at a cost of two thousand one hundred and fifty dollars, 
with the assurance on the part of the " War Committee " 
that if the town did not pay this additional sum they would. 
A few men enlisted at Fort Trumbull would swell the num- 
ber of recruits from the town on the present quota to 
two hundred and sixty. The following vote was then 
passed : — 

" Voted^ That the Selectmen be authorized to draw on the 



MISCELLANEOUS. 321 

town treasurer for a sufficient sum to reimburse the " War 
Committee " for actual expenses incurred by them in enlisting 
recruits over and above the number required to fill the quota of 
the town, such expenses being audited and approved by the Se- 
lectmen, the amount not to exceed two thousand one hundred and 
fifty dollars." 

After some discussion as to how this money had been 
tised, and whether it was paid to brokers or the men enlist- 
ing, it was shown that the latter in every instance received 
it, and that the cost of securing these extra recruits had 
not averaged over fifty dollars per man. Mr. Starkweather 
then offered the following vote : — 

" That the Selectmen of the town of Norwich be authorized 
to pay to each veteran who is a resident of this town, and who 
has reenlisted into the service of the United States, and shall 
count on the quota required of this town, the sum of one hundred 
dollars, and the Selectmen are authorized to draw orders on the 
treasurer." 

This developed some discussion, and sticklers for the 
legality of such a forehanded measure, which in after 
months proved of great relief to the town, when new calls 
for men were made, ventilated their views at some length, 
and then, with but one dissenting voice, the vote was 
passed. The wisdom of thus securing in advance recruits 
to count on future apportionments, under other calls likely 
to be issued, led to the passage of the next vote : — 

" That the Selectmen of the town of Norwich be authorized to 
obtain recruits to apply on the present or any other quota of the 
town of Norwich, provided the expenses to the town shall not 
exceed twenty-five dollars per man, and the Selectmen are hereby 
authorized to draw orders on the treasurer for that purpose." 

Again, under date of July 15, 1864, after the President's 
call for five hundred thousand troops made the town feel 



322 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



the need of prompt action to fill up its quota, it was now 
voted, with no dissenting voices — 

"That the Selectmen of the town of Norwich be and they 
hereby are authorized to pay to each resident of this town, who 
enlists or procures a substitute or recruit, who shall count on the 
quota of this town, under the recent call of the President, the 
sum of one hundred dollars, and to draw orders on the town 
treasurer to pay the same. The Selectmen were also authorized to 
employ persons to aid them in filling up the quota of the town." 

The bounty of one hundred dollars to veterans reenlist- 
ing and counting on this quota, was continued. At this 
period of the war the business of raising the men appor- 
tioned to the town devolved upon the Selectmen, and they, 
together with the most active and interested of our citi- 
zens, labored earnestly to secure recruits, and to keep the 
quota of the town full. And yet this was no easy task, for 
volunteering on the part of our citizens had perforce largely 
ceased, and good recruits were difficult to be procured. 
Still, their efforts were successful, and the town never failed 
to raise promptly its assignment of men. 

On December i, 1864, at a regularly convened town 
meeting, a new committee, consisting of Messrs. Samuel 
B. Case, Charles Crawley, John T. Brown, Henry B. Tracy, 
and William Peckham, was appointed to have in charge 
the moneys appropriated for bounties, and by vote, this 
committee was authorized — 

" To pay to any person of this town liable to a draft, who here- 
after may furnish an acceptable and lawful military substitute, 
under the laws of the United States, to be credited to the town, 
such sums of money, as to such shall seem necessary and proper, 
provided the number of such substitutes does not exceed the 
number required, in the judgment of the Committee, to fill the 
next quota. 

" Voted, That the Selectmen are authorized to borrow, from 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



323 



time to time, on the credit of tlie town, such sums of money as 
shall be approved by the Committee, not to exceed, in the whole, 
the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars." 

Under this liberal provision the quota of the town was again 
raised, and a surplus secured to apply on any future calls. 
At the close of the war Norwich was found to be in ad- 
vance of the number regularly assigned to her to be raised, 
and this highly creditable fact was due to the energetic 
action of the town officers, supported as they always were 
by the loyal cooperation of all the citizens. These town 
meetings were always well attended by our leading citizens, 
and though there were occasionally some sharp discussions, 
yet there were no war measures adopted by the town that 
did not receive a practically unanimous vote. It should be 
recorded to the honor of our citizens that, differing as they 
did in political views, yet, in the town assemblages to which 
they so often were summoned, they acted with great cor- 
diality, debated measures with earnestness, but uniform 
courtesy, and maintained the reputation of the town for 
loyalty to the Government, and liberality in providing for 
all war expenses. 

TABLE OF DEBT. 



United States Debt. 


Connecticut Debt. 


Norwich Town Debt. 


July 


I, i860 


§64,769,703 08 


Mar. 31, i860 


§34,142 04* 


Sept. I, i860 


§113,582 28 




1861 


90,867,828 68 


1S61 


7,709 50* 


" 1861 


107,370 05 




1862 


514,211,371 92 


" 1862 


2,030,000 00 


" 1862 


124,270 52 




1863 


1,098,793. i8i 37 


1863 


3,392,300 00 


1S63 


•35,387 75 




1864 


1,740,690,489 49 


" 1864 


7,249,660 00 


Sept. 15, 1864 


169,918 95 




1865 


2,783 425,879 21 


" 1S65 


10,523,113 74 


" 1865 


180,303 71 



After deducting the amount in the Treasury. 



324 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



TOWN EXPENSES FOR WAR PURPOSES. 

Amount paid to Volunteers or Substitutes .... $139,149 68 
Amount paid families of Volunteers, additional to State allow- 
ance ..........". 15,000 GO 

All other War Expenses 9,021 00 

Total expenses for War purposes .'.... 163,170 68 
Estimated amount paid for Bounties to Volunteers and Sub- 
stitutes 19,600 00 

Estimated amount paid by individuals for Commutation . . 5i700 00 
Present indebtedness of Town for War purposes . . . 84,096 00 

Grand List of the Town $10,494,035 00 

STATE EXPENSES FOR WAR PURPOSES. 

Expended for Bounties $5,195,877 80 

Estimated amounts paid by individuals for Bounties, Volun- 
teers, or Substitutes ....... 1,134,762 80 

Estimated amount paid by individuals for Commutation . 292,940 00 

Amount paid families of Volunteers ..... 2,413,33848 

Grand list for i864 276,086,457 00 

Estimate of the number of men to whom the United States Bounty has been 
paid, the amount paid each man, and the total amount paid from May 3, 
1 86 1, to the end of the IVar. Taken from final report of the Provost-mar- 
shal General of U. S., fames B. Fry. 



Period embraced. 


Class of Men. 


Term 

of 
Service. 


Number 
of men. 


Amount 
per man. 


Total 
Amount p'd. 


Aggregate 
for each 
Period. 


Mav 3, 1861, to Oct. 












17, 1863 .... Volunteers 


3 yrs. 


905,869 


$100 


190,586,900 


$90,s86,goo 


Oct. 17, 1863,10 July 












18, 1864 .... 


Veteran Vols. 


'* 


158,507 


400 


63,402,800 


1 




Recruits . . 


u 


257,0^8 
11,025 


300 
100 


77,108,400 
1,102,500 


1 


July 18, 1864, to close 












J- 146,417,500 


of War, .... 


Drafted Men 
and Substi- 














tutes . . 


3 yrs. 


48,038 


100 


4,803,800 






Volunteers 


I yr. 


191,936 


100 


19,193,600 






" . . 


2 vrs. 


10,606 


200 


2,121,200 


' 63,219,100 




'* 


3 yrs. 


i3.),r,Si 


300 


41,904,300 




Total .... 




1,722,690 




#300,223,500 


#300,223,500 



MISCELLANEOUS. 325 

CHARITIES OF THE WAR. 

The data necessary for making out a tabular statement of 
these, are not of equal value in point of precision, in all de- 
partments of the inquiry. Only the charitable giving, which 
was public and in organized methods, can even be approxi- 
mately estimated. The reports of Colonel Lockwood L. 
Doty, Chief of the Bureau of Military Statistics for the 
State of New York, have been made the basis of estimating 
what was given in the form of benevolent contributions, 
while in other cases, such as the receipts of charitable agen- 
cies, their own returns afford the necessary information. 

Contributions of the Eastern and Atlantic States 
for the promotion of enlistments, and the relief 
of drafted men ...... $15,000,000 

Contributions of the Western and Central States 

for the same purpose 13,000,000 

$28,000,000 



Total amount given in aid of the families of Volunteers, includ- 
ing what was contributed by societies, individuals, etc. . . $4,500,000 

United States Sanitary Commission, organized, June, 1861, 
President, Rev. H. W. Bellows, D. D., of New York, cash 
received up to January i, 1865 3,471.000 

Cash received from January i, 1865, to close of war . . 500,000 

Value of supplies received 9,000,000 

Total $12,971,000 

Received by branches of this Commission, which had an inde- 
pendent treasury, and expended in part their own income . 1,000,000 

Estimated amount, in money and supplies, sent to the Army be- 
fore the Commission was organized, and thereafter through 
independent Aid Societies 5,000,000 

Collections of the Western Sanitary Commission, in money and 
stores, including proceeds of Mississippi Valley Fair . . 2,800,000 

Receipts of the Illinois Commissioner-general, appointed to col- 
lect money and stores from the people of the State . . 500,000 

Receipts of Iowa Sanitary Commission, up to the period of its 
incorporation with Sanitary, and Western Sanitary Commis- 
sions 175,000 



326 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Collections of Indiana Sanitary Commission, in money and sup- 
plies, from 1861 to 1S65 ....;... $534,000 

Collections of the Philadelphia Ladies' Aid, money and stores . 320,000 

Collections of the Ladies' Union Aid Society of St. Louis, 

money and stores ......... 150,000 

Collections of Ladies' Union Relief Association of Baltimore, 

money and stores ......... 60,000 

Collections of four similar Societies in Baltimore . . . 30,000 

Receipts of the New England Soldiers' Relief Association of 

New York — Money 40,000 

Supplies ........ 200,000 

Receipts of Soldiers' Rest, New York, and such portion of the 
State Soldiers' Depot, due to private bounty .... 25,000 

Receipts of the Pennsylvania Relief Association of Philadelphia, 

Cash, $12,000 ; Supplies, $37,000 ; total .... 49,000 

Receipts of the Rose Hill Ladies' Soldiers' Relief Association of 

New York, money and stores 25,000 

Value of contributions, in money and stores, made casually by 
visitors to the 233 Government Hospitals established in dif- 
ferent parts of the country (estimate) ..... 2,225,000 

United States Christian Commission, organized in November, 
1861, George H. Stuart, of Philadelphia, President, received 
in cash and supplies ........ 4,530,000 

Value of Tracts, Testaments, and general Religious Publications 
distributed in Army and Navy, by the Tract, and Bible, and 
other kindred Societies ........ 300,000 

Value of Railroad, Express, and Telegraph facilities given to 
Commissions, Societies, etc., exclusive of those reported by 
latter 1,300,000 

Collections of New England Freedmen's Aid Society, money 

and stores .......... i26,oco 

Collections of National Freedmen's Relief Association, New 

York, money and stores ........ 400,000 

Receipts of the Pennsylvania Freedmen's Relief Association . 61,000 

Receipts of the Orthodox Friend Association of Philadelphia, 

(Freedmen's Relief), exclusive of Foreign contributions . 100,000 

Receipts of the Hicksite Friends' Association of Philadelphia 12,000 

Receipts of the North Western Freedmen's Aid Society of 

Chicago 140,000 

Amounts raised iy New York and Philadelphia for recruiting 

colored regiments ......... 50,000 

Amount raised in New York for relief of colored victims of riots 

of July, 1863 . 41,000 



I 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



327 



Amount raised for benefit of members of Fire Department, Po- 
lice Force, and National Guard, injured in the riot . 

Collections of various International Relief Committees in behalf 
of distressed operatives of Great Britain . . . . 

Collections made in New England in behalf of East Tenneseeans, 
Edward Everett, Chairman of Committee . . . 

Collections of Pennsylvania Relief Association for East Ten- 
nessee 

Collections of American Union Commission, cash and clothing 

Collections of New England Refugees' Aid Society . 

Fund collected in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, for relief 
of people of Savannah, in January and February, 1865 . 

Fund collected in Philadelphia for relief of people in Chambers- 
burg in 1864 .......... 

Fund collected in Baltimore for the same ..... 

Volunteer Refreshment Saloon in Philadelphia, cash and sup- 
plies 

Cooper-shop Refreshment Saloon in Philadelphia, cash and 
supplies ........... 

Citizen's Union Volunteer Hospital Association of Philadelphia, 
cash and supplies 

Union Relief Association, Baltimore, cash and supplies 

Pittsburg Subsistence Committee 

Amount spent by Fire Companies of Philadelphia, and by the 
Ladies' Transit Aid Association in conveyance of wounded 
from the boats to the hospitals 

Amount spent, or received in provisions for the Army and Navy 
Thanksgiving Dinner of 1864 ...... 

Spent in previous Festival Dinners for Army and Navy 

Proceeds of National Sailors' Fair in Boston, November, 1864 

Receipts of Patriot's Orphans' Home at Flushing, N. Y. 

Donation of Pennsylvania R. R. Co., for maintenance of Educa 
tion of Soldiers' Orphans ..... 

Other donations to same ...... 

Received by "Northern Home for Friendless Children," 
delphia, for support to Soldiers' Orphans 

Receipts of other Orphan Homes .... 

Receipts of Milwaukee Fair, June and July, 1865, for Asylum for 
disabled Wisconsin Soldiers .... 

Rosevelt Estate Endowment for Soldiers' Home 

Scholarships for Soldiers and their Children in Colleges and 
Academies .....••• 

Value of Steamship presented Government by Corneliu 
derbilt 



Phi 



Van 



$5 5. coo 

347,000 

102,000 

30,000 
70,000 
25,000 

100,000 

35,000 
3,000 

117,000 

78,000 

185,000 
180,000 
45,000 

28,000 

300,000 

100,000 

247,000 

65,000 

50,000 
20,000 

10,000 
20,000 

1 10,000 
1,000,000 

75,000 

800,000 



32S THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Commissions returned Government by W. H. As- 

pinwall $25,000 

Salary of Solicitor-general Whitney, not drawn . 20,000 



45>ooo 

Amount spent by Miss Clara Barton in aiding soldiers, and in 

keeping a list of missing men ....... 10,000 

Amount spent in entertaining soldiers in 1865, on their way 

home (exclusive of Sanitary Commission Disbursements) 20,000 

Amount presented to General Anderson, Meade, Captain Wor- 
den, and others, $70,000 ; raised for family of General Birney, 
$50,000 ; presented to Admiral Farragut, $50,000 ; General 
Grant, $50,000 ; raised for officers and men of " Kearsarge," 
$25,000 ; for General Sedgwick's statue, $20,000 ; and other 
monuments, etc., $35,000 ........ 300,000 



Grand Total $69,696,000 

These almost seventy millions represent the free-will of- 
ferings of the American people during the war, and grand 
as this sum is, does not include what was raised by taxation 
for bounties, and for relief of soldiers' families. This splen- 
did exhibit stands as a memorial of the self-sacrifice, devo- 
tion, and intelligent patriotism of the people. 

MILITARY POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Loyal States (excepting California and Oregon) . . . 4,285,105 

Western Virginia .......... 66,000 

Colorado, Dakotah and Nebraska Territories .... 30,065 

District of Columbia '2,797 

Total military population furnishing Volunteers . . . 4)393,967 

California and Oregon . 185,756 

Nevada, New Mexico, and Washington Territories . 46,149 

Loyal military population of the Pacific and vicinity . . . 231,905 
Military population of the insurgent States .... 998,193 

Total military population of the United States . . . 5,624,055 

This estimate, of course, included the very large number 
exempt from enrollment. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 329 

The total white male population between 20 and 45 years, 
neither exempt from military duty, nor serving May i, 1865, 
was by enrollment about 2,254,000, which would seem to 
indicate that rather more than one half of that number was 
exempt, although of military age. 

INCREASE OF MILITARY POPULATION.^ 




1 860- 1. 


1 86 1-2. 


1862-3. 


1863-4. 


1864-5. 


Number attaining age of 18 
Number attaining age of 45 
Deaths in military popula- 
tion not in the army . . 

Natural increase during the 
year 

Increase by immigration 
during the year . . 

Total increase of military 
population 


215,020 
98,928 

37,676 


212,630 
95,600 

35,518 


217,600 
95,560 

33,712 


226,740 
94,930 

32,955 

98,855 
56,518 


237,710 
95.170 

33,230 


78,416 
46,092 


81,512 
31,819 


88,328 
32,380 


109,310 
62,663 

171,973 


124,508 


113,391 


120,708 


155,373 


This estimate takes account only of those arriving in the 
country by regular immigration. There is abundant proof 
that many volunteers from the Continent of Europe and 
the British Provinces, animated by the loftiest sympathies 
with us in our struggle to maintain our government and 
Republican institutions against those who were aiming to 
destroy them, came to our support. They served in the 
Union armies as privates and officers, though to what ex- 
tent there are no statistics to show. 

1 Compiled from the elaborate volume of " Statistics," published by the U. 
S. Sanitary Commission. 



330 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF MEN CALLED FOR. 



Date of Call. 



April 15, 1861 . . 
May and July, 1861 
May and June, 1862 
July 2, 1862 . . . 
August 4, 1862 . . 
June 15, 1863 . . 
October 17, 1863 . 
February i, 1864 . 
March 14, 1864 . . 
April 23, 1864 . . 
July 18, 1864 . . 
December 19, 1864 

Total . . . 



Number 
called for. 



75,000 
582,748 

300,000 
300,000 
100,000 
300,000 
200,000 
200,000 
85,000 
500,000 
300,000 



2,942.748 



Periods of 


Numters 


Service. 


obtained. 


3 months. 


93, ceo 


3 years. 


714.231 


3 months. 


15.007 


3 years. 


451.958 


9 months. 


87,588 


6 months. 


16,361 


3 years. ) 
3 years, j 


374,?o7 


3 years. 


284,821 


ICO days. 


83.652 


I, 2, & 3 yrs. 


384,882 


I, 2, & 3 yrs. 


204,568 




2,690,401 



The population of the twenty-three loyal States, which 
during the war constituted the United States, was 22,- 
046,472. This includes Missouri, Kentucky, and Mary- 
land, which furnished soldiers for the armies on both sides, 
and which had a population of 3,025,745 ; and also Califor- 
nia and Oregon, on the Pacific, which, because of their dis- 
tance from the scene of conflict, contributed comparatively 
but few men, leaving the population from which the soldiers 
were mainly taken at 18,588,268. This makes the number 
of men obtained for the service of the government equal to 
fourteen and a half per cent, of the whole population. 



TOTAL NUMBER OF ENLISTMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

2,268,743 
148,376 
104,674 

46,594 
63.322 



Enlistments of white soldiers, exclusive of Veteran Volunteers 

Enlistments of Veteran Volunteers 

Enlistments in Navy and Marine Corps .... 

Enlistments of Colored Troops ...... 

Enlistments of unknown and uncertain character . 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Credits allowed by adjustments .... 
Number of drafted men who paid commutation 



35.290 
86,724 



Grand total of enlistment table .... 2,753,723 
ENLISTMENTS AND DISCHARGES DURING EACH YEAR OF THE WAR. 





Enlistments. 


Discharges. 




Total. 


From States 
named above. 


Returned 
Home. 


Died in Ser- 
vice. 


Before July, 1862 . . 


822,500 


8l0:000 


207,000 


35,000 


1862-3. . . . 


527,500 


517,000 


271,000 


74,000 


1863-4. . . . 


637,000 


639,000 


432,000 


68,000 


After July ist, 1864 . 


430,000 


430,000 


358,000 


62,000 




2,417,000 


2,396,000 


1,268,000 


239,000 



For the end of the war, May i, 1865, the Secretary of 
War reported : — 

Serving in the Volunteer Army 1,034,000 

Serving in the Regular Army . 22,000 



. 1,056,000 
120,000 



936,000 



Total number in service, about 
Number of Colored Troops not far from .... 

Total number of White Troops serving 

AGES OF THOSE IN MILITARY SERVICE. 

There were of the age of 18 .... 13.27 per cent. 

There were under the age of 21 . . . . 29.52 " 

" 25 . . . . 58-34 " 

" 30 . . . . 76.57 



332 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



NUMBER DISCHARGED FOR DISABILITY, 

According to Surgeon-general's Rolls. 

Enlisted men of Regular Army 6,541 

Enlisted men of Volunteer Army 269,197 

Enlisted men of Colored Troops 9,807 

Total 285,545 

STRENGTH OF THE ARMY AT DIFFERENT DATES. 
Regulars, including Officers and Men. 





Present. 


Absent. 


Aggiegate. 


January i, 1861 .... 


14,663 


1,704 


16,367 


January i, 1S62 .... 


19,871 


2,554 


22,425 


January i, 1863 .... 


19,169 


6,294 


25,463 


January i, 1864 .... 


17,237 


7,399 


24,636 


January i, 1865 .... 


14,661 


7,358 


32,019 


Average mean strength . . 


17,735 


5,194 


22,929 



The total number of deaths in the Regular Army being 
5,724, between the 15th of April, 1861, and the 30th of 
June, 1865, a period of four years, two months and a half, 
would give an annual average of 1,360 deaths, or an annual 
death-rate of 59 per 1,000 of strength, which, divided be- 
tween violent deaths, and those from disease, would give an 
annual ratio of 27 violent deaths, and 32 deaths from dis- 
ease, per 1,000 of strength. 




-^aWsdlyj.cBlinre.He'"'*'*' 



^a/^/^€^ /f^: 



i'^Reg'^Caim.Vols. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



333 



VOLUNTEERS, OFFICERS AND. MEN, EXCLUSIVE OF COLORED, .TROOPS. 





Present. 


Absent. 


Aggregate. 


July I, 1861 


169,480 


849 


170,329 


January i, 1862 .... 


507.333 


46,159 


553.492 


" I, 1S63 .... 


676,175 


212,859 


889,034 


" I, 1864 .... 


540,643 


237.650 


778,293 


" I, 1S65 .... 


523.536 


309.395 


832,931 


March 31, 1S65 .... 


554.720 


294,351 


849,071 


Average mean strength . . 


544.704 


196.803 


741,507 



The total number of deaths of this class was 265,265, 
deducting 4,553 vi^ho died subsequent to June 30, 1865, and 
it leaves a total of 260,712 deaths from the outbreak of 
the war to that time, a ratio of 65,178 deaths annually, 
or 88 per 1,000 of average mean strength. Subdividing 
this ratio between violent deaths, and deaths from disease, 
in accordance to the proportion of these classes already in- 
dicated, and we shall have an annual ratio of 33 violent 
deaths, and 55 deaths from disease per 1,000 of average 
mean strength. 

COLORED TROOPS. 



Total number of colored enlistments 
Total number of deaths 



178,895 
33.380 



This makes an annual death rate of 148 per 1,000 of aver- 
age mean strength, or subdivided in accordance with the 
ratio of violent to other deaths already indicated for this 
class, we shall have an annual ratio of 15 violent deaths 
and 133 deaths from disease per 1,000 of strength. 
22 



334 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



TOTAL NUMBER OF DEATHS IN MILITARY SERVICE, 
According to the Surgeon-general's Returns. 





Regulars. 


White 
Volunteers. 


Colored 
Volunteers. 


Total. 


Killed in battle 

Died of wounds and injuries . 
Suicide, homicide and execution 

Died of disease 

Unknown causes 


1,335 

1,174 

27 

3-009 
159 


41.369 
46,271 

442 

153.995 
23,188 


1,514 
1,760 

57 
29,212 

837 


44,238 

49,205 

526 

186,216 

24,184 


Total 


5.724 


265,265 


33.380 


304,369 



Disease thus carried off twice as many victims as violence ; 
or in other words, of every three deaths from known causes, 
but one was due to violence. This ratio, however, is a very 
favorable one in a sanitary historical point of view. The 
black troops lost almost three times as heavily by disease as 
the whites ; the white regulars somewhat less so than the 
white volunteers. 

According to the elaborate tables of the Surgeon-general, 
among the leading causes of mortality is placed, first, the 
several forms of dysentery, etc., next come the various types 
of camp-fever, reported under such heads as typhoid, typhus, 
remittent, common continued, and typho-malarial fevers. 
The next most important cause of death was pneumonia, 
following which are ranged small-pox, varioloid, measles, 
and consummation. 

The largest number of discharges for disability was 
among the white troops, in consequence of consumption ; 
among the colored troops, in consequence of rheumatism. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



335 



The number of rebel troops finally surrendered, was in 
round numbers 175,000. The number of prisoners in the 
hands of the National authorities during the last year of 
the war was 98,802. These were all sent to their homes by 
the United States. The theatre of the war was in the re- 
bellious States. Their cities were besieged and captured, 
their territory desolated, and their people suffered all the 
evils of war at their own homes. 

These appalling statistics, so far as we can really appre- 
ciate them, show us at what cost of human life the rebellion 
was put down. It seems sad enough to contemplate this 
vast number taken from the ranks of the strong, the young, 
those whose life was most valuable, and to the industries of 
the country most essential. Yet this is but the unchanged 
tale of woe that every war brings to the ears of mankind. 

Grouping witli these figures which represent our losses 
during our great struggle those that show the expense in 
men and money of other prominent wars, we can better 
realize what warfare has cost the world. 



Estimated. 


Killed. 


Cost. 


The Crimean War 

The Italian War 




785,000 

45,000 

3,000 

281,000 

519,000 

45,000 

65,000 


$1,700,000,000 

300,000,000 

36,000,000 

3,700,000,000 

3,750,000,000 

350,000,000 

200,000,000 


The Danish War 

The American War, North . . . 

" " South . . . 

The Austro-Prussian War . . . 

Various other Wars 


Total for 14 years 


1,743,000 


$10,036,000,000 



ro6 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



XVI. 




"OUR ROLL OF HONOR." 

Major-ge7ierals. 

Joseph Lanman, U. S. N. Appointed Midshipman from the 
State, January i, 1825 ; Passed Midshipman June 4, 183 1 ; com- 
missioned Lieutenant March 3, 1835 ; Commander September 
14, 1855 ; Captain July 16, 1862 ; Commodore August 29, 1862 ; 
commissioned Rear-admiral December 8, 1867. 



Brigadier-generals. 

Daniel Tyler, First Regiment Infantry, Colonel April 13, 
1S61. Promoted Brigadier-general March 13, 1862. Resigned. 

Edward Harland, Third Regiment Infantry, Captain May 
II, 1861. Sixth Regiment Infantry, Lieutenant-colonel August 
30, 1861 ; Eighth Regiment Infantry, Colonel October 5, 1861 ; 
promoted Brigadier-general November 29, 1862. Resigned June 
20, 1865. 

Henry W. Birge (by brevet Major-general), Fourth Regiment 
Infantry (changed to First Heavy Artillery); Major May 23, 
1861 ; Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, Colonel November 2, 
1861 ; promoted Brigadier-general September 19, 1863 ; appointed 
while in the service. Brevet Major-general February 26, 1865 ; 
Resigned October 18, 1865. 



OUR ROLL OF HONOR.' 



337 



ColoJiels. 

William G. Ely (by brevet Brigadier-general), Brigade Com- 
missary (rank of Captain) May 28, 1861, and Vol. A. D. C. Staff 
Colonel E. D. Keyes, Battle Bull Run ; Sixth Regiment Infantry, 
Lieutenant-colonel September 4, 1861 ; Eighteenth Regiment 
Infantry, Colonel July 24, 1862 ; Brevet Brigadier-general March 
12, 1865. Resigned September 18, 1864. 

John E. Ward, Third Regiment Infantr\', First Lieutenant 
May, i86r; Eighth Regiment Infantry, Captain, September 21, 
1861 ; Major, March 28, 1862 ; Lieutenant-colonel, December 
23, 1862 ; Colonel, April 2, 1863. Mustered out March 14, 
1865. 

Alfred P. Rockwell (by brevet Brigadier-general), First 
Light Battery, Captain January 21, 1862; Sixth Regiment In- 
fantry, Colonel June ir, 1864; appointed Brevet Brigadier-gene- 
ral Mzrch 13, 1865. Honorably discharged February 9, 1865. 

Hiram B. Crosby, Twenty-first Regiment Infantry, Adjutant 
August 22, 1862; Major September 3, 1862 ; Lieutenant-colonel 
June 8, 1864 ; Colonel June 27, 1864. Honorably discharged 
September 14, 1864. 

Henry Case (by brevet Brigadier-general), Fourteenth Regi- 
ment Infantry, Illinois, First Lieutenant May 3, 1861 ; promoted 
Captain November 25, 186 r ; Seventh Regiment Cavalry, Major 
February i, 1862. Resigned April 24,1862. One Hundred and 
Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, Lieutenant-colonel September 
8, 1862 ; promoted Colonel May 8, 1863 ; appointed Brevet 
Brigadier-general {\<ih.\\Q. in service) March 16, 1865. Mustered 
out June 8, 1865. 

Lieutenant-colonels. 

David Young, Second Regiment Infantry, Lieutenant-colonel 
May 7, 186 1. Honorably discharged August 7, 1861. 

Joseph Selden, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Captain 
September 6, 1862 ; Lieutenant-colonel September 22, 1862. 
Honorably discharged August 17, 1863. 

Charles Farnsworth, First Regiment Cavalry, Adjutant 
October ly, 1861 ; Captain November 26, 1861 ; Major March 



338 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



21, 1S63 ; Lieutenant-colonel January 18, 1864. Resigned May 
17, 1864. 

Henry Peale, Second Regiment Infantry, Captain May 7, 

186 1 ; Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Captain August 8, 1862 ; 
Major May 20, 1863 ; Lieutenant-colonel September 24, 1864. 
Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

David Torrance, Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, Captain 
January 6, 1864; Major July 21, 1864; Lieutenant-colonel No- 
vember 24, 1864. Mustered out October 24, 1865. 

Calvin Goddard, Twelfth Regiment Infantry, Ohio, commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant and A. D. C. staff of General Rosecrans 
January 9, 1862 ; appointed A. D. C. by President Lincoln on 
staff of Major-general Rosecrans (with rank of Major) Novem- 
ber 14, 1862 ; appointed A. A. G. (with rank of Lieutenant- 
colonel) January 23, 1863. Resigned October, 1863. 

Majors. 

Thomas Maguire, Second Regiment Heavy Artillery, N. Y., 
Captain November i, 1861 ; Major June 14, 1862. Discharged 
August 24, 1863. Re-commissioned. 

James H. Coit (by brevet Brigadier-general), Fourteenth Reg- 
iment, First Lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; Captain December 20, 

1862 ; Major October 3, 1862 ; appointed Brevet Lieutenant- 
colonel, Brevet Colonel, Brevet Brigadier-general March 13, 
1865. Resigned September 6, 1864. 

Frank S. Bond, Tenth Regiment Infantry, First Lieutenant 
March 29, 1862. Resigned February 25, 1863 ; Major and A. 
D. C. staff General Rosecrans, March 11, 1863. Resigned 
December 3, 1864. 

John B. Dennis (by brevet Brigadier-general), Seventh Regi- 
ment Infantry, Captain August 26, 1861 ; Major and Paymaster, 
U. S. V. January 15, 1865 ; appointed Bra'et Brigadier-gefierai 
March 13, 1865. Mustered out July 31, 1866. 

William J. Ross, Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, Captain 
February 3, 1864 ; Major May 12, 1865. Mustered out October 
25, 1865. 



"OUR ROLL OF HONOR." 339 

D. R. BusHNELL, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, III. Killed 
at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Frank H. Arms, commissioned Acting Assistant Paymaster, 
U. S. N., April 14, 1864, U. S. Steamer Memphis ; promoted 
Paymaster (with rank of Major) October 6, 187 1. Still in service. 

Quartermasters. 

Joseph B. Bromley, Thirteenth Regiment Infiintry, Quarter- 
master November 12, 1861. Honorably discharged December 
29, 1863. 

De Laroo Wilson, Thirtieth Regiment Infantry, Quarter- 
master April 14, 1864. Mustered out November 7, 1865. 

Benjamin F. Tracy, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Quar- 
termaster September i, 1862. Honorably discharged August 
17, 1863. 

I. V. B. Williams, Sixth Regiment Infantry, Quartermaster 
September 2, 1861. Resigned May ir, 1863. 

Adjutants. 

George W. Whittlesey, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant July 17, 1862 ; promoted Adjutant December 31, 
1862. Honorably discharged October 9, 1863. 

Enoch B. Culver, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Adjutant 
May 20, 1863. Mortally wounded in battle of Piedmont, June 5, 
1864. Died June 6, 1864. 

Stephen B. Meech, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Adjutant 
August 30, 1862. Honorably discharged August 17, 1863. 

James L. Richardson, First Regiment Cavalry, Adjutant De- 
cember 31, 1864. Mustered out August 2, 1865. 

Joseph H. Jewett, Eighth Regiment Infantry, First Lieutenant 
April I, 1865 ; appointed Acting Assistant Adjutant-general on 
staff of Brigadier-general J. C. Briscoe, July i, 1865. Mustered 
out as Adjutant December 12, 1865. 

George W. Brady, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Adjutant 
October 17, 1864. Mustered out June 26, 1865. 

Amos R. Ladd, Seventy-third Regiment U. S. C. T., First 



340 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Lieutenant December 14, 1863 ; promoted Adjutant 1863. Mus- 
tered out June, 1866. 

Surgeons. 

Charles M. Carleton, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Au- 
gust 6, 1862. Honorably discharged April 17, 1863. 

Nathan A. Fisher, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, March 7, 
863. Declined commission. 

Dewitt C. Lathrop, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Assistant 
Surgeon September 21, 1861. Died April 13, 1862. 

J.Hamilton Lee, Twent3'-first Regiment Infantry April 21, 
1863. Honorably discharged October 31, 1864. 

Elisha Phinney, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Assistant 
Surgeon November i, 1862. Honorably discharged August 17, 
1863. 

Edward Bentley, First Regiment Artillery, Assistant Sur- 
geon June 5, 1861 ; promoted Brigade Surgeon October 4, 
1861. 

C. B. Webster, Acting Assistant Surgeon U. S. A. December, 
1862 ; resigned April, 1864; recommissioned A. A. Surgeon U. 
S. A. June, 1864. Resigned September, 1865. 

John O. Bronson (by brevet Lieutenant-colonel), Surgeon of 
Volunteers November 7, 1862, District of California, subse- 
quently Chief Medical Officer of Northern District of the South. 
Mustered out November 27, 1865. 

Captains. 

Frank S. Chester, Second Regiment Infantr}', Captain May 
7, 1861. . Honorably discharged August 7, 186 1. 

Bela P, Learned (by brevet Major), First Regiment Artillery ; 
Second Lieutenant February 21, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant 
May 26, .1862 ; promoted Captain December 29, 1864 ; appointed 
Brevet Major while in service April 9, 1865. Mustered out Sep- 
tember 25, 1865. 

Oscar A. DENN-is,'First Regiment Artillery, Captain May 11, 
1861. Resigned December 11, 1861. 

Joab B. Rogers, First Regiment Cavalry, Second Lieutenant 



" OUR ROLL OF HONOR." 34I 

December t, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant March 25, 1863 ; 
promoted Captain October 12, 1863. Honorably discharged 
February 2, 1865. 

Henry T. Phillips, First Regiment Cavalry, Second Lieu- 
tenant January 18, 1863 ; First Lieutenant May 5, 1864 ; pro- 
moted Captain September 24, 1864. Mustered out August 2, 
1865. 

John H. Piatt (by brevet Major), First Regiment Cavalry, 
Ohio, Adjutant October 2, 186 1 ; appointed Captain U. S. V. 
and A. D. C. staff General Pope July, 1862 ; Captain Thirty-first 
Regiment Infantry, U. S. A., September, 1866 ; appointed Brevet 
Afa/'or July, 1866. Resigned May, 1869. 

Theodore Burdick, Seventh Regiment Infantry, First Lieu- 
tenant September 2, 1861 ; promoted Captain July i, 1862. 
Killed in action at Fort Wagner July 11, 1863. 

John McCall, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieutenant 
March 28, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant August i, 1862 ; 
promoted Captain December 23, 1862. Killed in action at Fort 
Darling May 16, 1864. 

James R. Moore, Eighth Regiment Infantry, First Lieutenant 
September 21, 186 1 ; promoted Captain March 28, 1862. Hon- 
orably discharged May 30, 1865. 

Charles M. Coit (by brevet Lieutenant-colonel), Eighth Reg- 
iment Infantry, Adjutant September 18. 1861 ; promoted Captain 
March 27, 1862 ; declined commission as Major October 12, 
1864; appointed Brevet Lieutenant-eolonel March 13, 1865. 
Honorably discharged May 30, 1865. 

Horace P. Gates, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Adjutant March 
27, 1862 ; appointed Assistant Adjutant-general U. S. Vols. May 
26, 1863. Resigned December 19, 1865. 

Addis E. Payne, Ninth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieutenant 
September 15, 1861 ; promoted First Lieutenant September 15, 
1862 ; promoted Captain November 21, 1863. Mustered out Oc- 
tober 26. 1864. 

Silas VV. Sawyer, Ninth Regiment Infantry, Captain Septem- 
ber 10, 1 86 1. Resigned February 16, 1864. 



342 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Joseph H. Nickerson, Eleventh Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant October 27, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant October 
30, 1862 ; promoted Captain August 6, 1863. Discharged Oc- 
tober 12, 1864. 

Albert E. Daniels, Eleventh Regiment Infantry, Captain 
October i, 1861. Resigned July 27, 1862. 

James E. Fuller, Eleventh Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant October 27, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant April i, 

1864. Mustered out November II, 1864. Appointed Assistant 
Quartermaster (rank of Captain) December 8, 1864. Resigned 
July 6, 1865. 

Edward K. Abbott, Twelfth Regiment Infantry, Captain No- 
vember 20, 1861. Resigned August 25, 1862. 

Alfred Mitchell, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, Captain 
February 14, 1862 ; promoted Major May 12, 1863 (declined ap- 
pointment). Resigned March 11, 1864. 

Robert A. Ripley, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, First Lieu- 
tenant December 31, 1862 ; promoted Captain October 15, 1864 ; 
Mustered out January 6, 1865. Term expired. 

James J. McCord, Second Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant May 7, 186 [ ; Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, C. V. ; com- 
missioned Captain January 29, 1862 ; mustered out January 6, 

1865. Term expired. 

William H. Tubes (by brevet Major), Fourteenth Regiment 
Infantry, Captain June 15, 1862; resigned February 20, 1863; 
appointed Captain of C. S. U. V., January 28, 1865, A. D. C. staff 
of General Stagg ; appointed Brevet Major K-^xW 17, 1865. Mus- 
tered out July 10, 1866. 

James R. Nickels, Fourteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant December 20, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant Jan- 
uary 19, 1863 ; promoted Captain November 5, 1863. Died of 
wounds February 20, 1865. 

Morton F, Hale, Fourteenth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant June 15, 1862. Discharged for promotion December 
28, 1862. Captain and C. S. U. S. V. 

Henry P. Goddard, Second Regiment Cavalry N. Y., 



" OUR ROLL OF HONOR." 343 

Second Lieutenant May 7, 1862. Discharged May 26, 1862 ; 
Fourteenth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieutenant September 17, 

1863 ; promoted First Lieutenant December 20, 1862 ; promoted 
Captain March 19, 1864. Resigned April 26, 1864. 

Frederick A. Palmer, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; promoted Captain December 26, 

1862. Discharged May 28, 1864. 

Samuel R. Knapp, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Captain 
August 8, 1862. Resigned June 6, 1863. 

Isaac W. Hakes, Jr., Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Captain 
August 8, 1862. Resigned December 26, 1862. 

Isaac H. Bromley, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, commis- 
sioned Captain August 8, 1862. Honorably discharged March 
31, 1863. 

Henry C. Davis, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, commis- 
sioned Captain August 8, 1862. Honorably discharged April 
25, 1865. 

John E. Woodward, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; promoted Captain October 10, 

1863. Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

DwiGHT W. Hakes (by brevet Major), Eighteenth Regiment 
Infantry, Quartermaster August 4, 1862 ; promoted Captain and 
C. S. U. S. V. April 13, 1865 ; appointed Brevet Major June 20, 
1865. Honorably discharged June 20, 1865. 

Samuel T. C. Merwin, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; promoted Captain June 22, 1865. 
Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Joseph P. Rockwell, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant December 22, 1862 : promoted Adjutant June 5, 

1864 ; appointed Captain October 17, 1864. Mustered out June 
27, 1865. 

John Lilley, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First Lieuten- 
ant June 5, 1864; promoted Captain October 17, 1864. Mus- 
tered out June 27, 1865. 

Martin V. B. Tiffany, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First 



344 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Lieutenant October 19, 1863 ; promoted Captain August 12, 
1864. Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

John H. Morrison, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First Lieu- 
tenant August 8, 1862 ; promoted Captain October 19, 1863. 
Dismissed September i, 1864. 

Charles J. Arms, Twentieth Regiment Lifantry, Adjutant 
August 20, 1862 ; promoted Captain November 18, 1862. Re- 
signed May 15, 1863, to take staff appointment Sixteenth Reg- 
iment Infantry; First Lieutenant May 30, 1863, A. D. C. to 
General Harland. Mustered out June 24, 1865. 

Clarke Harrington, T\vent3'-sixth Regiment Infantry, com- 
missioned Captain September 6, 1862. Honorably discharged 
August 17, 1863. 

John L. Stanton, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, commis- 
sioned Captain September 6, 1862. Killed in action May 27, 

1863, at Port Hudson. 

LoREN A. Gallup, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant September 6, 1862 ; promoted Captain September 
22, 1862. Honorably discharged August 17, 1863. 

Samuel P. Huntoon, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantr3% Cap- 
tain September 6, 1862. Honorably discharged August 17, 
1863. 

J. Lewis Spalding, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Massachu- 
setts, Captain August 20, 186 1 ; resigned October 20, 1862 ; 
appointed Adjutant Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry C. V. Jan- 
uary 24, 1864 ; mustered out October 24, 1865 ; commissioned 
Second Lieutenant First Regiment U. S. A. April 6, 1866 ; pro- 
moted First Lieutenant August 9, 1866. Resigned January i, 
1871. 

George Greenman, Thirtieth Regiment Infantry, First Lieu- 
tenant April 7, 1864; appointed Adjutant April 7, 1S64 ; pro- 
moted Captain Thirty-first Regiment U. S. C. T. January 31, 

1864. Mustered out November 7, 1865. 

B. B. Blackman, Forty-third Regiment Infantry U. S. Colored 
Troops, Captain March 8, 1864. Honorably discharged (term 
expired) November 30, 1865. 



OUR ROLL OF HONOR. 



345 



Jesse D. Wilkinson, Forty-third Regiment U. S. Colored 
Troops, commissioned Captain March 8, 1864. Honorably 
discharged (term exj^ired) November 30, 1865. 

George R. Case, First Regiment Infantry Corps d'Afrique, 
Louisiana, First Lieutenant September 27, 1862 ; promoted 
Captain March 5, 1863. Honorably discharged February 11, 
1864. 

William T. Lusk, Seventy-ninth Regiment Infantry, New 
York, Second Lieutenant August 3, 1861 ; promoted Captain 
January 19, 1862 ; resigned February 28, 1863 ; appointed A. A. 
G. staff General Daniel Tyler (rank of Captain) June 26, 1863. 
Resigned October, 1863. 

Charles H. Rockwell, Assistant Quartermaster U. S. V. 
(rank of Captain). Mustered out. 

William A. Berry, Second Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant May 7, 1861. Honorably discharged August 7, 186 1. 
Second Regiment New York Artillery, First Lieutenant No- 
vember I, 1861 ; promoted Captain June 14, 1862. Killed in 
action near Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Warrington D. Roath, commissioned Acting-Master U. S. 
N. May, 1S61 ; promoted Volunteer Lieutenant July 11, 1863. 
Resigned March 7, 1865. 

Robert B. Smith, commissioned Volunteer Lieutenant U. S. 
N. December 3, 1863. Honorably discharged November, 1865. 

Francis S. Wells, commissioned Acting Volunteer Lieutenant 
U. S. N. May 7, 1863. Honorably discharged 1865. 

I^/rsf Lieutenants. 

Thomas Scott, Second Regiment Infantry, May 7, 1861. 
Honorably discharged August 7, 1861. Second Regiment Artil- 
lery, N. Y., Second Lieutenant November i, 1861 ; promoted 
First Lieutenant June 14, 1862. Mustered out (term expired) 
October 7, 1864. 

Charles W. Spalding, Third Regiment Infantry, May 11, 
1861. Resigned May 20, 186 1. 

Frank J. Jones, First Regiment Artillery, Second Lieu- 



346 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



tenant February 28, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant January 
I, 1863. Resigned July 27, 1863. 

George W. Rogers, Second Regiment Infantry^ May 7, 186 1. 
Honorably discharged August 7, 186 1. 

Marvin Wait, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieutenant 
December 25, 1861 ; promoted First Lieutenant March 28, 1862. 
Killed in action September 17, 1862. 

Charles H. Carpenter, Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, 
First Lieutenant March 10, 1864. Mustered out October 24, 
1865. 

Charles A. Breed, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant September 21, 1861 ; promoted First Lieutenant March 
28, 1862. Died July 30, 1862. 

Samuel S. Foss, Eighth Regiment Infantry, First Lieutenant 
August 2, 1864. Mustered out January 27, 1865. 

William H. Peck, Eighth Regiment Infantry, First Lieuten- 
ant April I, 1865. Mustered out December 12, 1865. 

Alfred M. Goddard, Eighth Regiment Infantrj', First Lieu- 
tenant July 24, 1863, Aid-de-camp, staff of Brigadier-general 
Harland. Died of wounds May 9, 1864. 

George C. Ripley, Tenth Regiment Infantry. First Lieuten- 
ant Fourteenth Regiment December 22, 1863 ; transferred to 
Tenth Regiment, First Lieutenant January 19, 1863. 

Joseph H. Lawler, Ninth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant January 26, 1863 ; promoted First Lieutenant December 
5, 1864. Mustered out August 3, 1865. 

George H. Keables, Eleventh Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant November 30, 1864 ; promoted First Lieutenant Jan- 
uary 3, 1865. Honorably discharged May 4, 1865. 

John H. Norris, Eleventh Regiment Infantry, First Lieuten- 
ant October i, 1861. Resigned April 5, 1862. 

Henry A. White, Twelfth Regiment Infantry, First Lieuten- 
ant December 2, 1864. Commission revoked January 10, 1865. 

John C. Ap.bott, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant January 29, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant September 
r, 1863. Transferred to Signal Corps September 19, 1864. 



" OUR ROLL OF HONOR." 



347 



James S. Maples, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant September 6, 1862 ; resigned to accept promotion 
August II, 1863; First Lieutenant July 27, 1863. Commission 
revoked August 11, 1863. 

Edward W. Eells, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant September 22, 1862. Honorably discharged August 
17, 1863. 

Edward P. Rogers, Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant January 26, 1864. Resigned August 3, 1865. 

Albert Latham, Thirtieth Regiment Infantrv, Second Lieu- 
tenant April 20, 1864 ; promoted First Lieutenant January 31, 
1865. Mustered out November 7, 1865. 

James H. Kane, First Regiment Cavalry, First Lieutenant 
January 2, 1864. Mustered out August 2, 1865. 

Timothy W. Tracy, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantrv, First 
Lieutenant September 6, 1862. Honorably discharged August 
17, 1863. 

Chester W. Converse, Third Regiment Louisiana Native 
Guard, Second Lieutenant April 3, 1863 : promoted First Lieu- 
tenant December 23, 1863. Resigned and honorably discharged 
May 28, 1864. 

Peter L. Hyde, Twenty-sixth Infantry, Iowa, First Lieuten- 
ant September 30, 1862. Killed at Arkansas Post, Arkansas, 
January 11, 1863. 

Edwin T. Leach, Thirtieth Regiment Infantry, First Lieu- 
tenant March 12, 1864. Dismissed May 9, 1864. 

A. D wight McCall, Twelfth Regiment Infantry, First Lieu- 
tenant November 20, 1861. Mustered out (term expired) Novem- 
ber 21, 1864. 

William P. Miner, Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant January 30, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant Feb- 
ruary 20, 1863. Discharged July 16, 1864. 

Frederick E. Schalk, Fourteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant May 16, 1863 ; promoted First Lieutenant November 
5, 1863. Died of wounds May 4, 1864. 

William Carruthers, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 



348 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Lieutenant October 17, 1864 ; promoted First Lieutenant January 
7, 1865. Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Robert Kerr, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant June 5, 1864 ; promoted First Lieutenant June 22, 1865. 
Mustered out June 27, 1862. 

John A. Francis, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant January 
30, 1865. Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Henry F. Cowles, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant October 
10, 1863. Honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 

Adam H. Lindsley, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862. Honorably discharged April 17, 
1865. 

Christopher A. Brand. Twenty-first Regiment Infantry, 
Second Lieutenant October 12, 1862 : promoted First Lieutenant 
November 8. 1862. Resigned February 23, 1863. 

James Stanley, Twenty-first Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant August 3, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant February 

23, 1863. Honorably discharged September 20, 1864. 

Pliny Brewer, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant September 6, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant May 
27, 1863. Honorably discharged August 17, 1863. 

Thomas C. Lawler, Ninth Regiment Infantry, First lieu- 
tenant October 29, 1861. Resigned February 25, 1862. 

Luther M. Leonard, Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, First 
Lieutenant March 15, 1864, Mustered out October 25, 1865. 

William A. Aiken, commissioned Acting Assistant Paymas- 
ter U. S. A. August 10, 1 86 1. Honorably discharged to receive 
appointment as Quartermaster-general State Militia, July 10, 
1862. 

George W. Huntington, commissioned Acting Assistant Pay- 
master U. S. N. October, 1863. Honorably discharged Novem- 
ber, 1865. 

John W, Bentley, commissioned Acting Master U. S. N. May 

24, 1861. Died May 24, 1864. 



" OUR ROLL OF HONOR." 349 

Charles C. Adams, commissioned Acting Assistant Paymaster 
U. S. N. May 6, 1861. Resigned October i, 1865. 

Lewis G. Cook, commissioned Acting Master U, S. N. De- 
cember 19, 1861. Honorably discharged, 1865. 

Amos D. Allen, appointed Paymaster's Clerk U. S. N. Novem- 
ber 9, 1863 ; commissioned Acting Assistant Paymaster October 
21, 1864. Honorably discharged September 5, 1865. 

George E. Martin, appointed Paymaster's Clerk U. S. N. 
December 30, 1861 ; commissioned Acting Assistant Paymaster 
November, 1864. Honorably discharged August, 1865. Reat> 
pointed, and died August 16, 1867. 

Second Lieutenants. 

William W. Barnes, Third Regiment Infantry, May 11, 1861. 
Honorably discharged August 12, 1861. 

WiLLiA]\i P. Ford, First Regiment Cavalry, Second Lieutenant 
November 30, 1864. Mustered out August 2, 1865. 

James Bradley, First Regiment Cavalry, Second Lieutenant 
November 30, 1864. Mustered out August 2, 1865. 

Edward L. Tyler, First Regiment Artillery, Second Lieu- 
tenant March 29, 1862. Resigned for disability April 9, 1864. 

John H. Tingley, First Regiment Artillery, Second Lieu- 
tenant March i, 1862, and A. D. C on Staff General Dan Tyler. 
Resigned December 31, 1862. 

Charles A. Murray, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant January 30, 1865. Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Francis McKeag, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant December 22, 1862. Mustered out June 27, 1865. 

James D. Higgins, Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant August 8, 1862. Honorably discharged October 27, 
1864. 

Joseph D. Plunkett, Twenty-first Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant October 11, 1862. Discharged December 20, 1862. 

Isaac N. Leonard, Twenty-sixth Regiment, Second Lieutenant 
August II, 1863. Honorably discharged August 17, 1863. 
2.1 



3 so THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Hervey F. Jacobs, Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Second 
Lieutenant September 6, 1862. Died July 5, 1863. 

Edward P. Manning, Twenty-sixth Regiment, Second Lieu- 
tenant July 27, 1863. Died August 17, 1863. 

GoRHAM Dennis, Seventh Regiment Infantr}', Second Lieu- 
tenant August 30, 1861. Resigned January 3, 1862. 

Amos L. Keables, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant August I, 1862. Honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 

Charles Shepard, Eighth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant February i, 1862. Resigned February 14, 1863. 

Edmund Downing, Ninth Regiment Infantry, Second Lieu- 
tenant December 5, 1864. Mustered out August 3, 1865. 

T. Brennan, Second Regiment Heavy Artillery, New York, 
Second Lieutenant. 

James H. Nash, commissioned Acting Ensign U. S. N. Jan- 
uary 20, 1863. Honorably discharged, 1S65. 




•^■^ 








GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH 
SOLDIERS. 

Shcnutjig I\diik, Regiment, Date of Enlistment, Period of Service, and 

Date of Muster Out. 

Those whose names are marked with an asterisk re-enlisted as veterans in 1S64. 



Name and Rank. 



Abbott, E. Kempton.. 
Abljott, John C, 2 Lt. 

AcUsler, Adam 

Adams, Anthony 

Adams, George 

Adams, Lewis 

Adams, William 

Adams, William N. . . 

Alford, George 

Alger, Silas J 

Altdrich, Albert C. . . . 

Allen, Charles 

Allen, Daniel B 

Allen, James A 

Allen, Nelson R 

Allen, Raymond 

Allyn, William R 



Kegi- 




nient. 




I 


April 22, '61 


13 


Feb. 20, '62 


18 


July 15, '62 


18 


July 17, '62 


8 


Mch. 19, '64 


30 


Jan. 15, '64 


12 


Dec. 3, '6i 


18 


Aug. II, '62 


2 Art. 


Jan. 27, '64 


18 


Aug. 4, '62 


18 


Aug. 15, '62 


18 


Dec. 28, 64 


I Art. 


Tan. 17, '64 


3 


May II. '61 


18 


July 16, '63 


II 


Nov. 14, '61 


14 


July II, '62 



Remarks- 



Capt. 12. Res. Aug. 25, '62. 

Lt. Transf. to Signal Corps. 

Died Madisonville, 0( t. 5, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 

Deserted, March 27, '64. 

Deserted, Feb. 22, '62. 

Transf. V. R. C. 

Deserted May 9, '64. 

M. O. fune 2, '65. 

M. O. July 18, '65. 

M. O. July 27, '65. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

Sgt. 18. M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Hon. discharged, Nov. 13, '64. 

Died March 9, '63. 



352 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Aniesbury, Marvin H.* . . 
Anderson, Charles \V.. . . 
Anderson, James S.*. . 

Appleton, Henry 

Arms, Charles J., Adj . . . 
Armstrong, Harvey S. . . . 
Armstrong, Joseph C . . . . 

Arnold, Ludwig 

Ashley, Charles 

Atchison, Robert 

Avery, Alexander S., 6>/. 

Avery, Courtland C.,Cor/. 

Babcock, George W 

Bacon, Harrison E 

Bacon, Isaac I! 

Bacon, James M 

Bailey, Amos E 

Bailey, Joseph A 

Bailey, Levi H 

Baird, Thomas \V.,* Cor/>. 

Baker, Frederick W 

Baldwin, Thomas M 

Barber, Ezra N 

Barlow, James G 

Barlow, Otis W 

Barnes, Owen 

Barnes, Wm. W., 2 Jj. . . 

Barney, John 

Barrett, Joseph * 

Barry, James * 

Barstow, Charles S 

Bassett, Reuel H.* 

Beckwith, Charles H. . . . 

Beckwith, Henry M 

Beckwith, Herbert E. . . . 

Beckwith, John A 

Beckwith, William 

Beebe, J''aniel E 

Bemont, Nelson J 

Bennett, Elisha 

Bennett, John A 

Bennett, Steward C . . 

Benson, Ohqjh 

Bentley, iMhvin, A.Siiro- 

Bentley, John W '. . 

Bentley, Samuel 

Berg, August 

Berry, William A., 2 Z/. 



Regi- 

meiit. 



I Art 
18 

I Art 
18 
20 

3 
26 

3 

I Art. 
Cav. 

5 



Enlistment. 



14 
18 
21 

8 
1 1 
Cav. 

8 

5 
Cav. 
Cav. 



Cav. 



Feb. 26, '62 
Aug. 7, '62 
Mch. 20, '62 
July 17, '62 
A ug. 20, '62 
May 1 1, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
May II, '61 
Jan. 3, '65 
Dec. 8, '64 
July 22, '61 

Aug. 27, '62 
June 10, '62 
Aug. I, '62 
Aug. 31, '64 
Oct. I, '61 
Aug. 8, '64 
Dec. 15, '63 
Sept. 21, '61 
July 22, '61 
Jan. 12, '64 
Jan. 5, '64 
May 7, '61 
May 7, '6i 
May 7, '61 
Dec. 9, '64 
May II, '61 
Aug. 12, '62 
Mch. I, '62 
Dec. 22, '61 
Jan. 5, '64 
Oct. 30, '61 
May 7, '61 
Mch. 10, '62 
Oct. I, '61 

Oct. 5, '61 
Dec. 22, '63 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 6, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 18, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Jan. 20, '64 
May 23, '61 
Jan. II, '64 
Aug. 21, '62 
Feb. 2, '64 
May 7, ,61 



Remarks. 



M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

M. O. Tune 27, '65. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Lt. 16. M. O. Tui^e 24, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 12, "'61. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '62. 

M. O. Aug. 12, '61. 

Deserted July 6, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

Killed, Cedar Mt., Va., Aug. 

9, '62. 
Died June 23, '63. 
Discharged dis. Oct. 20, '62. 
M. O. May 23, '65. 
M. O.June 16, '65. 
Discharged dis. Jan. 19, '63. 
M. O. Dec. 21, '65. 
Died And'sonville, Aug. 13, '64. 
Discharged dis. Dec. 19, '62. 
V. R. C. April 21, '65. 
Died Jan. 27, '64. 
Died Andersonville July 3, '64. 
Sgt. II. Hon. dis. Oct.'26, '64. 
M. O. Aug. 7, 61. 
I Art. Deserted July 31, '65. 
Deserted April 10, '65- 
M. O. Aug. 12, '61. 
Died of wounds Aug. 14, '64: 
M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
Deserted Aug 30, '64. 
M. O. June 1, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 
18. DiecrDec. i, '62. 
Died Oct. 10, '63. 
Corp. Mass. Art. Died An- 
napolis Dec. 30, '64- 
Hon. discharged Sept. 20, '64. 
M. O. July 15, '65. 
Corp. 18. M. O. May 30, '65. 
M. O. May 31, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Discharged dis. May 3, '63. 
M. O Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 18, '65. 
Still in service U. S. A. 
M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 
M. O. June 16, '65. 
Killed in action Sept. 19, '64. 
Capt. 2 N.Y. Art. Killed June 
5, '64. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 353 



Name and Rank. 



Regi- 
ment- 



Best, John 

Bcxner, John 

Billing.s, Samuel D 

Bilge, Menry \V., iMaj.. 
M. G. F. by brevet.. .. 

Black, David 

Blackman, luinil B 



Blackman, John F , 

Blake, Charles S , 

Blake, George W 

Blake, John G 

Blau, An'.hony 

Blumley, Edward * 

Bogue, Richard H 

Bolles, Orin S 

Bolman, Lemuel 

Bond, Frank S., Lt 

Bond, John T.* 

Booth, John 

Bottom, William H.« 

Bottomly, Hen. A.,* Corp. 

Bowen, Ezra P 

Boyle, James 

Bradley, Jno. T 

Bradley, William 

Brady, George W 

lirady, Patrick 

Brady, Terence 

Ijraman, Edwin W 

Braman, Henry T.* 

Braman, Lucius R 

Brand, Christ. A 

Brandon, Ben.* 

Brash, Hen. J 

Bray, John 

Breed, Chas. A 

Breed, John 

Brennan, Cornelius 

Bresnahen, John 

Brewer, Pliny, 2 Lt 

Brewster, William H. . . . 

Brierly, John J 

Briggs, Abram 

Broadhead, John P 

Brogan, John 

Bromley, Edwin F 

Bromley, Isaac H., Capt.. 
Bromley, Joseph B.,^;-. M. 

Brooks^ Albert O 

Brooks, Henry 



2 Art 
Cav. 
iS 

I Art, 



Cav. 

i8 

13 

5 

6 

8 

6 
Cav. 
12 
10 

q 
18 
II 

7 
18 

1 Art. 
18 

2 Art. 
18 

18 

H 
26 

3 
18 
18 

9 

6 
2 Art. 

3 

3 
14 
26 
26 
21 

14 
18 
29 

26 
18 



Dec. 30, '63 
Jan. 31, '64 
"Aug. 4, '62 

May 23, '61 
Dec. 30, '61 
July 26, '62 

Aug. 12, '61 
July 21, '62 
Jan. 7, '62 
July 22, '61 
Sept. 6, '61 
Oct. I, '61 
July 13, '63 

Dec. 15, '63 
Dec. 27, '61 
Mch. 29, '62 
May 24, '62 
July 22, '62 
[Dec. 2, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
July 12, '62 
Dec. 22, '63 
Aug. 8, '62 
Jan. 19, '64 
Aug. 8, '64 
July 26, '62 
July 15, '62 
.Sept. I, '62 
May II, '61 
July 30, |62 
July 26, '62 
May 24, '62 
Dec. 9, '64 
Jan. 30, '64 
May II, '61 
May II, '61 
June 21, '62 
Sept. 10, '62 
Aug. 23. '62 
Jan. 21, '64 
June 10, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
Nov. 14, '64 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 26, '62 
Feb. 19, '61 
Feb. 15, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 



Remai'ks. 



Killed Petersb'g, ^Lar. 25, "65. 
M. O. Aug. 2, 65. 
M. O. Jun'e 27, '65. 

Col. 13. M. O. Oct. '65. 
Killed Geo. 1-an. Oct. 27, '62. 
Capt. 43 U. S. C. T. M. O. 
Nov. 30, '65. 

Deserted May 25, '63. 

Corp. 18. M. O. June 27, '65. 

Hon. discharged July 22, '64. 

Hon. discharged Sept. 11, '64. 

Died Andersonville Oct. 6, '64. 

Died Feb. 23, '65. 

Captured Oct. 17, '64. 

Died Aug. 22, '63. 

Maj. U. S. V. Res. Jan. '65. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Discharged July 15, '65. 

Died March 13, '64. 

M. O. May 29, '65. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

Killed Piedmont, June 5, '64. 

U. S. N. April 4, '64. 

Pro. Adj. M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O May 31, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. July 20, '65. 

Discharged dis. Nov. 16, '64. 

Lt. 21. Resigned Feb. 23, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Deserted March 5, '65. 

Deserted April 2, '64. 

Lt. 8. Died July.30, '62. 

Hon. discharged Aug. 12, '61. 

V. R. C. M. O. July 5, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Pro. Lt. M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Transf. 10. M. O. A^iig. 25, ^65. 

M. O. May 31, 65. 

Deserted Nov. 11, '64. 

M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

M.O.Aug. 17, '63. 

Hon. discharged March 31, '63. 

Resigned Dec. 29, '63. 

M. O. Dec. 21. '65. 

Died July 3, "63. 



354 THE 


NORWICH MEMORIAL. 


Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Brown, Asher P., Corp. . . 


26 


Sept. II, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Brown, Charles H 


14 


July 18, '63 


Transf. 2 Art. May 31, '65. 


Brown, Daniel H 


9 


Oct. 30, '6 1 


Died May 14, '62. 


Brown, David H.* 


13 


Jan. II, '62 


Died May 15, '64. 


Brown, Edward 


21 


Aug. 16, '62 


M. 0. May 20, '65. 


Brown, George 


2 


May 7, '61 


Corp. 13. Drop'd Oct. 31, '64. 


Brown, George 


10 


Dec. 20, '64 


Died Jan. 27, '615. 


Brown, George E 


17 


Jan. 15, '64 


M. 0. July 19, '65. 




2 Art. 


Jan. 29, '64 
Dec. 22, '64 


Deserted Feb. 24, '64. 
Deserted Jan. 27, '65. 


Brown, John 


I Art. 


Brown, Leander 


3 


May II, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 12, '61. 


Brown, Reuben B., Si;f. . . 


18 


Aug. 5, '62 


M. 0. Tune 23, '65. 




29 

2 Art. 


Jan. 5, '64 
Feb. 2, '64 


Died Jan. 25, '65. 
Deserted Feb. '64. 


Brown, William 


Brown, William H 


2 


May 7, '61 


M 0. Aug. 7, '61. 


Brown, William, 6>/ 


30 


Jan. 22, '64 


M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 


Buchanan, Howard R. . . . 


Cav. 


Jan. II, '64 


Deserted June 30, '65. 


Buck, Charles B 


29 


Sept. 2, '64 


M. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 


Buckingham, E. C 


14 


July 25, '63 


Died March 3, '64. 


Buckley, Daniel C 


13 


Jan. 19, '64 


Deserted July 25, '64. 


Bump, Henry G., Jr 


I Art 


May 23, '61 


Hon. discharged May 22, '64. 


Burdick, Charles 


10 


Oct. 29, '61 


Died Jan. 16, '63. 


Burdick, Horatio 


18 


July, 23, '62 


Died Oct. 19, '62. 


Burdick, Joel 


18 


July 25, '62 


Discharged Aug. 25, '62. 


Burdick, .Samuel 


18 


July 25, '62 


Discharged dis. Jan. 4, '64. 


Burdick, Theodore, 2 LL 


7 


Sept. 5, '61 


Capt. Killed Ft. Wagner July 
II, '63. 


Burdick, William H 


18 


July 26, '62 


M. 0. June 19, '65. 


Burghmayer, Anton 


Cav. 


Jan. 2, '64 


Died April 11, '65. 


Burgoyne, Walter* 


12 


Dec. 27, '61 


Died Feb. 5, '65. 


Burke, Charles F 


3 


May II, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 12, '61. 


Burke, Horace E 


3 


May II, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 12, '61. 




9 

2 Art. 


May 24, '62 
Jan. 23, '64 
Aug. 9, '62 


Deserted July 17, '64. 

Deserted Feb. 3, '64. 

Killed Winchester June 15, '63. 


Burke, Patrick 


Burnett, Albert 


18 


Burns, George 


1 Art. 

2 Art. 


Jan. 14, '64 
Jan. 20, '64 


Deserted Feb 12, '64. 
Deserted Feb. 19, '65. 
Deserted Atig. 2, '65. 
Deserted Feb. 1^, '64. 


Burns, John 


Burns, Peter 


I Art 


Dec. 22, '64 
Jan. 19, '64 


Butler, Francis 


Cav. 




2 


May 7, '61 
Oct. 25, '61 


M. O.Aug. 7, '61. 

Hon. discharged Oct. 24, '64. 


Butler, John B 


n 


Butler, Roswell 


18 


July 14, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
Jan. 15, '64 
Aug. 2, '62 
Oct. 5, '61 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 
Discharged dis. June 14, '62. 
M. 0. July 19, '65. 
Discharged dis. June 18, '65. 
Discharged dis. March 16, '62. 


Butler, Rufus 


II 

17 
18 
8 


Buttery, Ira 


Button, Guv D 


Button, Samuel A 




2 Art. 


Jan. 21, '64 
Nov. 25, '61 


Deserted Feb. 13, '65. 
Discharged dis. Oct. 16, '62. 


Byrnes, James 


9 


Byron, James 


18 


Aug. 6, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 

I Art. M. 0. Sept 25, '65. 


Calhoun, Martin 


3 


May II, '61 


Callahan, Jeremiah 


14 


May 23, '62 


M. 0. May 31, '65. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 355 



Name and Rank. 



Cameron, Daniel 

Campbell, Edward 

Campbell, Thomas * 

Canfield, Lawrence 

Cantwell, William. 

Carey, Andrew E.* 

Carey, Charles W 

Carey, Joel 

Carkins, Amos B 

Carl, Martin 

Carleton, Charles M. Surg. 

Carlton, George 

Carney, Daniel. . 

Carney, John * 

Carpenter, Chas. H., Corp. 

Carpenter Charles 11., Sgl. 

Carpenter, Daniel D 

Carpenter, Delano N.*. . . 
Carpenter, Franklin L. . . 
Carroll, Charles li.'Sgl.. 

Carroll, George 

Carroll, Joseph W 

Carroll, Mortimer 

Carroll, Theodore R.*. . . 

Carroll, Timothy 

Carroll, William B.* 

Carruthers, William 

Carter, Thomas S 

Carver, James 

Carver, Michael 



Carver, Thomas 

Carver, William 

Case, Charles E. . . . 

Case, Benjamin 

Case, David C 

Case, George R 

Case, James * 

Case, John P 

Case, Joseph 

Cassidy, Patrick 

Chalmers, John 

Champlin, H. F 

Chandler, Nelson 

Chantley, William H. 

Chapman, C. E 

Chapman, Giles D 

Chappell, Alfred S... 
Chappell, Charles L. . 
Chappell, Samuel H . , 



Regi- 
ment- 



14 
14 

9 

2 Art. 
21 
II 
18 
18 

2 
18 
18 

Cav. 
18 
13 

3 



S 
II 
18 
18 
18 

1 Art. 
12 
Cav. 

3 

2 Art. 
18 
Cav. 



Cav. 
18 

18 
2 Art, 



13 
2 

5 

5 

18 
10 

Cav. 
I Bat, 
I Art. 
26 
18 
26 
18 



Aug. 
July 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Dec. 

Aug. 
May 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Jan. 

July 

Jan. 
May 



Enlistment. 



5. '64 
iS.'63 
12, '61 
19, '64 

20, '62 
3, '61 
24, '62 

2, '62 

7, '61 

8, '62 

6, '62 
22, '64 
22, '62 
II, '62 
II, '61 



Aug. 6, '62 
April 2, '64 
July 22, '61 
Jan'. 25, '64 
July 12, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
July 14, '62 
Aug. 25, '64 
Dec. 27, '61 
Nov. 2, '61 
May 7, '61 
May II, '61 
Tan. 27, '64 
July 28, '62 
Oct. 26, '61 

Aug. 15, '62 
Apr. 21, '64 
July 29, '62 
Jan. 19, '64 
May II, '61 
Apr. 22, '61 
Dec. 30, '61 
May 7, '61 
July 22, '61 
July 22, '61 
July 22, '62 
Oct. I, '61 
Jan. 5, '64 
Aug. 8, '64 
Jan. 6, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 22, '62 
Aug. 27, '62 
July 19, '62 



Transf. 2 Art. May 31, '65. 

Died Jan. 18, '65. 

Discharged dis. Jan. '65. 

Deserted Feb. 13, '65. 

M. O. June 16, '65. 

M. O. Dec. 21, '65. 

M. O. July I, '65. 

M. O. May 22, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

Died Sept. 25, '64. 

Resigned April 17, '63. 

Deserted Feb. 4, '64. 

M. O. May 28, '65. 

M. O. April 25, '66. 

Lt. 29, March 10, '64. M. O. 

Oct. 24, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 
M. O. July 19, '65. 
M. O. Dec. 21, '65 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '65. 
Deserted Aug. 8, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 12, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 
Corp. 7. "Died Nov. 5, '64. 
Pro. Lt. 18. M.O.June 27, '65. 
Deserted May 9, '64. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Killed (Stafford C. II. Va.) 

Jan. 3, '63. 
M. O. June 3, '65. 
Dishon. disch. May 8, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65'. 
Deserted Feb. 14, '64. 
Killed Bull Run July 21, '61. 
Capt. La. N. G. 
Disch. dis. July 3, '65. 
M. O. Aug. II, '61. 
Disch. dis. July 20, '62. 
Disch. dis. Sept. 19, '61. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Died And'sonville Aug. 11,64. 
Captured May 5, '64. 
M. O. June 11, '65. 
M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Died Sept. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
[Deserted May 22, '63. 



156 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Regi- 
ment. 





.6 


Chesebri, Taines F. 


8 


Chester, Frank S., 
Chism, Samuel. . . . 


Capt. . 


2 


Church, Daniel B 


i8 




14 
i8 


Clark, Edward S 


Clark, Henry T 


i8 


Clark, James 


i8 

26 

i8 
i8 
i8 

2 Art. 
2 Art. 
26 

18 
18 

18 

8 

2 

26 
13 
13 

2 Art. 
8 
18 

14 
26 
26 
21 
26 
18 
26 

Cav. 

I Art. 
26 
26 
Cav. 

13 
26 

5 

18 
26 
18 


Clark, James N., .S^' 
Clark, John 


t 




Clark, Patrick 


Clark, Vinson H 

Clayton, John 


Cobb, Charles H.,Jr 

Cobb, James L., So-/ 

Cochran, Alexander R. . . 


Coil, John 


Coit, Charles M., 
Li. Col. by brevet 
Coit, James B. 


Adj., 


Cole, Henry B 


Colegrove, Chas. H. 
Collins, Andrew. . . . 


,Corp. 


Collins, James 


Colton, James S.,* 
Comins, George E., 
Conant, Oscar 


Corp. 
Corp. 


Congdon, John C, Corp. . 
Conger, Thomas B., Corp. 
Conklin, Patrick 


Connell, Daniel O 




Connell, Michael O 

Converse, Chester 

Corp 


"w.", 






Cook, Frederick N., 
Cooley, Charles B.. 


SgL 




Corbet, Michael 


Corcoran, Michael 

Corcoran, Stephen* 

Corey, Caleb R., Corp. . . 
Corey, Charles W., Corp. 
Corey, John F 


Corney, Patrick 


13 



Enlistment. 



Remarks. 



Aug. 27, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
May 7, '61 
Jan. 23, '64 
July 25, '62 
July 23, '63 
July 29, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
July 23, '62 
Aug. 25, '62 
Dec. 24, '64 
Aug. 2, '62 
Feb. 29, '64 
Feb. 2, '64 
Jan. 27, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 7, '62 
Aug. 6, '62 
July 9, '62 

Oct. 5, '61 
May 7, '61 

Aug. 30, '62 
Dec. 22, '61 
Jan. 7, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 
Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 24, '62 
Sept. 2, '64 
Aug. 28, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Mch. II, '64 
Sept. 5, '62 
Jan. 25, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 



May 
Sept 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Nov. 
Dec. 
Aug. 
[ulv 

j"iy 

Aug. 
\ug. 
Jan. 



61 
'64 
'62 
, '62 

I, '62 

.'63 
, '61 
, '62 
'61 
'62 
, '62 
'62 
'62 



M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Disch. dis. May 14, '62. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 

M. O.June 27, '65. 

Tr. 2 Art. M. O May 31, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Tr.V.R. C. M.O.June 27, '65, 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Deserted Apr. 29, '64. 

Deserted Feb. 11, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

Deserted ^lay 22, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Pro. Capt. M. O. May 30, '65. 
Pro. Maj. I4(B.G. V. bybvt). 

Resigned Sept. 6, '64. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Discharged dis- May 13, '63. 
Discharged dis. Mav 20, '62. 
U. S. N. April 4, '64. 
M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Transf. 2 Art. May 31, '65 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Died Aug. 2, '64. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Discharged dis. June 21, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Lt. La. N. G. Resigned. 
M. O. July 14, '65. 
Discharged dis. Jan. 27, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '65. 
M.O.July 17, '65. 
Died Baton Rouge May 25, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Discharged dis. June 5, '65. 
M. O. May 10, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Capt'ddr. fr. Rolls Dec. 31, '64. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 357 



Name and Rank. 



Regi- 
ment. 



Enlistment. 



Cotter, \YiIliam 

Cowles, H. F., S,i:/. Maj. . . 

Cox, Charles H.* 

Cox, John 

Cragg, George G 

Cramer, David 

Crandall, John. 

Cranston, Joseph J. S.. . . 

Crawford, John 

Crary, John T., Corp 

Crocker, Byron 

Crosby, Hiram B 

Cross, George W 

Crowther, James A 

Crowthers, John 

Culver, Enoch B., Corp. . 



Cnllin, John 

Cummings, William. . 
Cunningham, Michael 
Curtis, William R. . . . 

Curtis, William R 

Cushman, Alonzo S.*. 



Cushman, David F 

Cutler, Charles 

Cutler, Leonard 

Daffett, Lewis 

Dailey, John 

Daily, Charles H 

Davidson, Oscar 

Davis, George P 

Davis, Henry C, Capt. . 

Davis, Isaac 

Davis, Joseph 

Davis, Job A 

Davis, Marcus 

Davis, William 

Davis, William 

Davis, William L 

Davis, William F , 

Dayton, Nathaniel F 

Dean, Jerry B 

Degnan, John 

Delaney, John 

Delany, John 

Deming, Alfred H 

Deming, Henry R 

Dennis, Gorham, Corp.... 
Dennis, J. B., Capt 



Cav. 



2 Art. 

14 
26 
18 
26 

13 
18 
18 
8 
2 Art. 
iS 

21 
13 
14 

1 Art. 

2 Art. 
II 

18 

7 

26 

6 

1 Art. 
18 

2 Art. 
29 
18 
29 

8 
29 
II 

Cav. 
2 Art. 
18 

30 
Cav. 

17 
14 
9 
18 
18 
I Art. 



Remarks. 



Dec. 15, '64 jM. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

;May 7, '61 |Pro. Lt. 18. M. O.May 15, '65. 

I Nov. 20, '61 [M. O. Aug. 12, '65. 

jjuly 27, '64 Im. O. Dec. 12, '65. 

May 7, '61 JM. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

Jan. 27, '64 Killed Petersburg Mch.25,'65. 

July 17, '62 M. O. May 31, '65. 

Aug. 28, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

July 22, '62 Died Winchester July 2, '63. 

Aug. 26, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Feb. 5, '62 Died July 15, '64. 

July, 26, '62 Pro. Lt. Col. H.d. Sept. 14, '64. 

Aug. 6, '62 M. O. June 27, '65. 

Sept. 21, '61 Tr. V. R. C. M.O. July i, '63. 

Jan. 19, '64 M. O. Aug. 18, '65." 

July 26, '62 Pro. Adj. Died (of wds.) June 
6, '64. 

Aug. 9, '62 Died Alarch 22, '64. 

Jan. II, '62 Deserted March 17, '62. 

July 16, '62 Hon. discharged May 19, '63. 

Jan. 15, '64 Hon. discharged Sept. 25, '65. 

Jan. 22, '64 Deserted Feb. 7, '64. 

Dec. 3, '61 Killed Swift's Creek, Virginia, 
May 9, '64. 

July 21, '62 |M. O. June 27, '65. 

Sept. 5, '61 I Hon. discharged Sept. 12, '64. 

Aug. 30, '62 jHon. discharged Aug. 17, '63. 

Se]3t. 6, '61 I Hon. discharged .Sept. 5, '64. 

Aug. 27, '64 M. O. Sept. 2"5. '65. 
July 24, '62 Discharged Feb. '64. 

Feb. 2, '64 Deserted June 22, '64. 
Jan. 2, '64 M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

Aug. 8, '62 M. O. Apr. 25, '65. 

Dec. 9, '63 M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

Nov. 18, '64 Died March 10, '65, 

[an. 2, '64 M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

Jan. 4, '64 M. O. Dec. 21, '65. 

Jan. 5, '64 Died And'sonville Aug. 3o,'64. 

Jan. 27, '64 M. O. July 8, '65. 

Aug. 15, '62 M. O. June 27, '64. 
Jan. 19, '64 M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 
Jan. 22, '64 M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

[an. 18, '64 M. O. [ulv 19, '6s 
June 5, '62 Tr. V. R. C. M. O. June 29, '65. 
Nov. 25, '61 Discharged dis. Oct. 16, '62. 
July 17, '62 K'd Snicker's Ferry Jul. 18, '64. 
Aug. 9, '62 M. O. June 27, '64. 
Jan. 14, '64 Deserted Aug. i, '65. 
"May 7, '61 2 Lt. 7. Resigned [an. 3. '62. 
Sept. 5, '61 M. O. Feb. 17, '65. " (IJ. G. V. 
by bvt.) 



358 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Dennis, Oscar A., Capt . . 

Dennison, Andrew J 

Dennison, John J . . 

Derby, Charles, Corp . . . . 

Dexhinair, William 

Diamond, John * 

Dillaby, Asa, Corp 

Ditmus, Edward A. Corp. 

Di.xon, Lasvrence 

Dole, Abe 

Donahue, John * 

Donahue, William 

Dorrigan, Hugh 

Donnivan, Tim 

Donovan, John 

Dorcey, Edward, Co7'p. . . 

Dorkins, William 

Dorrance, George E 

Douglass, William P 

Dowling, Michael W 

Downer, Sylvanus, Corp. . 

Downing, Edmund * 

Doyle, James 

Doyle, Timothy O 

Draper, Albion 

Draper, George 

Drew, William 

Driscoll, Alexander 

Dryer, Henrv 

Dubois, George S 

Duff, John 

Dugan, James 

Dugan, Thomas 

Dunbar, Edmund, Corp.. 

Dunton, William W 

Dunn, John* 

Durfey, Henry M 

Dutton, Rodman 

Dwyer, Edward 

Eagan, James 

Eastman, Shirland L.... 

Edgerton, George F 

Edwards, Alfred 

Edwards, George L 

Edwards, Henry 

Edwards, Thomas F 

Edwards, William 

Eells, Edward W., Z/.... 

Fillers, August 

Ehmer, Ferdinand 

Eldridge, Daniel D 



Regi- 
ment. 



1 Art. 
7 

2 

i8 

9 
i8 
29 
26 
30 

9 
20 

14 

26 

II 

14 

30 

18 

Cav. 

26 

18 

9 

9 
iS 
18 
18 

2 Art, 
26 

2 Art. 

30 
29 
26 



Cav. 

14 

8 

8 
26 
21 

6 
18 



Enlistment. 



May 23, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 4, '62 
May 7, '61 
May 22, '61 
July 18, '62 
Jan. 2, '64 
Oct. 17, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 
May 21, '61 
Sept. I, '64 
July 16, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
June 23, '62 
Jan. 20, '64 
Aug. 4, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 
Aug. 29, '62 
Aug. II, '62 
May 31, '62 
Oct. 4, '61 
Aug. II, '62 
Aug. II, '62 
Aug. 18, '62 
Dec. 23, '64 
Sept. 10, '62 
Jan. 21, '64 
Jan. 6, '64 
Jan. 5, '64 
Sept. 9, '62 
May, 7, '61 
Aug. 28, '62 
May 7, '61 
Dec. I, '62 
Aug. 9, '62 
Jan. 6, '64 
Aug. 20, '62 
Sept. II, '62 
.Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 23, '62 
Oct. 7, '6 1 
Jan. 13, '64 
May 31, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
Aug. 19, '62 
Sept. 6, '61 
Aug. 12, '62 



Remarks. 



Resigned Dec. 11, '61. 

Hon. discharged Sept. 12, '64. 

Hon. discharged Aug. 7, '61. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

Deserted July 23, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Deserted July 3, '65. 

Deserted Aug. 6, '64. 

5. Deserted on way to Regt. 

Discharged dis. Feb. 8, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Discharged dis. FcId. i, '63. 

Diedofw'ds An'tam Oct. 8, '62. 

M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 

Tr. Inv'd Corps Mch. 15, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

Transferred .Sig. Corps. 

Died Andersonville Nov. 5, '64. 

2 Lt. M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Hon. discharged Oct. 26, '64. 

M. O. July 14, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Discharged dis. Oct. 22, '63. 

Deserted March 3, '65. 

Cav. Died March 7, '65. 

Deserted July 26, '64. 

Deserted Feb. 11, '65. 

M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

Died July 28, '63. 

2 1 . Died And'ville June 4, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

9. Veteran, des. May 20, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 

Discharged dis. Oct. 11, '62. 

M. O. A\ig. 17, '63. 

Discharged dis. Nov. 2, '61. 

Died July 23, '63. 

Discharged dis. May 14, '62. 

Deserted Jan. 21, '64. 

Discharged dis. Nov. 23, '62. 

Discharged dis. Feb. 12, '6^. 

Discharged dis. March 28, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Died of wounds July 2, '64. 

Hon. discharged Sept. n, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 359 



Name and Rank. 



Elliott, William 

Ellis, William H. H 

Ely, W.G 

Emmons, Daniel 

Enwright, John 

Erskine, Edward 

Erwin, Edward 

Fanning, Charles T 

Fanning, George W 

Fanning, Henry C 

Fanning, John T., Corp. . 

Fanning, Theo. A 

Fanning, William D 

Farnsworth, Chas., Ca/>/. 

Farrell, James 

Farrell, Laurence P.*... 

Farrell, Thomas 

Farris, John W 

Fellowes, Joshua, Cor/'. . . 

Fenner, Frank A 

Fenton, James E 

Ferguson, Orrin 

Field, Stephen O 

Fillburn, Thomas.* 

Finken, William, Corp. . . 

Fisher, George W 

Fisher, Nathan A. A. Surg- 

Fitch, Edwin S 

Fitch, James E 

Fitzgerald, Edward 

Fitzgerald, Michael 

Flannagan, Edward 

Flannagan, James 

Fletcher, Freeborn O. . . . 

Fletcher, Joseph E 

Flvnn, John 

FoVd, David M 

Ford, William P.* 

Forestner, Joseph, Corp. . 

Foss, Samuel S 

Foster, Charles 

Foster, Joel M 

p"owler, Samuel F.* 

Fox, David D 

Fox, George W 

Fox, Patrick 

Fox, Thomas 

Fox, Walter M 

Francis, Charles 

Francis, Ed 

Francis, Edwin S., Sgt.. . 



Regi- 
ment. 


Enlistment. 


lO 


Dec. 17, '64 


i8 


Aug. 6, '62 


I 


April 24, '61 


29 


Jan. 7, '64 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


26 


Aug. 29, '62 


9 


Nov. 25, '61 


18 


July 31, '62 


18 


July 29, '62 


8 


Sept. 2t, '61 


3 


May II, '61 


8 


Sept. 21, '61 


2 


May 7, '61 


Cav. 


Nov. 26, '61 


9 


Nov. 25, '6i 


12 


Dec. 28, '61 


21 


Aug. 18, '62 


II 


Jan. 26, '64 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


8 


Jan. 13, '64 


18 


Aug. 9, '62 


2 Art. 


Jan. 30, '64 


II 


Oct. 24, '61 


7 


Sept. 9, '61 


18 


Aug. 6, '62 


30 


Jan. II, '64 


13 


Feb. 4, '61 


18 


Aug. 8, '62 


Cav. 


Oct. 26, '61 


14 


July 25, '63 


I Art. 


Jan. II, '64 


2 


May 7, '61 


Cav. 


Jan. 23, '64 


18 


July 28, '62 


2 


May 7, '61 


S 


Aug. 6, '63 


II 


Nov. 14, '61 


Cav. 


Nov. 2, '61 


18 


Aug. 7, '62 


8 


Sept. 21, '61 


18 


Jan. 18, '64 


3 


May II, '61 


13 


Dec. 30, '6i 


I Art. 


April I, '62 


18 


July 26, '62 


21 


Aug. 21, '62 


2 Art. 


Jan. 4, '64 


2 Art. 


Jan. 20, '64 


3 


May II, '61 


29 


Aug. 29, '64 


-^ 


May 7, '61 



Deserted Aug. 4, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Col. 18. B. G. V. bybvt. Re.s'd 

Died June 13, '64. [Sept. iS,'64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Discharged dis. March 9, '64. 

Killed Piedmont June 5, '64. 

Discharged dis. March 25, '64. 

Died wd's Ant'tam Oct. 28, '62. 

M. O. Aug. 12, '61. 

Died wd's Ant'tam Oct. 19, '62. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. O. May 17, '64. 

Hon. discharged Oct. 26, '64. 

Deserted April 7, '64. 

V. R. C. M. O. June 29, '65. 

Deserted June 18, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 

M. O. June 27 '65. 

Deserted Feb. 23, '64. 

Discharged Nov. 14, '62. 

Died MHlen Ga. Oct. 21, '64- 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 

Resigned June 16, '63 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Deserted Oct. 30, '63. 

Deserted July 24, '64. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

Deserted Dec. 15, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Sgt. 8. Disch. dis. Jan.9, '63. 

Deserted. 

Killed Antietam -Sej^t. 17, '62. 

Pro. 2 Lt. M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

Died Aug. 9, '63. 

Pro. Lt. Discharged Jan. 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Aug. II, '61. 

M. O. April 25, '66. 

Hon. discharged April i, '65. 

Died Martinsb'g April 17, '65. 

M. O. June 16, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 18, '65. 

Killed Petersb'g June 22, '64. 

M. O. Aug. ii,"'6i. 

Died Sept. 17, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 



360 THE 


NORWICH MEMORIAL. 


Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 

x8 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Francis Jno. A., 2 Lt . 


Tuly 14, '62 


Pro. Lt. M. 0. June 27, '64. 


Francis, William 


30 


Jan. 2, '64 


M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 


Fraser, Daniel 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Frazier, George W 


3 


May II, '61 


Sgt. 7. Hon. dis. Sept. 12, '64. 


Frazier, Richard 


30 


Jan. 5, '64 


M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 


Freeman, S. H., Corp. . . . 


18 


Aug. 7, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Frink, Lewis F 


Cav. 


Jan. 22, '64 


M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 


Frisbie, Lyman, Cor/>. . . . 


18 


Aug. 4, '62 


M. O- Jmie 27, '65. 


Fuller, Geo. H., Cor/ 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17 '63. 


Fuller, James E., S^t.... 


IT 


Oct. 25, '61 


Pro. Lt. Nov. II, '64. 


Fuller Wallace 


26 


Aug. 29, '62 
Dec. 30, '63 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. 0. Aug. 18, '65. 
M. 0. May 31, '65. 




2 Art. 


Gallagher, Francis 


14 


July 23, '62 


Gallivan, David 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Gallivan, Humphrey 


26 


Sept. 8, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Gallup, Loren A., CaJ>i. . 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '73. 


(iardner, John 


5 


Aug. 20, '63 


M. 0. June 14, '6s. 


Gaskill, Henry C 


18 


Aug. I, '63 


Died Danville, Feb. 20, '6v 


Gates, Horace P 


3 


May II, '61 


Adj. 8. App. A. A.G. U.S. V. 


Gates, William H 


Cav. 


Jan. 23, '64 


Deserted Feb. 2, '64. 


Gattel, Peter 


8 


Sept. 21, '61 


Hon. discharged Sept. 20, '64. 


Gavitt, Edwin. 


3 
30 
18 


May II, '61 
Jan. 22, '64 
Aug. 2, '62 


Hon. discharged Aug. 11, '61. 
Disch. dis. March 18, '65. 
M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Gibson, James 


Gibson, Savillian F 


Gilchrist, John W 


2 


May 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 


Giles William 


^o 


Jan. 18, '64 
Sept. 2, '62 
Aug. 3, '64 


M. 0. June 18, '65. 
M. 0. Aug. 17, '65. 
Deserted Aug. 20, '64. 


Gilleran, Owen 


26 


Gilligan, Thomas 


14 


Gilroy, Charles 


18 


July 24, '62 


Deserted Aug. 21, '66. 


Gleason, Henry D., CorJ>. 


18 


Aug. 6, '62 


Captured June 11, '64. 


Gleason, John 


9 


Nov. 25, '61 


Discharged dis. Oct. 16, '62. 


Glynn, Patrick * 


9 


]\Lav 26, '62 


Died Nov. 25, '64. 


Goddard, Alfred M., Z/. . 


8 


July 24, '63 


Died Petersburg May 9, '64. 


Goddard, Henry P., 2 Lt 








Sqd. 


Cav. 


May 7, '62 


Pro. Capt. 14. Res. Apr. 26,"64. 


Gorry, John 


18 


July 22, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Gorry, John 


26 


Aug. 30, '92 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Goss, James W 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Gould, Augustus 





May 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 


Gould, John 


2t) 


Aug. 29, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Gould, Munroe A 


Cav. 


Jan. 12, '64 


M. 0. Aug. 5, '65. 




9 
Cav. 


May 24, '62 
Dec. 23, '64 


M. 0. Aug. 3, '65. 
Deserted. 


Graham Tliomas H 


Graves, Albert G 


29 


Jan. 2, '64 


U. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 


Green, Lafayette M 


5 


July 22, '61 


Discharged dis. Dec. 20, '62. 


Green, R. J., Corp 


26 


AuiT. 22, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. 0. Sept. 25, '65. 


Green, William B 


I Art. 


Tan. 4, '64 


Greenman, George 


18 


Aug. 18, '62 


Pro. Capt. 31 U. S. C. T. M. 
0. Nov. 7, '65. 


Greenman, Rufus. 


13 


Feb. I, '62 


Discharged dis. May 13, '63. 


Greenough, H. W 


Cav. 


Jan. 8, '64 


Died Salisbury, N.C. Oct. 9, '64. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 361 



Name and Rank. 



Greenwood, George 

Griffin Peter 

Griffin, Thomas . . . 
Gunn, Augustus W. 
Guttman, C. B 



Guyle, John W 

Hakes, Dwight W., Qr.M. 
Hakes, Isaac H., Capt . . . 
Hale, Morton F., Qr. RI . 

Hall, Aaron M., Corp 

Hall, George 

Hall, William 

Hallam, Chester H 



Hallapan, T. A.* 

Hamilton, F. T* 

Hamilton, James 

Hamilton, William H... 

Hancock, Joseph A 

Hanley, Michael 

Hanson, H. C 

Hanson, Olet T 

Harland, Edward, Capt. 

Harper, William 

Harrington, Clark, Capt. 
Harrington, Joseph W.*, 

Harris, George L. 

Hartie, Thilip C 

Harvey, George F 

Harvey, James 

Harvey, St. John 

Hasleni, Wesley W 

Hathaway, Philip B 

Hawthorne, Andrew 

Hayes, Chailes 

Hayes. William 

Hayward, William G 

Hazlchurst, Edwin 

Healey, Edward 

Heath, Leonard 

Heath, Thomas 

Hempstead, Albert 

Hempstead, Henry 

Henderson, Andrew 

Hennessey, Thomas J.. . . 

Henney, George 

Hernandez, John 

Herrick, James 

Hickey, John * 



Regi- 
ment. 



2 Art. 



18 
14 R. 

I. Art, 

1 Art, 

9 

8 
18 
18 
18 
26 

2 Art. 



26 
18 

Cav. 
26 

14 
18 
18 
13 
14 

I Art 
I Art 
18 

I Art. 
18 



Enlistment. 



Remarks. 



Cav. 
5 
9 



Jan. 25, '64 Deserted Apr. 9, '64. 

Jan. 13, '64 Discharged dis. Apr. 3, '64. 

May II, '61 M. O. Aug. 11, '61. 

Jan. 19, '64 M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 

Jan. 20, '64 Trans, to Penn. Regt. as de- 
serter. May 24, '64. 

May II, '61 M. O. Aug. 12, '61. 

Aug. 4, '62 Capt. (Com. Sub ) U. S. V. 

July 12, '62 Resigned Dec. 26, '62. 

"May 28, '61 Capt. (Com. Sub.) U. S. V. 

Jan. 7, '64 M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

Dec. 22, '6i Discharged dis. May 20, '62. 

Auff. 11, '62 M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died May 4, '64. 
May 23, '61 Sept. 25, '65. 
May 24, '62 Deserted ]\Lay 24, '64. 
July 26, '64 Captured Sept. 29, '64. 
July 29, '62 Killed Piedmont, June 5, '64. 
July 23, '62 M. O. June 27, '65. 
July 22, '62 Discharged dis. June 16, '64. 
Aug. 30, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Jan. 20, '64 U. S. N. April 14, '65. 
May n, '61 Col. 8. B. G. V. Apr. 29, '63. 

Resigned June 20, '65. 
Aug. 28, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Aug. 25, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Sept. 5, '61 M. O. July 20, '65. 
July 19, '62 Transf. V. R. C. 
June 7, '62 Discharged dis. Dec. 9, '62. 
Aug. 19, '62 Discharged Nov. 7, '62. 
May 7, '61 M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
Nov. 6, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
July 25, '62 M. O. May 18, '65. 
Jan. 4, '64 Discharged Sept. 15, '64. 
Aug. 28, '62 M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
July 28, '64 Transf. 2 Art. May 31, '65. 
Aug. 2, '62 Deserted Dec. 16, '62. 
Aug. I, '62 Died And'sonville Sept. II, '64. 
Jan. 28, '62 Discharged dis. May 20, '62. 
July 16, '62 Discharged dis. Nov. 25, '62. 
Jan. 18, '63 M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
Aug. 29, '64 Deserted Aug. 9, '65. 
Aug. 8, '62 M. O. June 27, '64. 
May 7, '61 M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
Feb. 26, '62 Deserter from 2d N. Y. Art. 
July 31, '62 M. O. June 27, '65. 
Jan. 21, '64 Deserted April 22, '64. 
Jan. 13, '64 Deserted Jan. 21, '64. 
July 22, '61 Discharged dis. Jan. 6, ^b^. 
May 24, '62 JM. O. Aug. 3, '65. 



362 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Regi- 
ment. 



Hickey, Patrick 

Hicks, James W 

Higgins, James D 

Highey, Patrick 

Hitl, Edwin 

Hill, Elisha D 

Hill, Jahleel B 

Hilliard, William C, SgL 

Hills, Herman 

Hinckley, Edwin F 

Hislop, James 

Hoey, John 

Hoey, William 

Hogan, James 

Holmes, Joseph 

Holmes, Joseph W 

Holwell, John C 

Hotchkiss, Edwin O 

Hovey, Henry, C. Sgi 

Howard, P'rancis 

Howard, Solomon M.,5>A 

Howard, William H 

Howell, Abbott 

Hughes, Asa L 

Hull, Henry H 

Huntington, C. L. F 

Huntington, Daniel 

Huntington, George F. . . 

Huntington, Thomas U. . 

Huntoon, Samuel, Ca^(. . 

Hutchins, Lyman 

Hutchins, William 

Hyatt, Isaac B 

Hyde, John P 

Hyland, John* 

Irons, Thomas 

Ittell, George, Cor/>.* . . . . 

Jacobs, Hervey F., 2 LL . 

Jaques, Benjamin F 

Jaques, David D.* 

Jaques, William * 

Jennings, John B., Cor/>. . 

Jewell,^ William C 

Jewctt, Eleazar. 

Jewctt, Joseph H 

Jewett, Lee L 

Jillson, George W ..... . 

Johnson, Abel * 

Johnson, Charles II 

Johnson, D. H 

Johnson, Irvin * 



i8 

21 
26 

i8 

27 

i8 
i8 
Cav. 

21 

Cav. 
Cav. 

20 

Cav. 

1 Art. 
II 

26 
18 

2 Art 
29 
18 



Enlistment. 



Remarks. 



13 
29 
18 
I Art 



Jan. 28, '62 
July 30, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 29, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 21, '62 
Sept. 25, '62 
July 14, '62 
Aug. 8, '62 
Oct. 26, '61 
Aug. 21, '62 
Jan. 12, '64 
Jan. 12, '64 
Aug. 15, '62 
Oct. 26, '61 
P'eb. 27, '62 
Nov. 23, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
Jan. 20, '64 
Jan. 2, '64 
Aug. 14, '62 
Jan. 4, '64 
May 7, '62 
May 27, '62 
May II, '61 
Sept. II, '62 
July 5, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 26, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
Nov. 14, '61 
Jan. 15, '64 
July 12, '62 
Nov. 25, '61 
June 12, '62 
Sept. 6, '61 
Aug. 29, '62 
May 7, '61 
Jan. 28, '62 
Nov. iS, '61 
Apr. 22, '61 
Aug. I, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 25, '62 
May II, '61 
Dec. 22, '61 
Jan. 2, '64 
July 29, '62 
Feb. 26, '62 



Deserted March 17, '62. 

Died Martinsburg Apr. 13, '64. 

2 Lt. 18. Hon. dis. Oct. 27, '64. 

M. O. June 16, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

2 Art. Deserted Aug. 10, '65. 

Discharged Dec. 3, '64. 

Deserted Aug. 30, '62. 

Discharged dis. Nov. 3, '62. 

M. O. June 16, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

5. Deserted on wa}'' to Regiment 

Discharged dis. Nov. 3, '62. 

Deserted March 14, '62. 

Killed Antietam .Sept. 17, '62. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Sept. 18, '65. 

M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died July 61, 65. 

14. Disch'd dis. Dec. 15, '62. 

Discharged dis. Feb. 15, '65. 

M. O. Aug. II, '61. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '65. 

V. R C. Jan. 15, '64. 

Died Sept. 29, '61. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Discharged dis. May 18, '62. 

Died June 14, '62. 

M. O. July 19, '65. 

M. O. June 27, 65. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

M. O. May 31, '65. 

Deserted Feb. 27, '64. 

Died Port Hudson July 5, '63. 

Corp. 18. M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Apr. 25, '66. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Captured July 21, '61. 

Discharged dis. March 28, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 12, '63. 

Adj. 8. M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 

Discharged dis. May 8, '63. 

M. O. Aug. II, '6r. 

M. O. Apr. 25, '66. 

M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 36^ 



Name and Rank. 



Johnson, John W 

Johnson, Lovell 

Johnson, Marquis L 

Johnson, Robert * 

Johnson, Samuel * 

Johnson, Stephen T 

Johnson, William 

Jones, Frank J., 2 Lt. . . . 

Kampf, George 

Kampf, Herman 

Kane, J. Hammond 

Keables, Amos L., Sgl._. . 

Keables, Charles F 

Keables, N. Armand . . . . 

Keane, Michael * 

Keech, Charles 

Keeler, George W 

Keeler, John M 

Keeler, Thomas 

Kehr, Jacob * 

Keigwin, Daniel 

Kelly, Andrew J 

Kelly, Henry 

Kelly, James A 

Kelly, John 

Kelly, Michael 

Kelly, Thomas 

Keneley, James 

Kenney, Charles L 

Kenney, Ralph 

Kepler, Sebast. B., Corp. 

Kerley, John 

Kerr, Francis 

Kerr, John 

Kerr, Robert 

Kerr, Robert* 

Kerrigan, Thomas 

Kies, David B 

Kimball, James 

Kimball, John 

King, David 

Kingslev, Tared L 

Kingsley, "Wiilet W.*.... 

Kingston, Elias, Jr 

Kinney, Albert B.* 

Kinney, William H 

Kirby, John 

Klein, John 

Knapp, Samuel R., Capt. 

Knox, Joseph W 

Kohler, William S 



Regi- 
ment. 



13 

9 
26 

9 

I Art. 
I Art. 
26 
I Cav. 



Remarks 



18 

3 

9 
2 Art 
18 



2 Art. 

13 

18 

18 

8 



2 Art. 
10 
26 
26 
18 
9 
13 
18 

9 

26 
II 
26 
26 

14 
18 

8 

7 

18 
26 

Cav. 
18 

Cav. 
2 Art. 



Oct. 21, '61 
Jan. 25, '64 
Jan. 28, '62 
May 7, '61 
Oct. 17, '61 
Aug. 28, '62 
Jan. 12, '64 
Mar. 13, '62 
Apr. 8, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Jan. 4, '64 
Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 6, '62 
May II, '61 
May 22, '62 
Jan. 21, '64 
Aug. 8, '62 
May II, '61 
Jan. 4, '64 
Jan. 28, '62 
Dec. 19, '63 
Aug. 2, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
P^eb. I, '62 
July 31, '62 
July 15, '64 
Jan. 22, '64 
Jan. 19, '64 
Sept. I, '62 
Sept. I, '62 
Aug. 12, '62 
Nov. 25, '6 1 
Jan. 22, '62 
July 23, '62 
May 7, '61 
Oct. 22, '62 
Aug. 29, '62 
Jan. 25, '64 
Atig. 29, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 13, '63 
Aug. 4, '62 
Oct. 5, '61 
May 7, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
Aug. 12, '62 
Sept. I, "62 
Jan. 13, '64 
Aug. 21, '62 
Jan. 12, '64 
Jan. 29, '64 



Deserted Nov. 18, '61. 

M. O. June 19, '65. 

Discharged dis. July 29, "62. 

Sgt. 9. M. O. Aug. 3, -65. 

M. O. Aug. 3, -65. 

Died Aug. 3, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Pro. Lt, resigned July 27, '63. 

Hon. discharged April 8, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

Pro. 2 Lt. Disch. May 15, '65. 

Tr. V. R.C. M.O.Aug. 17,-65. 

26. M. O. Aug. 17, '65. 

Deserted May 20, '64. 

M. O. Jan. 13, '65. 

M. O. June 29, '65. 

M. O. Aug. II, '61. 

Killed Ft. Fisher Mar. 26, '65. 

M. O. April 25, '66. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Discharged Feb. 26, '64. 

Hon. discharged Jan. 6, '65. 

Deserted Sept. 19, '62. 

Deserted Aug. 20, '65. 

Deserted Feb. 3, '64. 

Killed Petersburg April 2, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died on transport July 24, '62. 

Discharged dis. Nov. 23, '63. 

V. R. C. M. O. May i, '64. 

Pro. 2 Lt. 18. M.O. June 27,'65. 

Q. M. Sgt. M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Dec. 21, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Transf. 2 Art. May 31, '65. , 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. O. July 20, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Oct. 10, '65. 

Resigned June 6, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 2, "65. 

Deserted Feb. 10, '64. 



564 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Kraus, Adam 

Krepps, James 

Lacy, David 

Ladd, Albert W 

Ladd, Amos R 

Ladd, Daniel 

Lafert}', James 

Laird, Daniel 

Laird, John 

Lamb, George W., Corp. 
Lampheare, Charles H.. 
Lampheare, Chaimccy G 
Lampheare, James M.*.. 

Lamphere, Calvin J 

Lampson, Charles E 

Lane, Joseph M 

Lapierre, H. M 

Lasthins, August 

Latham, Albert 

Latham, Ira C 

Lathrop, Dewitt Q,.,Siirg. 

Lathrop, Erastus D 

Lathrop, Joseph O 

Laughlin, Patrick 

Lawler, Joseph H., Corp. 
Lawler, Thomas C, Corp. 

Leach, Edwin T 

Leahy, Edward * 

Learned, Bela P., 2 /,/. . . 

Leary, James* 

Lee, Ciiarles C 

Lee, J. Hamilton, A. Surg. 

Lee, Samuel J., Sgt 

Leman, Theodore 

Leonard, Isaac N 

Leonard, M. L 

Leruscher, William 

Lester, Henry W., Corp. 

Lewis, Charles 

Lewis, James S 

Levison, Moritz* 

Lilley, John, Sgt 

Lillibridge, Clark 

Lillibridge, M. M 

Lindsley, Adam \\.,Lt... 
Livingston, Y. D-, Corp. . 

Lloyd, Patrick 

Loomis, Charles A.* 

Loomis, Ezra M 



Regi- 
ment. 



IS 

2 Art. 
I Art. 

18 
18 

13 
18 
26 



10 

14 

2 Art, 
26 
26 
26 
18 
21 
8 



Enlistment. 



Remarks. 



Loomis, George W. Co7'p. 



18 

14 

9 

18 

9 
I Art. 

9 
18 
21 
18 

6 

3 

18 
6 

8 
26 

1 Art. 
18 

2 Art. 
18 

6 

14 
2 

II 
18 



Aug. 6. '62 
Dec. 20, '64 
Jan. 23, '64 
Jan. 4, '64 
May 7, '61 
July 24, '62 
Aug. II, '62 
Feb. II, '62 
Aug. 8, '62 
Aug. 26, '62 
Oct. 7, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
Oct. 5, '61 
July 20, '63 
Jan. 20, '64 
Sept. 5, '62 
Aug. 28, '62 
Oct. 13, '62 
July 25 '62 
Jan. 13, '64 
Oct. 5, '61 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 6, '62 
July 25, '63 
Oct. 30, '61 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 7, '62 
May 5, '62 
Mar. 12, '62 
Nov. 25, '61 
Dec. 24, '63 
Aug. 22, '62 
Aug. 2, '62 
Sept. 6, '61 
May II, '61 
July 25, '62 
Sept. 6. '61 
May 7, '61 
Feb. 20, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
Mar. I, '62 
Aug. 14, '62 
May 7, '61 
Dec. 30, '63 
Aug. 8, '62 
July 22, '61 
July 15, '62 
May 7, '61 
Dec. 3, '61 

July 26, '62 



M. O. June 27, '65. 
7. M. O. Aug. 14, '65. 
Killed Cold Harbor June i,'64. 
Disch. dis. April 6, '64. 
Adj. 73 U. S. C. T. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
M. O. June 23, '65. 
Killed in action .Sept. 19, '64. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Deserted Oct. 31, '61. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Deserted Aug. 16, '65. 
Transf. 2 Art. May 31, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 18, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Transf Sig. Corps. 
Discharged dis. Feb. 18, '63. 
Lt. 30. "M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 
Tr. 10. M. O. Aug. 25, '65. 
Died, April 18, '62. 

1 Art. Dis. dis. Dec. 24, '62 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Deserted Feb. 5, '64. 

Pro. Lt. M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Lt. 9. Resigned Feb. 25, '62. 

Lt.31 U. S.C. T, Dis. May 9, 

Deserted June 5, '64. ['64. 

Maj. by bvt. Pro. Capt. Sept. 

M. O. Aug. 3, 65. [25, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Surg. Discharged Oct. 31, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Hon. discharged Sept. Ii, '64. 

Sgt. 26. Hon. dis. Aug. 17, '63. 

2 Lt. 29. M. O. Oct. 24, '65, 
Hon. discharged Sept. 12, '64. 
Discharged dis. June 26, '61. 
Deserted March 15, '64. 
Deserted Nov. 24, '62 
Deserted April 16, '64. 

Pro. Capt. M. O. June 27, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
Discharged dis. June 13, '65. 
Hon. discharged, April 17, '65. 
Discharged dis. Jan. 10, '62. 
Died of wounds May 11, "64. 
Sgt. 13. Deserted Aug. 30, '62. 
Died of wounds (Antietam) 

Sept. 19, 62. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 365 



Name and Rank. 



Loomis, Henry N 

Loomis, J'liiies W 

Loomis, John \V 

Long, John 

Lovering, Fred. E 

Lowrey, Joshua 

Lumis, T. J 

Lydon, James 

Lynch, Charles 

Lynch, Henry 

Lynch, James 

Lyon, George N 

Lyon, Nelson A 

Maguire, Patrick* 

Mahony, William 

Manion, Thomas 

Manning, David W 

Manning, Ed. P., C. Sgt.. 

Manning, Lem. A 

Maples,"'C. H., Qr. M. Sgt. 

Maples, James S 

Maples, Wm. L 

Marks, Michael 

Maro, Patrick 

Marrariy, John 

Marsh, F. B 

Marshall, Geo. I! 

Marshall, Hamlet J 

Marshall, John 

Marshall, William S 

Marshall, Wilson C 

Martin, Islay B 

Martin, Jno. W 

Martin, Patrick 

Mason, John 

Massey, James 

Matson, George 

Maurer, Richard 

Maynard, Roswell E 

McAllister, Ronald 

McAllister, Ronald, Jr... 
McCall, A. Dwight, Lt... 

McCall, John, Sgt 

McCall, Gideon, Corp.. . . 

McCarty Michael 

McCarty, Thomas 

McCaulay, Thomas 

McClure, George 

McClure, John 

McCool, John 

McCora, James J., 2 Lt, . 



Regi- 
ment. 



Cav. 
8 
18 

9 

18 

2 Art. 
2 Art, 
I Art, 
21 

9 

1 Art, 
Cav. 

2 Art, 
26 

18 
26 

2 

3 
9 
10 

8 

7 

3 

26 
18 

Cav. 
18 
i8 
18 

13 
Cav. 

18 

29 

I Art. 

26 

II 

II 

12 



30 
14 

2 Art. 
2 Art. 
26 
18 
2 Art. 



Enlistment. 



Aug. 20, '62 
Aug. 14, '62 
May 7, '61 
July 15, '62 
Jan. 5, '64 
Oct. 7, '61 
Aug. 5, '62 
Oct. 17, '61 
Aug. 6, '62 
Jan. 13, '64 
Jan. 30, '64 
Jan. 4, '64 
Aug. 22, '62 
Nov. 26, '62 
Mar. 5, '62 
Dec. 30, '63 
Jan. 27, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 29, '62 
Aug. 27, '62 
May 7, '61 
May II, '61 
Nov. 25, '61 
Oct. I, '61 
Sept. 21, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
May II, '61 
Sept. 2, '62 
Aug. 12, "62 
Dec. 22, '63 
July 23, '62 
Aug. 5, '62 
July 17, '62 
Jan. 22, '62 
Nov. 19, '64 
July 15, '62 
Dec. 4, '64 
Jan. 15, '64 
Aug. 29, '62 
Nov. 12, '61 
Oct. 25, '61 
Jan. I, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
Jan. 25, '64 
Aug. 5, '63 
Feb. I, '64 
Jan. 21, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 19, '62 
Jan. 21, '64 
"May 7, '61 



Remarks. 



Died Aug. 21, '64. 

Discharged Nov. i, '64. 

M. O. A'ug. 7, '61. 

M. O.June 27, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

Rejected Nov. 2, '61. 

M.'O. June 27, '65. 

Discharged Oct. 26, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died of wounds Oct. 31, '64. 

Deserted March 8, '64. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

M. O. June 16, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Deserted March 15, 62. 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 

Discharged dis. July 15, '65. 

2 Lt. Died Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27,^65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

U. S. C. T. 

M. O. Aug. II, '61. 

Hon. discharged Oct. 26, '64. 

Killed Newbern March 14, '62. 

V. R. C. 

Discharged dis. Jan. 3, '62. 

Corp. 18, M. O. June 27, '65. 

Disch. July 24, '63. 

M. O. June 23, '65. 

M. O. June 3, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died w'ds W'chester July 2, '63. 

^L O. June 27, '65. 

Hon. discharged Jan. 6, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 2. 

Died Florence S. C. Jan. 7, '61; 

M. O. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Discharged dis. Jan. 10, '63. 

Killed Cold H'bor June 3, '64. 

M. O. Nov. 21, '64. 

Capt. K'd F't Darl'g May i6,'64. 

Died of wounds Oct. 8, "64. 

Discharged Dec. 6, '63. 

Deserted April 14, '64. 

Deserted July 14, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Deserted Aug. 28, '64. 

Capt. 13, M. O. Jan. 6, '65. 



24 



\66 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL 



Name niid Rank. 



Regi- 
ment. 



McCoy, George '2 Art. 

McCracken, Henr}- jCav. 

McCracken, James 18 

McCusker, Hiii;h, 18 

McCusker, John* 18 

McDavid, George 18 

McDavid, James S Cav. 

McDonakl, Joliii* 9 

McDonakI, John 14 

McDonnell, Thomas 9 

McGarry, Andrew 2 . 

]\IcGlone, James i Art 

McGovern, Michael 14 

McGovern, Thomas* 9 

McGrath, John 18 

McGuigan, Frank 9 

McKay, James* 5 

McKeag, Francis, S^L ... 2 

McKee, James 2 . 

IMcKenna, John,* Cor/>. . . 9 

]McKenna, John 21 

McKenna, Peter 21 

McKnight, William 12 

Mci^aughin, Thomas 5 

McLeland, George 10 

McMahon, Gilbert 2 Art. 

McMahon, Thomas 18 

McNamara, John* 9 

McNamara, Patrick 18 

McNeil, John 26 

McSorly, John 9 

McVaj', Francis 14 

McVay, James 14 

McVay, Michael 14 

McWhirr, Juhn F 18 

IMeany, John 9 

Meech, Stci)hen B., At//.. 26 

Meehan, Peter* 9 

Meehan, William* 9 

Meisser, Charles 6 

Meldrum, John* g 

Meledy, Michael, 6>^ 26 

Mell, Augustus* 5 

Mcrwin, S. T. C i 

Metcalf, John G 3 

Meyer, Adolph L 6 

Miller, Henry C 2 

Miller, Jacob' W 

Minard, Enos G 2 

Miner, Charles H., Jr. ... 18 
Miner, William P., 2 Z/. . 13 



Enlistment. 



Jan. 23, '64 
Dec. 16, '63 
Aug. 8, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
July 25, '62 
July 19, '62 
Jan. 4, '64 
May 27, '62 
June 3, '62 
Jan. 17, '64 
May 7, '61 
Feb. 26, '62 
July 15, '62 
Nov. 25, '61 
Jan. 6, '64 
Sept. 27, '61 
July 22, '61 
May 7, '61 
May 7, '61 
Oct. 30, '61 
Aug. I, '62 
Aug. II, '62 
Dec. 3, '61 
July 22, '61 
Oct. I, '61 
Dec. 30, '63 
Nov. 16, '63 
May 20, '62 
Jan. I, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
Oct. 12, '61 
Aug. 13, '6; 
July 14, '62 
July 5, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
Sept. 27, '61 
Aug. 30, '6: 
Oct. 12, '61 
May 10, '62 
Sept. 6, '61 
May 28, '62 
Aug. 29, '62 
July 22, '61 
April 22, '61 
May II, '61 
Sept. 6, '61 
May 7, '61 

May 7, '61 
Aug. 5, '62 
Feb. 18, '62 



Remarks. 



V. R. C. M. O. Sept. 22. -65. 
M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 
Killed Winchester June 15, "63. 
M. O. Tune 27, '65. 
M. O. June 26, '65. 
Discharged dis. March i, '63. 
Died An'sonville, Aug. 21, "64. 
Died May 2, '65. 
M. O.June 29, '65. 
Deserted Jan. 10, '65. 
Corp. 9. Disch. dis. Oct. i6,"62. 
Deserted March 15, '62. 
Deserted Aug. 25, '62. 
Deserted June 10, '64. 
Deserted Nov. 13, '64. 
Hon. discharged Oct. 26, "64. 
M. O. July 19, '65, 
2 I.t. 18. M. O. June 27, '65- 
Corp. 18. M. O. June 27, "65. 
M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 
Deserted March 17, '63- 
Discharged dis. Feb. 18, '63. 
Died Aug. 18, "63. 
Deserted July i, '63- 
Discharged dis. Oct. 16, '62. 
Discharged dis. June 4, "65- 

Killed Piedmont June 5, "64. 

M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 

Died Jan. 19, '65- 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63- 

Died April 18, '63. 

M. O. May 31, '65. 

Died Sept. 9, '62. 

M. O. May 31, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died Nov. 12, '62. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63- 

Deserted May 20, '65- 

M. O. Aug. 3", '65. 

Killed Morris Iskd Tuh iS, '63. 

Died April 8, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 14, '65. 

Capt. 18. M. O. June 27, "65- 

M. O. Aug. II, '6"i. 

II. M. O. Dec. 2i,T>5. 

Sgt. 14. Disch. dis. Nov. 17, '62. 

Killed Spotsylva'a Mav 18, '64. 

M. O.Aug. 7, '61. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Lt. M. O. July 16, '64. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL 


OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 3^7 




Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 

13 

1 Art. 
Cav. 
18 

3 

2 Art. 
26 

9 

2 

29 
26 

Cav. 
20 

2 Art. 
2 Art. 
2 
I Art. 

9 
18 
II 

7 

18 
26 

i 

26 
29 

5 
21 
iS 
21 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Mitchell, Alfred, Capt.. .. 
Moan, Owen* 


Feb. 18, '62 
March i, '62 
Jan. 4, '64 
Aug. 13, '62 
May II, '61 
Jan. 20, '64 
Sept. 9, '62 
Sept. 27, '61 
May 7, '61 
Jan. 2, '64 
Aug. 26, '62 
Jan. 23, '64 
Aug. 30, '64 
Jan. 16, '64 
Jan. 20, '64 
May 7, '61 
|an. 15, '64 
"Oct. 30, "61 
July 19, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
Aug. 7, '62 
Oct. 24, '62 
July 22, '61 
Sept. I, '62 . 
Sept. I, '62 
Oct. 30, '62 
Dec. 4, '6i. 
July 22, '61 
Aug. 13, '62 
July 16, '62 
Aug. 13, '62 
Oct. 4, '61 
Sept. 2, '61 
Aug. 27, '63 
Aug. 27, '62 
Jan. 23, '64 
Sept. 21, '61 
May 7, '61 
July 31, '62 
Aug. 26, '64 
Jan. 4, '64 
[ulv 31, '62 
July 30, '62 
Aug. 12, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 27, '62 
July 28, '62 
fan. 21, '64 
July 25, '63 
Sept. 8, '62 


Resigned March 11, '64. 

M. 0. Sept. 25, '65. 

Killed Winch'ter, Sept. 19, "64. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Capt. 8. Discharged May30,'65. 

Transf. U. S. N. 

M. 0. Aug. 17,-63. 

Died July 21, '61. 

Sgt. 18. M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Died Jan. 11, '6s. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, 63. 

Deserted Feb. 2, '64. 

Deserted while on way to Regt. 

M. O.Aug. 18, '61;. 

M. 0. Sept. 18, '65. 

Capt. i8. Dismissed Sept. i,'64. 

M. 0. Sept. 25, '65. 

Hon. discharged Oct. 26, '64. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. Dec. 21,-65. 

Transf Sig. Corps Feb. 29, '63. 

Deserted Aug. i, '63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. July 19, '65. 

M.O.Aug. 17.-63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, -63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, -63. 

M. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. 0. July 19, '65. 

Died March 12, "64. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. June 16, '65. 

Died Aug. 16, '62. 

M. 0. Sept. 7, '65. 

Deserted Oct. 2, "63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, "63. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, -65. 

Discharged dis. May 5, '63. 

2 Lt. 18. M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. June 16, '65. 

M. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 2, -65. 

M. 0. May 20, -65. 

M. 0. Juiie 10, "65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Corp. 13. Des. Aug. 30, '64. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Transf. U. S. N., April 14, -64. 

Deserted Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Moffett, Albert 

Moore, Allen L., ^o-/ 

Moore, James R., Sgt 

Moore, John 

Moore, Michael 


Moninghani, James 

Monroe, Austin G., Sgt.. . 

Monroe, Charles H 

Morgan, Charles D., Corp. 

IMorris, John 

Morris, Patrick 


Morris, Thomas 


Morris, William C 

Morrison, John H 

Morrow, George 


Morrow, Joseph, Sgt 

Mossman, Ale.xander 

Mott, Oramel M.* 

Mott, Willard L 


Mowry, Bernard R. (.). . . 

Mouch, Peter 

Moush, Adolph* 

Mulcaley, Michael 

Mulcaley, Thomas 

Mulligan, Peter 


Mumford, Henry 

Munroe, John C* 

Murphy, Dennis 


Murphy, Frank E 




9 

9 

5 
26 
2 Art. 

8 

21 

29 

Cav. 

18 

18 

18 

26 
iS 

2 Art. 

14 
26 


Murphy, Jeremiah* 

Murphy, John 

Murphy, Orlando C 

Murphy, Patrick 

Murphy, Wm. M., Corp. . 

Murray, Charles A 

]\Iurth'agh, Patrick 

Musbarue, Henry 

IMussel, Christian 

Muzzy, Ben. H 

Muzzy, Harvey L 

Muzzy, -Walter II 

Nash, Eugene S.* 

Neff, A. Martin 


Neill, Henry P 


Nelson, Sam 

Nelson, William F 

Newman, Thomas 



368 THE 


NORWICH MEMORIAL. 






Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Newton, Charles J 

Nichols, Robert* 

Nicholson, Michael* 

Nickels, James R., S^^i. . . 
Nickerson, Jos. H. S^^i. . . 
Nickerson, Paris R., Corp. 


14 

13 

9 

14 

II 

3 

8 
II 

8 
26 
26 
18 
10 
2 Art. 

8 

2 

21 

14 
26 

9 

14 

7 

7 

14 

Cav. 
18 
18 
18 
18 

7 

18 
18 

2 Art. 

18 
26 
18 
30 
I Art. 

13 

Cav. 
8 

18 
26 

8 

9 

9 
18 
18 
29 


July 23, '63 
Dec. 30, '61 
May 22, '63 
May 29, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
May II, '61 
Oct. 2, '61. 
Nov. 27, '61 
Sept. 25, '61 
Aug. 29, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Aug. 1 1, '62 
Oct. I, '61 
Jan. 30, '64 
Sept.23, '61 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 9, '62 
July 7, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
May 21, '61 
July 7, '62 
Sept. 5, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
July 25, '62 
Jan. 5, '64 
Aug. 18, '62 
July 25, '62 
July 12, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
Sept. 5, '61 
Jan. 14, '64 
Aug. 6, '62 
Jan. 21, '64 
May 7, '61 
July 23, '62 
Aug. 28, '62 
July 17, '62 
Jan. 18, '64 
May 22, '61 
Jan. II, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 
Sept. 27, '61 
May 7, '61 
July 16, '62 
Aug. 27, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
Jan. 10, '63 
Oct. 30, '61 
Aug. 4, '62 
July 28, '62 
Jan. 2, '64 


Transf. U. S. N. April 23, '64. 

Deserted Aug. 30, '64. 

Deserted May 20, '64. 

Capt. Died of w'ds Feb. 20,'65. 

Capt. Disch. dis. Oct. 12, '64. 

M. 0. Aug, II, '61. 

Discharged dis. Feb. 28, '63. 

Resigned April 5, '62. 

Discharged dis. Slay 10, '62. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

Killed Winch'ster June 15, '64. 

Hon. discharged Oct. 7, '64. 

M. 0. Aug. 18, '65. 

Hon. discharged Sept. 20, '64. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. 0. June 16, '65. 

Discharged dis. Jan. 12, '63. 

Cav. M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 3, '65. 

M. 0. May 31, '65. 

M. 0. July 20, '65. 

Hon. discharged Sept. 12, '65. 

Died w'ds F'burg, Feb. 10, '63. 

M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Capt. "Discharged May 28, '64. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Transf. Inv. Corps. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

U. S. N. April 14, '64. 

Capt. 32 U. S. C. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Died w'ds Pt. Hud. June i, 'Gt,. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 

Hon. discharged May 26, '64. 

M. 0. April 25, '66. 

M. 0. Jan. ID, 65. 

M. 0. April 25, '66. 

Lt. Col. 18. M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

Lt. M. 0. Dec. 12, '65. 

Deserted May 20, '64. 

^L 0. Aug. 3, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Deserted Aug. 30, '62. 

Deserted March 7, '64. 


Norris, John H., Lt 

Northrop, George 

Norton, George B 


Noyes, Charles C 


O'Brien, Edward 

O'Conner, Cornelius 

O'Donnell, George 

O'Donnell, Matthew 

O'Donnell, Olney 

O'Neil, David 


O'Neil James* 


O'Neil, John 


Osborne, Charles* 

Osborne, James 


Otis, Josiah L. D 


Palmer, Almon B 

Palmer, Andrew 

Palmer, Fred. A., Lt 


Palmer, Lewis O 

Palmer Orin V 


Palmer, Roswell 

Parker, Henry W 

Parker, Joseph M 

Parker, Timothy 


Parkinson, George 

Parkus, Simon, Sgt 

Parrish, William W 

Patten, Charles* 

Payne, Burton H 

Payne, Ichabod S 

Peale, Henry, Ca/i 

Pearce, Martin 


Peck, Seth L 


Peck, William H.,* Co?-p. 

Pendergrast, James* 

Perkins, Chas. W.,* Corp. 
Perry, Llylon N 


Peter William 







GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 369 



Name and Rank. 



Peters, William 

Peterson, John 

Phillips, Benjamin F 

Phillips, Henry T 

Phillips, Thomas D 

Phinney, Elisha, A., Surg. 

Phinney, Henry E 

Pierce, Thomas H 

Pitcher, Abner D ...... . 

Pitcher, Albert H 

Pitcher, Frank W 

Pitcher, George 

Pitcher, George 

Plunkett, Jos. D., C. Sgl. 

Porter, Edgar 

Porter, Saljart M 

Potter, Charles H 

Potter, Elisha R 

Potter, James 

Potter, MandeviJle A 

Powers, Richard* 

Price, Joseph H 

Price, Orrin M.* 

Primus, Daniel 

Purdy, William H 

Ragan, James 

Ranger, Richard* 

Ransom, Henry A 

Rathbone, Oramel W. . . . 

Reardon, Patrick 

Reder, Karl 

Reed, Albert O 

Reynolds, John T., *Corp. 
Reynolds, Samuel W.... 

Reynolds, William 

Richards, Charles J 

Richardson, James L. . . . 

Rider, James H 

Riely, Bernard* 

Riley, John 

Ringroas, Michael 

Ripley, George C, Lt . . . 

Ripley, James D 

Ripley, Robert A., Lt. . . . 

Roach, David 

Roath, Henry G 

Roberts, George 

Robinson, Francis 

Robinson, James A 

Rockwell, Alfred P., Ca/L 



Regi- 
ment. 



6 
2 Art. 
Cav. 
Cav. 
Cav. 
26 

13 
I Art. 

7 
14 

7 
I Art. 
18 
21 
II 
26 

9 
18 

26 
9 
30 
13 
30 

1 Art. 

2 Art. 
8 

8 
Cav. 

9 
Cav. 
26 

13 
18 

13 
18 
Cav. 

o 

9 

Art. 
iS 

14 
18 

13 
5 

26 
2 Art. 

J14 
III 
ii Bat. 



Enlistment. 



Sept. 4, '61 
'Jan. 20, '64 
;Oct. 5, '63 
I Nov. 18, '62 
I Jan. 5, '64 
I Nov. I, '62 
IJan. 7, '62 
:Jan. 4, '64 
Sept. 5, '61 
[July 23, '62 
jSept. 5, '61 
[Aug. I, '64 
Aug. 4, '62 
July 31, '62 
Jan. 14, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
Nov. I, '61 
Aug. 8, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
May 21, '61 
Jan. 15, '64 
Jan. II, '62 
Feb. 15, '64 
Jan. 6, '64. 
Jan. 29, '64 
Sept. 21, '61 
Sept. 21, '61 
Dec. 8, '63 
Oct. 12, '61 
Dec. 3, '63 
Aug. 30, '62 
Feb. I, '62 
July 14, '62 
Jan. 30, '62 
Aug. 2, '62 
Jan. 19, '64 
fan. II, '64 
May 31, '62 
[an. 20, '64 
July 28, '62 
Dec. 22, '62 
July 17, '62 
I)ec. 31, '62 
July 22, '61 
Sept. II, '62 
Jan. 21, '64 
July 23, '61 
Oct. 24, '61 
Jan. 21, '61 



Remarks. 



Discharged dis. July 5, '63. 
U. S. n": April 14, '64. 
Deserted Dec. 8, '63. 
Capt. M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, "63. 
Hon. discharged fune 6, '65. 
M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
Discharged dis. May 8, '64. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Hon. discharged Sept. 12, '64. 
M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
2 Lt. Discharged Dec. 20, '62. 
M. O. Dec. 21", '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Died August 10, '62. 
M. O. June 9, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 
Deserted June ^o, '64. 
M. O. April 25, '66. 
Deserted April 3, '64. 
M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 18, '65. 
M. O. Dec. 12, '65. 
Discharged dis. Dec. 3, '62. 
M. O. July 28, '65. 
Discharged dis. Oct. 16, '62. 
Died of wounds July 29, '64. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 5, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Hon. discharged Jan. 6, '65. 
M. O. Tune 27, '6*5. 
Adj. M. O. Aug. 2, '65. 
Deserted October 8, '64. 
M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 
M. O. Sept. 15, '65. 
Discharged Nov. 23, '63. 
A. D. C. M. O. Aug. 25, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Capt. M. O. Jan. 6, '65. 
Deserted June 7, '62. 
Transf. Sig. Corps. 
U. S. N. 

Discharged dis. March 2, '6^. 
M. O. Dec. 21, '65. 
Col. 5. M. O. Feb. 9, '65. B. 
G. V. Bvt. 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Rockwell, Jos. P., S^f. M. 

Roden, James 

Roe, Edward* 

Rogers, Charles L.* 

Rogers, Eben H 

Rogers, E. P 

Rogers, George W., Lt. . 

Rogers, Horace E 

Rogers, Joab B., S^.. . . . 

Ross, Daniel V 

Ross, Enos C 

Ross, John 

Ross, William J., Corp.. 
Rouse, Charles W., Corp. 

Rouse, James E.* 

Rozenblatt, David 

Ruhl, August* 

Rvan, James* 

Ryan John O 

R)-an, Michael* 

Ryder, Arthur F., Corp. . 

Sanders, David* 

Sanders, Julius* 

Sanders, Ralph G 

Sandford, John 

Sawyer, Silas W., Capt . 

Schneider, Jacob 

Schneider, John 

Schultz, Peter 

Scholfield, Henry M . . . . 
Scholfield, Le Grand... 

Scott, John 

Scott, Thomas, / /. 

Selden, Joseph, /,/. Col.. 

Semples, James W 

Service, John 

Service, Thomas 

Setchel, Charles F.». . . . 

Setchel, George C 

Sevin, Nathan D 

Shalk, Frederick E.... 

Shaw, Bently, Sgt 

Shaw, Daniel 

Sliaw, Jasper A. \\.,Sgt. 

Shay, John 

Shay, Michael 

Shea, James , 

Shea, John 

Shea, Michael 

Sheehan, David D 

Shelden, George W 



Regi- 
ment. 



3 

21 

26 

2 Art. 

14 
II 

7 

9 

9 

Cav. 

: 9 

! 2 
i 7 

9 
18 
20 

9 
14 

3 
2 Art. 

I 
18 
26 

2 

26 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
26 

3 
18 
18 

3 
14 
26 
26 

13 

26 

9 

I Art. 



Enlistment. 



July 26, '(i2 
.Sejit. 2, '62 
May 24, '62 
Oct. 25, '6l 
May 7, '61 
May 7, '61 
May 7, '61 
May II, '61 
May II, '61 
Aug. 18, '62 
Aug. 30, "62 
Jan. 20, '64 
July 23, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
May 7, '61 
May 24, '62 
May 22, '62 
Jan. 12, '64 
May 22, '62 
May 7, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
fune 2, '62 
Aug, 2, '62 
Sept. I, '64 
Oct. 30, "61 
July 21, '62 
May II, '61 
Jan. 20, '64 
April 22, '61 
July 17, '62 
"Vug. 30, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 28, '62 
July 26, '62 
July 17, '62 
Aug. 5, '62 
Aug. II, '62 
Aug. 2, '62 
Aug. 25, '62 
May II, '61 
Aug. 4, '62 
July 25, '62 
May II, '61 
July 25, '63 
Sept. 18, '62 
Oct. 17, '62 
Jan. 22, "62 
Aug. 28, '62 
Sept. 27, '61 
May 22, "61 



Remarks. 



Capt. June 27, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '6j. 
Killed Oct. 19, '64. 
M. O. Dec. 21, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 7, "61. 
Lt. 29. Resigned Aug. 3, '65. 
Corp. 26. M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
7. Disch. dis. March 10, '63. 
Capt. Cav. M. O. Feb. 2, '65. 
M. O. June 2, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Deserted Feb. 7, '64. 
Maj. 29. M. O. Oct. 24, "65. 
Hon. discharged, Oct. 24, '64. 
Hon. discharged, July 20, '65. 
Miss'g Bull Run July 21, '61. 
M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 3, '65. 
Deserted Jan. 21, '64. 
M. O. Aug. 3, -65. 
Discharged dis. July 3, '61. 
Discharged dis. Aug. 7, '65. 
Discharged dis. Aug. i, '65. 
V. R. C. Jan. 15, '64. 
Deserted on way to Regiment. 
Resigned Feb. 16, '64. 
Discharged dis. Aug. 31, '64. 
M. O. Aug. II, '61. 

II. D.w'ds Ant'm Sept. 28, "62. 

M. O. June 27, '65, 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Capt. N. Y. Bat. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Lt. 14. Died w'ds May 6, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. Aug. II, '61. 

Deserted Aug. 12, '6t,. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Died July''i8, '63. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

Dropped fr. rolls Oct. 3, '64. 

Hon. discharged. May 26, '64. 



GENERAL MUSTER 


ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS 


371 


Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Sheppard, Charles, .9^'/. . . 


8 


Sept 21, '61 


2 Lt. Resigned Feb. 14, 


'63- 


Sheppard, Willis D 


5 


Aug. 18, '63 


Deserted July i, '63. 




Sherman, Horace W.... 


i8 


July 23, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '6^. 




Sherman, William M 


2 


May 7, '61 


Sgt. 26. Died w'ds Ft. H 


June 


Sherwood, Stephen 


Cav. 


Jan. 23, '64 


M. 0. June 10, '65. [2 


3/63. 


Shugrean, Charles 


26 


Aug. 28, '62 


Deserted Dec. 11, '62. 




Shumwav, Millen 


iS 


Aug. 9, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 




SimmcMis, John II 


iS 


Julv 22, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 




Simons, Leonard 


14 


June 9, '62 


M. 0. May 31, '65. 




Simpson, James 


Cav. 


Jan. 23, '64 


Deserted. 




Simpson, John 


9 


Oct. 30, '61 


Died Oct. 8, '62. 




Sizer, Charles O 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 




Smiley, John S 


2 


May 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, "61. 




S miley, Lvman 


12 


Dec. 19, '61 


Dischartred dis. Dec. 11, 


'62. 


Smith, Au2;ustus F 


13 


Jan. II, '62 


26. M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 




Smith, Bradford W 


7 


Sept. 5, '61 


Discharged dis. March 3, 


'63. 


Smith, Daniel 


30 


Jan. 6, '64 


M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 
M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 




Smith, Edward 


May 7, '61 




Smith, Edward 


30 


Jan. 20,'64 


M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 




Smith, George 


Cav. 


Jan. 22, '64 


M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 




Smith, George E 


2 


May, 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 




Smith, George S 


Cav. 


June 27, '63 


M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 




Smith, George W 


7 


Sept. 5, '61 


Discharged dis. Jan. 3, '6 


2. 


Smith, James 


18 
2 Art. 


Aug. 6, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 
Deserted Feb. 19, '64. 




Smith, John 


Smith, Joiin, Corp 


8 


Sept. 21, '61 


Discharged Sept. 20, '64. 




Smith, John 


20 


Sept. I, '64 


Deserted on way to Regiment. | 


Smith, John A 


30 


Jan. 6, '64 


M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 




Smith, Joseph 


14 


Julv 29, '64 


Transf. 2 Art. 




Smith, Gbed G 


26 


Sept. I, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 




Smith, Stephen A 


30 


Jan. 25, '64 


Died Feb. 23, '64. 




Smith, Theodore E 


Cav. 


Dec. 15, '63 


M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 




Smith, Thomas II 


2 


May 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 




Smith, William 


2 Art. 


Jan. 19, '64 


Discharged dis. June 19, 


•65. 


Smith, William R 


2 


May 7, '61 


.M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 




Snow, Edward A 


2 Art. 


Feb. 3, '64 


M. 0. Aug. 18, '65. 




Snow, Edwin E 


"• I 


Aug. 5, '62 
May 7, '61 


Discharged Jan. 29, 'dl- 
Discharged. 




Snow, Henry L 






Snvder, Leander 


2 Art. 


Jan. 27, '64 


M. 0. Nov. 25, '65. 




Somerlott, Henry, Sgt. . . 


29 


Jan. 7, '64 


M. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 




Souter, James 


II 

S 


Oct. 25, '61 
Sept. 21, '61 


Killed Cold Har. June 3, '64. | 
Sgt. M. Hon. dis. Sept. 20, '64. | 


Spaftbrd, L. E. Forrest. . 


SpalJing, Charles W.^ Lt. 




May II, '61 


Resigned May 20, '61. 




Spalding, J. L., Si;t. Maj. 


I 


April 23 '61 


Adj. 29. Resigned Aug. 21 


,•65. 


Spalding, William H 


Cav. 


Jan. 5, '64 


Discharged dis. June 30, 


'65. 


Spencer, Charles C 


21 


Aug. 7, '62 


V. R. C. M. 0. Sept. 4 


■65- 


Spencer, Cyrus R 


21 


Aug. 20, '62 


Discharged dis. April 8, 


64. 


Spencer, Orin N 


iS 


July 30, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 




Spencer, Robert R 


- 


May 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 




Spencer, Stephen H 


18 


July 26, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 






6 


Sept. 6, '61 


Deserted June 12, '63. 







J/- 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



Name and Rank. 



Regi- 



Enlistment. 



Stanley, James, 2 Lt 

Stanton, George H., Corp. 
Stanton, John L., Capt . . . 

Stark, Henry 

Starret, Mvron W 



Stanbly, Anthony, Sgt. . . . 

.Staubly, IMichael 

Stearns, Charles J 

Steers, Thomas A 

Stephenson, Moses 

Sterry, Tiilly W 

Stetson, Vine S 

Stetson, William D.* 

Stevens, Henry M.* 

Stewart, Henry 

Stocket, George 

Stocking, Theodore B.. . , 

Stokes, Joseph 

Strange, William* 

Strauss, Jacob 

Studley, George H.* 

Sullivan, Daniel 

Sullivan, Daniel B 

Sullivan, James 

Sullivan, Jeremiah 

Sullivan, John O 

Sullivan, Michael 

Sullivan, Michael 

Sullivan, Patrick 

Summers, F. B 

Swain, George W., Sgt.. 

Swan, Henry W 

Sweet, James H 

Sweet, James L 

Tanner, J. Frank 

Taylor, Charles W.*. . . . 

Tavlor, Francis W 

Taylor, Henry II., Corp. 

Taylor, Samuel 

Tavlor, William H 

Teft, William H 

Tenney, Edward* 

Terhune, Henry 

Thecklenburg, ilenry... 
Thompson, Nlichael.... 
Thompson, Nelson C . . . , 



Thompson, William. 
Thurber, Charles F. . 
Tiffany, M. V. B 



18 

18 

29 

3 

I Art. 
13 

j29 

18 

! - 
13 

3 
10 

i 9 
18 

I Art. 
II 
26 
21 



3 
3 
18 

26 

I12 
18 

1 7 
!i8 

:l8 

18 

'J 

2 Art. 



14 

18 



July 31, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 23, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 27, '62 

May 7, '61 
Aug. I, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 21, '62 
Dec. 21, '63 
May II, '61 
May 7, '61 
Mch. 15, '62 
Jan. 17, '62 
Jan. 2, '64 
Jan. 2, '64 
Aug. II, '62 
May 7, '61 
jjan. 28, '62 
I May II, '61 
jOct. I, '61 
I Sept. 27, '61 
jjuly 25, '62 
'Aug. 25,-64 
Nov. 17, '64 
i Aug. 30, '62 
[Aug. 20, '62 
jSept. I, '64 
I Aug. 28, '62 
jMay 7, '61 
I May 7, '61 
May II, '61 
I May II, '61 
I Jan. 8, '64 
I Aug. 28, '62 
j Dec. 28, '61 
1 Aug. 7, '62 
jSept. 5, '61 
I July 22, '62 
Ijuly 14, '62 
jJuly 25, '62 
May 21, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Jan. 29, '64 
iAug. 3, '64 
[Aug. 4, '62 



2 Art. Jan. 19, '64 
iS . Jnly 28, '62 
! 2 I May 7, '61 



Remarks. 



Discharged dis. Sept. 20, '64. 
Discharged dis. Jan. 8, '63. 
Killed P't Hudson May 27, '6^. 
M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
Missing at Port Hudson, May, 

27, '63- 
Sgt. 18. M. O. June 27, '65. 
Deserted Aug. 26, '62. 
M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Died of wounds Oct. 27, '64. 
M. O. Aug. II, '61. 
Sgt. 26. M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Sept. 25, '65. 
M. O. Apr. 25, '66. 
Killed Petersburg July 7, '64. 
M. O. May 29, '65. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Died July 25, '61. 
Discharged Nov. 20, "65. 
M. O. Aug. 12, '61. 
M. O. Aug. 25, '65. 
Discharged Oct. 26, '64. 
M. O. May 18, '65. 
Deserted May 15, '65. 
Deserted Sept. 17, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Deserted. 

Deserted on way to Regiment. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
M. O. Aug. 7, '61. 
13. Discharged dis. June 5, '6^. 
Trans. Sig. Corps Nov. 26. '63. 
Discharged dis. Mch. 25, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
M. O. Aug. 12, '65. 
Died Mch. 28, '65. 
Hon. discharged Sept. 12, "64. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Discharged June i, '64. 
M. O. May 30, '65. 
Deserted July 17, '64. 
Discharged dis. Feb. 18, '63. 
M. O. Aug. iS, '65. 
Deserted Aug. 20, '64. 
Died of wounds (Winchester) 

June 30, '63. 
Transf. U. S. N. 
M. O. June 27, '65. 
Capt. 18. M. O. June 27, "65. 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 373 


Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Tift, John H 


l8 


Aug. 4, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Tilden, Eucjene S 


I Art. 


Mch. 20, '62 


Discharged dis. Jan. 29, '6;^. 


Tinc;ley, John H 


2 


Mav 7, '61 


2 Lt. I Art. Res. Dec. 31, '62. 


Tisdale, Edward F 


9 


Nov. 25, '61 


Cav. Died Andersonville, 
Sept. 29, '65. 


Tisdale, T-imes W 


i8 


July 29, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Toft, Luther 


I Art. 


May 21, '61 
Jan. 2, '64 


Deserted Aug. 26, '62. 


Tomlinson, Benjamin L.. 


29 


M. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 


Tomlinson, Richard 


26 


Nov. I, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Toomey, Patrick 


21 


Aug. 20, '62 


M. 0. June 16, '65. [7, '63. 
I Art. Discharged dis. Mch. 


Toomey, Thomas 


2 


May 7, '61 


Torbush, Joseph li., Corp. 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 




I Art. 


Jan. 15, '64 
July 17, '62 


M. 0. Sept. 25, '65. 

Lt. Col. 29. M. 0. Oct. 24, '65. 


Torrance, David, Sgt. 


18 


Torrance, James 


3 


May II, '61 


Sgt. 13. Killed Port Hudson 
May 24, '63. 


Tourtellotte, Marvin 


18 


July 25, '62 


Discharged dis. Feb. 15, '64. 


Town, George S 


2 


Mav 7, '61 


Sgt. 18. M. O.June 27, '65. 


Town, William H 


iS 


Aug. 7, '62 


Died March 28, '64. 


Tracy, Benj. F., Qr. Mr.. 


26 


Sept. I, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Tracy, Joseph A 


18 


Aug. 7, '62 


Died of wounds Aug. 7, '64. 


Tracv, Timothy W., Lt. . . 


26 


Aug. 26, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '6v 


Trainor, Charles* 


9 


May 21, '62 


Deserted July 17, '64. 


Trainor, Feli.x 


26 


Aug. 28, '62 


M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 


Treadway, Russell* 


12 


Nov. 28, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 12, '65. 


Treadwav, John F 


Cav. 


Jan. 4, '64 


Died Andersonville, Aug. 3, '64. 


Trenn, Charles K.T.,Cor/>. 


18 


Aug. 9, '62 


M. 0. May 30, '65. 


Trinnier, Richard 


3 


May II, '61 


18. M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Truman, Frank M 


iS 


Dec. 16, '63 


Deserted Nov. 27, '64. 


Tuhhs, Charles A 


14 


June 9, '62 


M. 0. May 31, '65. 


Tubbs, William H., C\ipf. 


14 


June 15, '62 


Resigned Feb. 20, '63. 


Tucker, John 


26 


Sept. 6, '62 


Deserted Nov. 16, '62. 


Turner, Samuel 


2 Art. 


Jan. 29, '64 


Deserted Feb. 10, '64. 


Tyler, Daniel, Co/ 


I 


Apr. 23, '61 


B. G. V. Resigned Apr. '64. 


Tvler, Edwin L., 2 Z/. . . . 


I Art. 


Mch. 29, '62 


Resigned Aug. 19, '64. ['64. 


Tvler, Moses 


14 
30 


July 15, '62 
Jan. 4, '64 


Died Andersonville, Apr. 14, 
Disch. dis. Feb. 9, '65. 


Underhill, Joseph 


Upham, Benjamin M 


18 


Aug. 6, '62 


V. R. C. Jan. i, 65. 


Upham, George R 


18 


July iS, '62 


M. 0. June 27, '65. 


Varney, Israel 


18 


Julv 16, '62 


Died Florence S.C. Feb.,10,'65. 


Vergason, Erastus 


10 


Oct. I, '61 


Killed Roanoake Island, Feb. 

8, '62. 
M. 0. Aug. 17, '6;^. 


Vergason, Isaac D 


26 


Aug. 30, '62 


Vergason, James H 


3 


May II, '61 1 


M. 0. Aug. II, '61. 


Volkman, Ferdinand 


6 


Sept. 6, '61 1 


Died Beauf't, S. C. Oct. 21, '62. 


Wait. Marvin, L.' 


8 ; 


Oct. 5, '61 ! 


Killed Antietam, Sept. 17, '62. 


Walden, Oliver 


8 
8 


Sept. 21, '61 
Sept. 21, '61 


Discharged dis. March iS, '62. 
M. 0. Dec. 12, "65. 


Walden, Winthrop 


Walden, William Henry. | 


2 


May 7, '61 


M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 


Walker, Charles H.* ' 


8 


Sept. 21, '61 


M. 0. Dec. 12, '65. 


Wallace, William 


18 


Aug. 14, '62 Deserted Aug. 22, '62. 



374 THE 


NORWICH MEMORIAL. 




Name and Rank. 


Regi- 
ment. 


Enlistment. 


Remarks. 


Ward, David 


7 
i8 

3 
i8 

21 

Cav. 

30 

II 

II 

26 

18 

Cav. 

Cav. 

2 Art. 

9 
18 
12 

12 

18 
18 

7 
Cav. 
18 

6 

30 
20 

Cav. 
8 
18 

2 

I Art. 

3 

26 
18 
18 

I Art. 
18 
10 

8 

I Art. 
18 
II 
26 

8 
26 

3 


Nov. 25, '64 
Aug. 6, '62 
May II, '61 
July 16, '62 
May 7, '61 
Aug. 14, '62 
Jan. 23, '64 
May 7, '61 
Jan. 18, '64 
Oct. 25, '61 
Oct. 25, '61 
Aug. 29, '62 
Aug. 7, '26 
Oct. 26, '61 
Jan. 19, '64 
Jan. 20, '64 
Oct. 30, '61 
Aug. 6, '62 
Dec. 7, '61 
May 7, '61 
Nov. 20, 61 
Jan. 3, '65 
Aug. II, '62 
May 7, '61 
Sept. 5, '61 
Jan. 4, '64 
Aug. 4, '62 
Sept. 6, '61 
Jan. 6, '64 
Sept. I, '64 
Jan. 30, '64 
Sept. 23, '61 
July 23, '62 
May 7, '61 
Jan. 13, '64 
May II, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
July 23, '62 
Aug. 17, '62 
Jan. 4, '64 
July 21, '62 
Oct. 9, '61 
Oct. 5, '61 
Jan. 14, '64 
, fuly 12, '62 
Jan. 13, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
Sept. 21, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
May 7, '61 
May II, '61 


M. 0. July 20, '65. 

Died Andersonville, Feb. 6, "6:;. 

Col. 8. M. 0. March 13, '65." 

M. 0. Jiuie 27, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. 0. June 16, '65. 

Deserted Feb. 2, '64. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. 0. Nov. 7. '65. 

Discharged dis. May 5, '62. 

Discharged dis. May 7, '62. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63.' 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Discharged dis. Oct. 9, '62. 

Deserted Feb. 5, '64. 

M. 0. Aug. 18, '65. 

Died Aug. 14, '62. 

M. 0. June 27, 65. 

Discharged dis. Aug. 11, '62. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 

Deserted June i, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. 0. July 20, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 2, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

Killed Ft. Wagner July iS, '63. 

M. 0. Nov. 7, '65. 

Deserted while on way to Regt. 

Deserted Feb. 5, '64. 

Discharged dis. Aug. 2, '62. 

Discharged Feb. 18, '64. 

26. M."0. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. Sept. 25, '65. 

Adj. 13. Resigned Oct. 9, '63. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

Accidentally shot Jan. 5, '63. 

Discharged dis. May S, '65. 

M. 0. Sept. 25, '65. 

M. 0. June 27, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 25, '65. 

M. 0. Dec. 12, '65. 

M. 0. Sept. 2q, '65. [30, '65. 

Capt.43. U.SrC.T. M.O.Nov. 

Discharged dis. March 19, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. Dec. 12, '65. 

M. 0. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. 0. Aug. 7, '61. 

M. 0. Aug. II, '61. 


Ward, George W 

Ward, John E., Lt 

Ward, fames 


Warden, Alexander 

Warren, George 


Warren, Henry 

Warren, Walter P 

Washington, George 

Watson, Jonathan 

Watson, Myron 


Webb, Charles 


Webb, William II., Corp. 

^Velch, George H 

Welch, John 

Welch, Thomas 


Welden, Patrick 

Weller, Tohn 

Wells, John W 

Wenlick, Frank 


West, George W.,* Sgt. . 
Wetherel, Benjamin S . . . 

Whaley, George G 

W^heatlev, Charles 

■ Wheelock, William H.*. 

Whipple, John A 

White, Edwin 


White, Frank 


White, Isaac 

White, Mortimer 

White, William 

Whiteley, Henry A 

Whiting, Andrew F 

Whitmore, Horace W.. . . 


Whittlesey, George W. . . 

Wight, Edgar, S 

Wilber, Daniel 


Wilber, John A 

Wilbm-, Edward O 

Wilcox, Gordon, Corp.. . . 
Wilcox, Stephen E.*.... 
Wilco.x, Sylvaniis J.*. . . . 

Wilkins, George W 

Wilkinson, Jesse I)., Corp. 
Willard, R(!)bert. .. 


Williams, Calvin 

Williams, Charles M.*. . . 
Williams, Eri 


Williams, George E 

Williams, George E 



GENERAL MUSTER ROLL OF ALL NORWICH SOLDIERS. 375 



Name and Rank. 



Regi- 
ment. 



Williams, George S 

Williams, I. V.H., (?/-..!/.. 

Williams, James 

Williams, John 

Williams, John 

Williams, John* 

Williams, John 

Williams, John H., Corp. 

Williams, John W 

Williams, Julius 

Williams, William 

Williams, William E 

Wilson, De Laroo 

Wilson, George 

Wilson, James 

Wilson, James 

Wilson, James* 

Wilson, James, Corp 

Winship, Joseph H 

Wiserth. George 

Wolf, Henrv 

Wood, Alfred 

Wood, Asa F 

Wood, George 

Wood, Henry 

W^ood, Horace B 



Wood, fohn 

Wood, John W 

Woodward, William H.. 

Wright, Franklin S 

Wright, Henry C 

Wright, Sylvanus 

Yale, Russell* 

Yerrington, Henry P. . . . 



Yerrington, Perry 

"S'ork, James E 

York, Nathan 

Young, Adam, Corp.... 

Young, Charles 

Young, David, Lt. Col. . 

Young, Robert 

Zamphiropoios, Michael. 



Cav. 
2 Art. 
2 Art. 
9 

26 

3o 

2 Art. 

26 

2 Art. 

1 Art. 
iS 

2 Art, 
8 

14 

12 

3° 

iS 

Cav. 

iS 

i8 

i8 

2 Art. 

13 
2 Art. 



Enlistment. 



i8 



July 23, '63 
Apr. 22, '61 
Jan. 4, '64 
Jan. 20, '64 
Jan. 29, '64 
May 24, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 
Jan. 21, '64 
Aug. 30, '62 
Feb. I, '64 
Mch. 20, '62 
Aug. II, '62 
Jan. 30, '64 
Sept. I, '63 
July 25, '63 
Jan. 21, '62 
Jan. 27, '64 
Aug. II, '62 
Jan. 22, '64 
Aug. II, '62 
July 23, '62 
Aug. 6, '62 
Jan. 29, '64 
Jan. 7, '62 
Feb. 4, '64 

Jan. 7, '62 
Dec. 5, '61 
Aug. 30, '62 
Aug. 17, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Oct. 25, '61 
Dec. 22, '61 
June 9, '62 

Sept. 5, '61 
July 30, '62 
Aug. 30, '62 
Sept. 6, '61 
May 7, '61 
May 7, '61 
July 25, '62 
Feb. I, '64 



Remarks. 



M. O. Nov. 7, '65. 

Qr.M. 6th Reg. Resigned May 

M. O. Aug. 2, '65. [11, '63. 

M. O. Aug. iS, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 18, '65. 

Deserted Jan. 10, '65. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Nov, 7, '65. 

Deserted Feb. 13, '64. 

M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 

M. O. Aug. iS, '65. 

Discharged dis. Dec. 18, '62. 

Qr. M.30. M. O.Nov. 7, '65 . 

Deserted Feb. 14, '64. 

Deserted Sept. 11, '63. 

Transf. U. S. N. 

Deserted March 17, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Died Andersonville Apr. 5, '64. 

Deserted Feb. 12, '64. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

M. O. June 27, '65. 

Deserted Feb. 14, '64. 

Discharged dis. July 29, '62. 

Died Richmond, Va., Dec. 27, 

'64. 
Discharged dis. June 17, '63. 
Died of wounds (Antietam). 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Discharged dis. Jan. 26, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Deserted Nov. 25, '62. 
Deserted Jan. 30, '66. 
Died of wounds (Antietam) 

Sept. 21, '62. 
Hon. discharged Sept. 15, '64. 
M. O. Tune 27, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 17, '63. 
Hon. discharged Sept. 5, '64. 
I Art. M. O. SepL 25, '65. 
M. O. Aug. 7, 61. 
M. O. Tune 27, 65. 
V. R. C. April 23, '65. 



The names of "miassigned recruits" are not given in this "roll" ; they were l'<.r the most 
part unworthy substitutes, who enlisted lor the sake of the bounty, and, wiih few exceptions, 
never served in their regimerts. 



XVII. 

SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN. 

"Joint saviors of the land, to-day 
Wliat guerdon ask you of the land? 
No boon too great for you to pray — 
What can it give that could repay 
The men we miss from our worn band ? 
The men who lie in trench and swamp, 
The dead who rock beneath the wave — 
The brother-souls of march and camp — 
Bright spirits — each a shining lamp. 
Teaching how nobly die the brave. " 

WHEN the struggle for the Nation's life was over, and 
the flag of the Union everywhere waved in triumph, 
then it was that the country began fairly to realize its in- 
debtedness to those whose self-sacrificing courage and 
heroic battling had achieved the victory. The soldiers had 
indeed been welcomed home with every sign of popular 
rejoicing, all had united in extending to the brave men who 
had survived the conflict the heartiest greeting, but the pro- 
found gratitude of the people craved some more enduring 
expression. The memory of the triumphs of our citizen- 
soldiery deserved to be perpetuated, and the national grati- 
tude began to incarnate itself in monuments which should 
tell the story of the war. Art, which had been able to 
embellish the castles of king and noble, and had erected its 
memorials in the great cathedrals and cities of the Old 
World was invoked to do honor to the heroes of our se- 
cured liberties. 

The most enduring memorial of the service of those 




/// 






'/• 



/r//r /r.j/ //n/} ////-> /// </y^ //-^ 
^ 1861-65. 



SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN. 377 

who periled their Hves to maintain the Government, is in 
the ennobling institutions they preserved, and in the 
popular liberties which they perpetuated. Still, there was 
a beautiful fitness in each city, town, and village honor- 
ing its own patriot dead by the monuments that grateful 
friends and fellow-citizens should erect to their memory. 
A monument reared for such a purpose is a public benefit. 
It embodies patriotism, truth, and faith, it gives form and 
expression to the best feelings of our nature. Thus would 
each community bear witness to other generations that 
those commemorated by the monumental shaft were wor- 
thy of all honor. The names, too, engraved on stone or 
bronze, would descend to posterity as those worthy of 
being preserved, and ever be spoken with increasing ven- 
eration. 

A monument dedicated to some distinguished military 
or civic hero, awakens far different emotions than one 
which commemorates numbers of fallen braves. No single 
name in the latter case absorbs our attention, no one 
majestic figure encinctured with an halo of glory and 
renown, rises before us. We think rather of the many 
individual soldiers, of their sacrifice and valor, of their 
humble or splendid service, of their death in camp, in 
prison, or on the battle-field. The history of their young 
lives comes up in review, and the anxiety with which 
they were watched by those from whose sides they went 
forth, the sadness and heart-breaking the tidingsof their 
deaths produced, all this the " soldiers' monument " serves 
to recall. 

Norwich citizens very early after the war closed began to 
agitate the question of securing some fitting public memo- 
rial for their patriot dead. The list of those who had lost 
their lives while in the service of their country was a long 
one, and included on it the names of some very widely 



37'S THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

known and tenderly loved. How to unite in some public 
measure, for the commemoration of all, was a question not 
easily settled. It was felt that what was done publicly, 
should be on a scale commensurate with the solemn 
object in view. No one felt that too much could be done 
in securing some fit and general testimonial of the grat- 
itude of the people to the dead ; rather was it questioned 
how best can we honor the memory of those to whom 
we owe so much. After more or less discussion of the 
subject by the daily papers, a public meeting was called for 
June fourteenth, 1869, in Breed Hall. His Honor Mayor 
Blackstone presided, and in his opening remarks stated, 
" that all would agree that there is a moral obligation resting 
on this community to erect a suitable monument to the 
memory of those who fell in the late war, and the object of 
this meeting was to raise funds for that purpose." 

Senator Buckingham then offered the following resolu- 
tions : — 

" Resolved, That a committee of seven be appointed by the 
chair to solicit and collect funds, for the erection of a monument 
to the Norwich soldiers and seamen who fell in our late war for 
the preservation of the National Union. 

" Resolved, That the said committee be, and they are hereby, 
directed to deposit any money that they may collect for the above 
object, with either of the Savings Societies in this city, and when- 
ever the fund shall in their judgment be large enough to justify 
action, they shall call a meeting of those who contribute, and of 
those who subscribe, tliat they may make arrangements to procure 
a proper plan and to erect such monument." 

The following additional resolution was also offered : — 

'•'■Resolved, That the same committee be requested to procure 
the preparation and publication of a Soldiers' Memorial volume, 
containing some brief account of the service rendered in the war 
by representatives of this town, and a full obituary record of those 



SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN. 



579 



who died during the progress of the same, and that tlie expense 
of publishing the book, over and above the receipts from its sale? 
be defrayed from the monument fund." 

Senator Buckingham then added, " that he would occupy 
only a few moments, as the resolutions clearly stated the 
object of themeeting. When the National Government and 
all our institutions and rights were imperiled, when an 
organized rebellion broke out in 1861, and when the demands 
of the rebels had caused the fall of Fort Sumter, on the 
twelfth of April the President of the United States called 
for seventy-five thousand' troops to protect the capital of the 
country. The next day the Governor of this State called 
for volunteers, and the people of Norwich responded with a 
public meeting at which three companies were organized 
under Henry Peale, Edward Harland, and F. S. Chester. 
These companies were mustered into the service of the 
United States, and met the enemy at the first Bull Run, and 
David C. Bliss gave his life to the cause of Nationality. 
More troops were called for, but it was not until after four 
years that the power of the rebellion was crushed, and the 
authority of the government vindicated. It was done by the 
gallant soldiers of the loyal Northern States, and to them 
we owe all that is valuable of what we possess. Of that 
army of two millions of men, Connecticut gave fifty-four 
thousand, than whom no better ever went out, and Norwich 
sent not less than fifteen hundred. Of the first grand army 
of two hundred thousand, what number from Norwich found 
graves on the battle-field, I know not. But it is a duty we 
owe to them, and to ourselves to inscribe their names on 
imperishable granite, and the names of the living on a memo- 
rial to hand down to our children as a remembrance ot what 
these soldiers have done for the country." 

Rev. Mr. Dana being called on by the chairman, advo- 
cated in brief remarks the prompt and generous commem- 



3SO THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

oration in some appropriate way of those to whom the town 
owes in common with the country, such a debt of gratitude. 

The Hon. John T. Wait followed, saying, " the resolutions 
met with his hearty approval. If ever the country owed a 
debt it was to the young men who gave up their lives for its 
preservation. Were we to be remiss in discharging the obli- 
gations thus imposed upon us, we should be unworthy the 
blessings of liberty and good government. I look around 
me, and see men, some of them far advanced in years who 
sent forth their sons to battle for their country. Some fell 
in the heat of battle, some were wounded and languished in 
hospitals, others returned to spend a few days only in the 
companionship of their friends, and die from disease con- 
tracted in the service. Here beside me is one whose son 
was starved to death at Andersonville. He feels the debt 
we owe. You, gentlemen, feel it ; I feel it ; and I trust there 
is not one in the community but is impressed in the same 
manner. It is desirable that we act promptly. Long 
speeches are unnecessary." 

General Harland spoke next, saying " he thought this 
matter should he left in the hands of the citizens, and not 
of those who were in the army. The cause commended 
itself, and the army-men would take hold, and help it along. 
The only question now was as to its practicability, of which 
he had no doubt. The resolutions were eminently proper." 

The Hon. H. H. Starkweather, added, "he supposed every 
one was in full accord with this project. The town that sent 
fifteen hundred men to the war, which was always ahead of 
its quota, and which increased its aid to the cause by private 
contributions, could hardly be behindhand now. The com- 
mittee, he thought, would easily raise such a sum, as would 
put it upon a sure basis. Some felt as if our debts would 
never be paid, — all know there is one which never can be, 
and that is to the soldiers who stood like a wall of fire to 



SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN. 38 1 

protect US in our liberties. My mind goes back to the 
fourteenth of AjDril when we met in this hall to help on the 
work. Young men from the counter and the shop enlisted, 
we gave them our blessing, and bade them God speed, and 
with those who lived we rejoiced when they came back, and 
gave them honor." 

Further remarks were made by General James B. Coit, and 
Colonel Peale. The following letter from General Ely was 
then read by the Secretary : — 

To the Hon. Lorenzo Blackstone. 

Dear Sir, — I regret exceedingly that illness in my family 
prevents my being present at your meeting this evening, to raise 
funds for a memorial monument to the heroes of Norwich. I 
shall however take pleasure in subscribing to that fund, with full 
assurance that the pages of history will be searched in vain for 
names more worthy of lasting glory than those of Goddard, Culver, 
Downer, Wait, Breed, Maginnis, and scores of others from Nor- 
wich — whose hearts ceased to beat with patriotic and heroic throb, 
only when shattered by cannon shot and minnie ball. Nor are 
those less worthy who fell by disease, starvation, and imprison- 
ment, suffering tortures of death, with unyielding fortitude. The 
least that we owe them is a handsome memorial monument ; we 
owe it to their friends and relations ; we owe it to ourselves to 
prove that we are not entirely cold-blooded and devoid of grati- 
tude ; and to our country, especially we owe it, that it may show 
posterity that the patriots who fell fighting for country and liberty, 
still live in the hearts of the people. 

Yours truly, Wm. G. Ely. 



The Secretary read the resolutions offered, when they were 
enthusiastically adopted, and the Chairman announced the 
following committee in accordance with the requirement of 
the same : The Hon. W. A. Buckingham, Amos W. Pren- 
tice, the Hon. John T. Wait, the Rev. M. McG. Dana, Dr. 
C. B. Webster, James S. Carew, Edwin P. Avery, E. P. 
25 



382 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

Slocum ; and by special motion, Misses Elizabeth Greene and 
Eliza Perkins were added. The meeting then adjourned. 

While this gathering was not as large as those which were 
held during war times, yet it was spirited, and had not a 
little of the fervor and earnest purpose which had charac- 
terized the popular assemblies often convened in Breed Hall 
for objects connected with the war. The sentiment of re- 
spect and affection for the fallen soldiers, which the com- 
munity cherished, found expression in this meeting. Some 
public presentment of the subject, like that secured through 
this popular assemblage, seemed indispensable, and it was 
the means of bringing the matter before the people in a way 
to secure final action. 

The delay in starting the enterprise had not been owing 
to indifference, but rather to the diversity of judgment as to 
the best method of commemorating the dead. Many had 
hoped a large memorial hall would be erected, which serving 
at once as a monument to the patriot heroes of the town, 
would also be a public utility, meeting a felt need of the 
community. 

But by the action of the citizens at this public gathering, 
the form of the memorial was decided upon, and arrange- 
ments were made to secure the requisite funds. 

Before the committee had made much progress in this 
direction, the project of meeting the expense town-wise be- 
gan to be discussed, and in every quarter met with favor. 
It seemed to be the most equable and expeditious method 
of disposing of a matter that had already been too long 
delayed. 

Accordingly, at the annual town meeting, October third, 
1870, the Hon. William A. Buckingham introduced the fol- 
lowing resolutions : — 

'' Resolved, That a sum of money, not exceeding fifteen cents 
on one hundred dollars of the assessment list of the town, be, 



SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN. 383 

and the same is hereby appropriated for the erection of a suitable 
monument to the memory of all soldiers and seamen who were 
residents of, and belonged to the town at their enlistment, and 
who have died in the military or naval service of the United 
States, during the late war against the Government of the United 
States. 

" Resolved, That a committee of three persons be appointed 
by the moderator of this meeting, who shall determine the design 
of the proposed monument, erect the same upon what is known 
as the ' Soldiers' lot ' in Yantic Cemetery, and supervise and 
direct the expenditure of the money hereby appropriated." 

After considerable debate, in reference to the best site 
for the monument, resttlting in an amendment changing the 
location to " the north end of the Great Plain,' the resolu- 
tions were heartily adopted. The Moderator named as the 
committee to take charge of the procuring and erection of 
the monument, the Hon. W. A. Buckingham, the Hon. J. T_ 
Wait, and James A. Hovey. 

A contract was soon made with Batterson, Canfield, & Co., 
of Hartford, to furnish the monument according to a design 
submitted to the committee, and by the latter approved. 

The monument is of white granite, taken from the cele- 
brated quarries of J. G. Batterson, at Westerly, R. I. The 
design is of a soldier of the Union Army, supported on a 
massive pedestal. The statue is colossal, having a height 
of twelve feet, which imparts an air of grandeur, aside 
from the natural dignity expressed in the artist's concep- 
tion of his subject. 

The soldier stands in an easy attitude ; the left foot 
slightly advanced, the body supported by the right. His 
musket rests against the arm, and is held by both hands, 
while the face, turned slightly towards the left, bears an ex- 
pression of thoughtfulness, as if recalling to memory the 
scenes of the past struggle for liberty and the Union. 



3^4 THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 

The plinth under the statue bears in bold relief the arms 
of the Commonwealth, with the shield of the United States 
and the State motto — 

" Qui transtulit, siistinet." 

The die, or principal stone of the pedestal is to hold in 
relief bronze tablets, cut in Germany, and bearing the 
names of soldiers from Norwich, who gave their lives to 
their country. 

On the front of the monument is the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

Erected by the Town of 

NORWICH 

In Memory of her Brave Sons who voluntarily entered 

THE Millfary Service of the United States 

and lost their lives in defense of the 

National Government during 

THE Rebellion. 

The monument measures ten feet square at the base, and 
the entire height is twenty-seven feet six inches. The base 
consists of one stone, and weighs over fourteen tons. Above 
the base the pedestal is octagonal. The moldings of the cap 
and base are sharply cut, and the whole monument is exe- 
cuted in the most finished manner, and is highly creditable 
to the artist, and to the committee who have had the matter 
in charge. 

As a work of art, it is its own advocate ; as a memorial 
of the brave men who sealed their patriotic devotion with 
their life-blood, it is confessedly a noble one. 

The monument is appropriately located at the head of 
the " Great Plain," along whose sides in stately row stand 
the splendid elms which give to it its beauty, and seem 
like hoary sentinels guarding it from desecrating intruders. 
The incoming travel from the north which enters the city by 
its two grand thoroughfares, must pass it ; while all the pop- 



SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN. 3^5 

Illation south of it, have now this spot made sacred for 
them, to which they can come in thoughtful hours, and on fes- 
tival days, leaving behind the noise, and dust, and crowded 
streets of the city, and find here a fit place for communion 
with the spirits of the heroic dead whose names are inscribed 
on the monument's base. The symbolic statue, sugges- 
tive to every beholder, will speak to all upon whom its 
shadow falls, of the soldier's work and worth. 

May the monument stand, not for a few years, but for 
many generations, witnessing in its environment of natural 
beauty, to self-sacrifice and faith. May the westering sun, 
sending out its rays over the broad plateau this monument 
consecrates, linger and play upon the motionless figure 
which here henceforth shall lift its lines to publish the story 
of those it commemorates. The town has reared it, as it 
was meet it should, in grateful recognition of services that 
have shed new lustre upon its history, and been prolific in 
benefits not only to its denizens but to the nation as well. 
The town has reared it, as it was just it should, to perpetuate 
the names it holds in honored remembrance, and would se- 
cure from oblivion to the remotest time. Let the snows and 
rains of heaven fall upon it ; let the winds and sunlight play 
about it ; let the city in its outward sweep of growth fold it 
in more complete embrace — still may it stand, the memorial 
of patriotism, courage, and heroic achievements. 

By this action of the town, the citizen-committee ap- 
pointed to raise funds for the monument were relieved of 
further responsibility in the matter, and had left upon their 
hands the remaining item which the resolutions oftered in 
the first public meeting contemplated, — the preparation of 
a soldiers' memorial volume. 

This was a far more difficult matter to arrange for, in- 
volving, as it did, on the part of whoever should undertake 
it, great labor, and an amount of time that almost no one 



\S6 



THE NORWICH MEMORIAL. 



could command. Moreover, it mu.st necessarily be a work 
of love, taxing- the patience of such a volunteer author, and 
requiring no little delicacy and tact in the execution of his 
task. 

The committee, however, were exceedingly in earnest as 
to this part of the unfulfilled vote of the citizens. No re- 
source was left untried to secure some one to assume the 
work of editing the proposed volume, and after unavoidable 
delay, such arrangements were made as to the committee 
seemed finally satisfactory. 

The labor of collecting the material and preparing it for 
the press, was taken in hand, and accomplished as rapidly 
as was possible. The publication of the book, with all the 
pecuniary risks incident thereto, was turned over to Messrs. 
Jewett & Co., and through them the " Memorial Volume " 
desired by the public has been issued. 

This book, containing the military history of the town of 
Norwich during the exciting years of the war, recording 
its patriotism and sacrifices ; memorializing the brave men 
who went forth from this community and yielded up their 
lives in the service of the country, is now submitted to the 
kindly notice and considerate judgment of its readers, with 
the consciousness on the part of the author of its incom- 
pleteness, and unsatisfactory character. 

In bringing the pleasant though tasking labors of many 
months to an end, the Author has to regret that the narrative 
has been necessarily so meagre. So many years have inter- 
vened since the scenes and incidents of the war herein de- 
scribed in part, or in brief referred to, that many facts which 
would have added to the interest of the history, have passed 
out of mind. 

Some persons, who could have recalled what would have 
been worth recording, or furnished letters and bits of war 
experience which constitute oftentimes the charm of a 



SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. — ACTION OF THE TOWN 387 

memorial work of this kind, have moved away, or have died. 
In consequence of this, and for other kindred reasons, tlie 
writer in preparing this volume, has labored at great disad- 
vantage. Still, it is doubtless better to have preserved, 
even if imperfect and incomplete, this chapter of civic his- 
tory and patriotism, than to have allowed it to fade wholly 
Irom memory, — to be always a missing passage from out 
the annals of the town. 

In making our story public, we are but telling what part 
we took in the preservation of our National Union ; what 
sacrifices were made among us for the suppression of a re- 
bellion that threatened destruction to all our dearest rig-hts. 
This by ourselves and by our children, will ever be a story 
which will be read with honest pride, and in the hope that 
it may deepen our love of country, and help us to remem- 
ber with tender hearts the heroic dead, has this record of 
the patriotic services of the sons and daughters of Nor- 
wich been written. 




INDEX TO NORWICH CITIZENS 


MENTIONED IN THE TEXT MORE THAN ONCE. 


Adams, John T., 22. 


Crosby, H. B., 59, 71, 73, 213, 304. 


Aiken, William A., 145, 174. 


Culver, E. B., 68, 237. 


Almy, John H., 175, 1S7. 




Andrews, P. St. M., 99. 


Dana, M. McG., 304, 379, 381. 


Arms, Rev. H. P., 210, 217. 


Davis, H. C, 170, 268, 271, 2S3. 


Avery, A. S., 41, 245. 


Dennis, J. B., 25, 41, 42, 170, 282. 




Downer, Sylvanus, 256, 280. 


Beckwith, Herbert, 256, 278. 




Eentley, J. W., 148, 237. 


Edmond, H. V., 303, 304. 


Berry, William A., 40, 241. 


Ely, W. G., 41, 65, 70, 268, 270, 271, 


Bill, Henry, 19, 49, 83. 


381. 


Birge, H. W., 40, 52, 55, 56, 77. 




Blackstone, L., 59, 83, 317, 378, 3S1, 


Farnsworth, Charles, 79, 80, 265, 268. 


3S2, 383. 


Foster, L. F. S., 20, 22, 171, 265, 


Bond, Alvan, 24. 


299, 303. 308. 


Brakenridge, N. A., 59, 317. 




Breed, Charles A., 210, 214, 215. 


Gallup, L. A., 118, 165, 221. 


Breed, Charles E., 151, 260. 


Gaskill, H. C, 260, 281. 


Breed, John, 19, 49. 


Goddard, Alfred, 47, 229. 


Bromley, I., 97, 114, 164. 


Greene, J. Lloyd, 59,71, 83, 91, 119, 


Buckingham, W. A., 16, 19, 20, 50, 


299- 313- 317- 


58, 65, 84, loi, 109, 115, 119, 159, 


Greene, Miss Lizzie, 170, iSo, 201, 


167, 179, 299,302,304,306. 


381. 


Burdick, Theodore, 42, 224. 


Greene, William P., 20, S3, 169, 170. 




Gulliver, J. P., 49, 302, 311. 


Carew, James S., 2i, 59, 381. 




Case, George R., 25, iii. 


Hale, F. M., 19, 21, 317. 


Chester, Frank S., 21, 25, 379. 


Halsey, J., 24. 


Clapp, Edward T., 24. 


Harland, Edward, 29, 30, 44, 46, 47, 


Coit, James B., 25, 60, 62, 31S, 381. 


213.379,380. 


Coit; Charles M., 48. 


Hovey, J. A., 19, 20, 22, 319. 


Converse, Charles A., 59. 


Hyde, Lewis, 24. 


Converse, William M., 59, 317. 




Cowles, H. F., 268, 283. 


Jacobs, H. F., 87, 219. 



594 INDEX TO NORWICH RESIDENTS. 


Johnson, Charles, 59, 153, 270. 


Rockwell, Alfred P., 21, 24, 41, 82. 




Rogers, Joab B., 80, Si. 


Lanman, Joseph, 136, 142. 




Lathrop, DeWitt C, 44, 209. 


Schalk, F. E., 61, 227. 


Learned, B. P., 77, 79. 


Scott, Thomas, 40, 241. 


Learned, E., 21, 24, 49, 302, 304. 


Selden, Joseph, 56, 84, 86, 118. 


Lewis, J. v., 304, 309. 


Slater, J F., 19, 49, 59. 




Slocum, E. P., 163, 164, 381. 


Maguire, Thomas, 40, 241. 


Smith, David, 19, 21. 


Manning, E. P., 225. 


Stanton, J. L., 218. 


iSIcCall, John, 47, 234. 


Starkweather, H. H., 18, 24, 49, 83, 


Merwin, S. T. C, 24, 25, 268. 


99, loi, 299, 321, 380. 


Mowry, James D., 170. 


Stedman, J. W., 19, 25, 59. 


Murphy, J. W., 21, 24. 






Thomas, Miss Carrie L., iSo, 195. 


Nickels, J. R., 61, 242. 


Torrance, David, 109, no, 249. 


Norton, H. B., 21,59, 169, 171. 


Torrance, James, 247, 248. 


Norton, Miss Emeline, iSi, 1S6. 


Tyler, Daniel, 25, 29, 73. 


Osgood, Charles, 21. 


Wait, J. T., 21, 22, 59, 83, loi, 299, 


Osgood, H. H., 26, 99. 


304, 380, 381, 383. 




Wait, Marvin, 45, 211. 


Peale, Henry, 28, 65, 69, 70, 119, 


Walden, T. W., 264, 211. 


189,379.381- 


Ward, J. E, 42, 46, 47. 


Perkins, G. L., 137,- 160. 


Ward, George W., 259, 279. 


Phillips, H. T., 79, 81. 


Webster, C. B., 172, 189, 381. 


Pratt, George, 21, 23, 217, 320. 


Webster, Mrs. Dr., 197, 198. 


Prentice, AmosW.. 19, 59, 153, 299, 




317,318,381. 


Young, David, 19, 29, 170, 305. 




Young, Mrs. J. B., 186. 


Ripley, J. Dickinson, 206. 





IxNDEX TO BATTLES AND ENGAGEMENTS. 



Antietam, 44, 51, 69, 216. 

Bolivar Heights, 80. 
Bull Run, 29. 

Cedar Creek, 67. 
Cedar Mountain, 41. 
Chancellorsville, 61. 
Cold Harbor, 51, 243. 

Drury's Bluff, 72. 

Fredericksburg, 46. 
Fort Darling, 47, 82. 
Fort Fisher, 139. 
Fort Harrison, 48, 92, iic 
Fort Huger, 46. 
Fort Macon, 215. 
Fort Sumter, i, 15. 
Fort Wagner, 224. 

Gettysburg, 61, 94. 



Irish Bend, 54. 

James Island, 82. 

Newbern, 44. 

New Market, 67, 239. 

Petersburg, 48, 78, 233, 295. 
Piedmont, 67, 240. 
Port Hudson, 55, 86, 218, 220, 249. 
Port Royal, 146. 

Ream's Station, 243. 
Roanoke Island, 43, 215. 

Seven Days' Battles, yS. 
Snicker's Ford, 69. 
Spottsylvania, Si, 22S. 

Walthall Junction, 47. 
Wilderness, 112. 
Winchester, 56, 65. 




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